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A holistic framework for the post occupancy evaluation of campus residential housing facilities


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A Holistic Framework for the Post Occupancy Evaluation
of Campus Residential Housing Facilities
– a case study of AlMarooj Courts at KFUPM

Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire
Architectural Engineering Department
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Published in: Environment
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A holistic framework for the post occupancy evaluation of campus residential housing facilities

  1. 1. Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire Architectural Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals +966501296203
  2. 2. • Introduction • Statement of the Problem • Research Objective • Research Methodology • Case Study – Al-Marooj Courts • POE Framework Methodology • POE Framework Tool (Questionnaire) • Findings • Expert Questionnaire Survey • Review of Existing Documents • Spot Measurements • Occupants Questionnaire • Importance-Satisfaction (IS) Matrix • Residential Satisfaction Index • Inferential Statistics • Focus Group Meetings • POE recommendations • Conclusion Contents of 753
  3. 3. . Introduction - definitions of 754 • An evaluation is “the process of examining a system or system component to determine the extent to which specified properties are present” • Overall satisfaction of the end users is more important in housing performance evaluation • Post Occupancy Evaluation is qualified by a range of alternative terms such as: • “Building-In-Use Studies”, • “Building Diagnostics” • “Building Pathology” • “Building Evaluation” • “Building Appraisal”
  4. 4. . Introduction – definitions/2 of 755 • Preiser et al., 1988 defines POE as “the process of evaluating buildings in a systematic and rigorous manner after they have been built and occupied for some time” • A more specific definition is given by Watson, 2003 as “a systematic evaluation of opinion about buildings in use, from the perspective of the people who use them” • There are three perspectives to the evaluation of buildings:  Occupants, and how well their needs are met  Environmental performance, normally energy and water efficiency  Whether the building makes economic sense, such as value for money or return on investment
  5. 5. . Introduction – common building performance problems of 756 • Health and safety problems; • Security problems; • Leakage; • Poor signage and way finding problems; • Poor air circulation and temperature control; • Handicapped accessibility problems; • Lack of storage; • Lack of privacy; • Hallway blockage; • Aesthetic problems; • Entry door problems with wind and accumulation of dirt; • Inadequacy of designing space for equipment; • Maintainability of glass surfaces (e.g. skywalks or inaccessible skylights).
  6. 6. . Introduction – Uses of POE of 757 • It creates a platform to understand the needs and desires of building users and thus provide more suiting environments to accommodate those needs • Successes and errors are identified, to determine what needs to be repeated and what needs to be avoided in future designs • To identify problem areas in existing buildings, to test new building prototypes and to develop design guidance and criteria for future facilities • Lowering facility lifecycle costs by identifying design errors that could lead to increased maintenance and operating costs • Ensures accountability and responsibility on the part of housing managers, designers and policy makers • Through a POE study much ideas and solution are developed to achieve buildings’ sustainability • Beneficiaries of a POE study include: • designers wanting to avoid past mistakes; • educators passing the knowledge on to students; • existing and prospective building owners, occupiers, developers and managers; • and policy makers looking for the best way forward
  7. 7. . Introduction – Frameworks and Models of 758 POE models for sustainability: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GBTool, BREEAM, EcoSmart POE models for quality: Housing Quality Indicator (HQI) Construction Industry Council Design Quality Indicators (CIC DQIs) QUALITEL QUARQ POE models for higher education: Hassanain et al., 2010 presents a generic framework HEDQF (Higher Education Design Quality Forum) AUDE (Association of University Directors of Estates) “De Monfort” approach
  8. 8. . Introduction – Levels of Investigation of 759
  9. 9. . Statement of the Problem of 7510 • Re-occurring failure of housing projects is due to the lack of feed-back and lessons-learned derived from the end-users’ or occupants’ perspective • Few POE-studies of domestic housing facilities • Impartial/Incomprehensive studies carried out so far • Holistic approaches to POE should be given priority in the property sector • An inevitable “fine-tuning” process takes place after the completion and occupation of a facility (in this case AL-Marooj)
  10. 10. . Research Objective of 7511 Develop a holistic framework for post-occupancy evaluation of residential housing facilities. Apply the developed POE framework to a case study of the newly-occupied Al-Marooj Courts at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.
  11. 11. of 7512 Research Methodology OBJECTIVE 2
  12. 12. of 7513 Case-Study – Al-Marooj Courts
  13. 13. of 7514 POE Framework Methodology
  14. 14. 75of15 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements
  15. 15. 75of16 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Thermal Comfort The state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding thermal environment Measurement Methods 1. Walkthrough to identify maintenance issues or behavioral patterns of users 2. ASHRAE 55, 2004: Physical Measurement of: Temperature, Relative humidity, Air velocity, Temperature of the walls that surround the indoor environment (MRT) according to Fanger’s theory. 3. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  16. 16. 75of17 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Indoor Air Quality The comfortable range of the temperature, humidity, ventilation and chemical or biological contaminants of the air inside a building Measurement methods 1. ASHRAE 62.1, 2004: CO2 concentrations <700 ppm above the outdoor air concentration. Humidity recommended to be between 30% and 60% 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants, 80% satisfaction of untrained observers
