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Thing 19 Despite the fall of communism, we are still living in planned economy 
Presented by: 
Mukesh Sahu 
27NMP22
What they tell you 
•In complex modern economies, planning is neither possible nor desirable 
•A complex modern economy ne...
What they don’t tell you 
•Capitalist economies are in large part planned 
•By planning of the activities of state-owned e...
Upper Volta with Rockets 
•In the 1970s, Western diplomats called the Soviet Union ‘Upper Volta with rockets’ 
•A country ...
Upper Volta with Rockets …. cont 
•Cap on how much a business manager, however successful, could get 
•Limited incentive f...
Central planning: The logic 
•Contradiction between the social nature of the production process and the private nature of ...
The logic: A failure 
•Interdependence makes the economy more complex, making it more difficult to plan centrally 
•Succes...
China and Vietnam have gradually abandoned central planning, although their states still hold high degrees of control over...
There is planning and there is planning 
•Governments in capitalist economies also plan 
•Indicative planning 
•Broad targ...
Sectorial industrial policy 
•Sizeable chunk of the national economy driven through state- owned enterprises (SOEs) 
•Swed...
To plan or not to plan – that is not the question 
•Businesses plan their activities – often down to the last detail 
•Whe...
Conclusion 
•Rich countries are more planned than poor countries 
•Different activities have appropriate levels and forms ...
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Thing 19: 23 things they don't tell about capitalism

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23 things they don't tell about capitalism

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Thing 19: 23 things they don't tell about capitalism

  1. 1. Thing 19 Despite the fall of communism, we are still living in planned economy Presented by: Mukesh Sahu 27NMP22
  2. 2. What they tell you •In complex modern economies, planning is neither possible nor desirable •A complex modern economy needs: decentralized decisions  A market mechanism individuals and firms a profitable opportunity The less planning there is, the better
  3. 3. What they don’t tell you •Capitalist economies are in large part planned •By planning of the activities of state-owned enterprises •Through sectorial industrial policy and indicative planning •With the help of Large, hierarchical corporations Planning the right things at the right levels
  4. 4. Upper Volta with Rockets •In the 1970s, Western diplomats called the Soviet Union ‘Upper Volta with rockets’ •A country that could send men into space but had people queuing up for basic foodstuffs •1980s the second-biggest cause of fires in Moscow: Exploding TVs •Soviet Union aimed for full employment and a high degree of equality •Virtually all enterprises were run by professional managers •Prevented the emergence of visionary entrepreneurs, like Henry Ford or Bill Gates
  5. 5. Upper Volta with Rockets …. cont •Cap on how much a business manager, however successful, could get •Limited incentive for business managers to turn the advanced technologies •Full employment at all costs •Led to problem of labour discipline
  6. 6. Central planning: The logic •Contradiction between the social nature of the production process and the private nature of ownership •Impossible to coordinate the actions of the interdependent firms •‘Coordination failures’, accumulates into periodic economic crises •Under central planning, all means of production are owned by the whole of society •Unified plan; Economy will produce only exactly what is needed
  7. 7. The logic: A failure •Interdependence makes the economy more complex, making it more difficult to plan centrally •Success of early Soviet industrialization •Main task was to produce a relatively small number of key products in large quantities •Increase in the ability to plan was not sufficient to deal with the increase in the complexity of the economy •Central planning was abandoned
  8. 8. China and Vietnam have gradually abandoned central planning, although their states still hold high degrees of control over the economy. So, we all now live in market economies. Planning is gone. Or is it?
  9. 9. There is planning and there is planning •Governments in capitalist economies also plan •Indicative planning •Broad targets concerning key economic variables •Targets are not legally binding •France, Finland, Norway and Austria, Japan, Korea, Taiwan successful •But not India
  10. 10. Sectorial industrial policy •Sizeable chunk of the national economy driven through state- owned enterprises (SOEs) •Sweden, Germany •International average is around 10 per cent •High funding in R&D •1950-80: 47-65% funding in US •Despite relative decline of government planning in the recent period, there is still extensive planning in the capitalist economies
  11. 11. To plan or not to plan – that is not the question •Businesses plan their activities – often down to the last detail •When Marx talked about planning, there was in fact no real-life government that was practicing planning •Once private property was abolished and the capitalists eliminated, the rational elements could be isolated and harnessed for the social good. •We live in an organizational economy; bulk of the economic activities is coordinated within the boundaries of organizations
  12. 12. Conclusion •Rich countries are more planned than poor countries •Different activities have appropriate levels and forms of planning •The true nature of the modern economy: Government policy, Corporate planning and Market relationships are all vital and interact in a complex way It is like believing that we can live by eating only salt, because salt is vital for our survival

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