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# Flowcharts

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### Flowcharts

1. 1. Flowcharts Mukesh N.Tekwani IsmailYusuf College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Jogeshwari (East), Mumbai tekwani@email.com Presented at the One DayWorkshop Organized by K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce, University of Mumbai on the Semester-wise splitT.Y.B.Com and S.Y.B.Com Computer papers on July 20, 2013
2. 2. What is a Flowchart?  What is a flowchart? ◦ Graphical or pictorial representation of an algorithm or problem solving process  Flow? ◦ Indicates the flow of logic, or sequence of steps. ◦ There is a ‘before’ step and an ‘after’ step ◦ Flow control is needed because programs are not linear or top-to-down Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 2
3. 3. Why flowchart is useful?  A picture is worth a thousand words  Help in understanding complicated logic  Language-independent and so easy to write program in various languages  Good tool for documentation ◦ Verbose syntax of certain languages is difficult to understand; flowchart eliminates the need to know syntax to understand the logic Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 3
4. 4. What can a Flowchart Represent?  Sequential statements – assignment, calculations, input & output  Branching or Selection Statements – if-then, if-then-else: using Decision Symbol  Looping Statements – for, while loops  Switch-Case statement (successive decision symbols) Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 4
5. 5. Symbols used in Flowcharts Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 5
6. 6. Guidelines in Drawing a Flowchart  Logical sequence  Standard symbols  Direction of flow  top-to-down ◦ To jump to a step further down, go from right ◦ To jump to a step above the current step, go from left Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 6
7. 7. Guidelines in Drawing a Flowchart  Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol  More than one flow line may leave a symbol  Only one flow line used with Stop symbol  Use connector symbol to breakup a complex flowchart  A flowchart must end with the Stop statement Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 7
8. 8. Flowchart of ‘while’ loop Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 8
9. 9. Flowchart of ‘for’ loop Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 9
10. 10. Flowchart of ‘if’ statement Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 10
11. 11. Flowchart of ‘if-else’ statement Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 11
12. 12. Flowchart of ‘switch-case’ statement Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 12
13. 13. Sum of Two Numbers Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 13
14. 14. START INPUT X, Y Is X > Y ? BIG = X Yes PRINT BIG BIG = Y STOP No L a r g e r O f T w o N u m b e r s Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 14
15. 15. F a c t o r i a l o f a N u m b e r Yes START Read N F = 1 M = 1 Is M = N? F = F * M Print F No M = M + 1 STOP Assume: N  no. whose factorial is required Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 15
16. 16. MultiplicationTableofanumberinputby user Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 16
17. 17. Flowchart – Find the Largest of Three Numbers Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 17
18. 18. Limitations of Flowcharts  Complex – for lengthy algorithms, flowchart can be very large  difficult to follow  Time-consuming – drawing complex flowcharts can be very time-consuming  Modification – difficult to modify; redraw entire flowchart  Update – program update is easier; not so for flowcharts  redraw flowchart ! Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 18
19. 19. Exercise  Design an algorithm and the corresponding flowchart for finding the sum of the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, …, n  Draw a flowchart to read 100 numbers and then display the sum  Draw a flowchart to display all odd numbers between 0 and 1000  Draw a flowchart to find the sum of first 10 natural numbers and then display the sum Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 19
20. 20. Suggestions  Algorithm  Flowchart  Program  Use programs in C language to develop questions on Algorithms and Flowcharts Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 20
21. 21. THANK YOU STOP Mukesh N.Tekwani20 July 2013 21