  17. 17. 75of18 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Visual Comfort The adequacy of lightning to provide visibility; and the elimination of disturbing effects like discomfort glare Measurement Methods 1. IESNA, 2000: visual tasks of medium contrast or small size (500-1000 Lux) 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  18. 18. 75of19 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Acoustic Comfort It covers the ambient level of sound, the transmission of sound between areas and rooms, reverberation, and specific areas such as machine noise and auditorium acoustics Measurement Methods 1. Department of Defense, 2003:Noise Criterion Range for residences and apartments (NC-20 TO NC-30) 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  19. 19. 75of20 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Security and Safety The protection and securing of residents and their property, prevention of anything that may threaten them, investigation of crimes and community participation in efforts to address causes of crime Measurement Methods 1. Walkthrough Inspection to assess compliance with local and international requirements including International Building Code (IBC) 2012. 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  20. 20. 75of21 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Health Sustenance of the activities of building occupants, and preventing SBS (Sick Building Syndrome) and BRI (Building Related Illnesses); including symptoms such as headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation, coughing, nausea, dizziness, and difficulty in concentration Measurement Methods 1. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  21. 21. 75of22 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Management and Maintenance Work needed to keep a dwelling at or to restore a dwelling to an acceptable standard, and also includes minor improvements Measurement Methods 1. Assessment of building physical characteristics, services and environment, and compliance with codes, standards or bye-laws 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  22. 22. 75of23 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Layout, furniture and spatial comfort Spatial comfort entails the layout of space, furniture, and storage and the convenient circulation and accessibility to various usable spaces within a building Measurement Methods 1. Walkthrough Inspection to assess the quality, arrangement and adequacy of furniture 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  23. 23. 75of24 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Housing Support Services Housing support services are water supply and sanitary services and electrical services Measurement Methods 1. Walkthrough Inspection to assess the quality, accessibility and adequacy 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  24. 24. 75of25 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Privacy and Territoriality The ability to control space by individuals or groups including physical, visual, and aural access, defines the level of privacy or interaction that can be achieved Measurement Methods 1. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  25. 25. 75of26 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Location Proxemics is the study of interpersonal distances maintained among individuals for purposes of communication. Such distances vary by culture, sex, activity, and age Measurement Methods 1. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  26. 26. 75of27 POE Framework Methodology – performance elements Appearance It deals with the aesthetic perception of occupants of their buildings Measurement Methods 1. Walkthrough to access the physical presentation of the building’s interior and exterior 2. Questionnaire Survey of occupants
  27. 27. of 7528 Holistic Framework Tool – performance indicators
  28. 28. of 7529 Holistic Framework Tool – performance indicators
  29. 29. of 7530 Holistic Framework Tool – performance indicators
  30. 30. of 7531 Holistic Framework Tool – performance indicators
  31. 31. of 7532 Holistic Framework Tool – performance indicators • This initial collection of questionnaire has also been refined with a preliminary interview made with three (3) occupants • Some of the performance indicators removed include: • 'maintenance of shared areas, balconies, entrance hall, gallery, corridor and/or stairs‘ • 'quality and presentation of finishes in common spaces’ • 'level of safety measures in children playground areas‘ • 'ease/cost of maintenance of house’ • 'low cost maintenance features in your house‘ • The result was a comprehensive list of 183 feasible performance indicators.
  32. 32. of 7533 Expert questionnaire survey • This questionnaire has been divided into specific groups of indicators according to five (5) relevant professional categories: • "Indoor Environment” • "Safety and Security“ • "Building Maintenance“ • "Health“ • "Planning and Architecture”
  33. 33. of 7534 Expert questionnaire survey
  34. 34. of 7535 Expert questionnaire survey
  35. 35. of 7536 Review of existing documents • The floor plans for both 4 and 5 bedroom apartments were obtained and used in the questionnaire development and making recommendations • A list of problems reported by occupants of the residential housing facility to the campus maintenance department was used in this study as a substitute for the maintenance work order. • Examples of reported issues include: • “Lighting in the first floor of the houses is excellent. However, it is relatively poor upstairs in the bedrooms” • “The size of the bathroom in the master bedroom is small” • “No smoke detector and no fire alarm”
  36. 36. of 7537 Spot Measurements
  37. 37. of 7538 Occupants’ Questionnaire • Sloven's formula was use to determine the minimum number of respondents to make the study statistically valid • For a sample error (e) of 0.15, that is 85% confidence, and a population size (N) of 90, n (sample size) will be equal to 30. • Fellows and Liu, 2009 suggest that: "large number statistics require n ≥ 32" as a rule of thumb
  38. 38. of 7539 Occupants’ Questionnaire – respondents profile
  39. 39. of 7540 Occupants’ Questionnaire – respondents profile
  40. 40. of 7541 Occupants’ Questionnaire According to Mohit & Azim, 2012, MSIs above the neutral value of '3.00‘ is an indication of satisfaction and MSIs below '3.00' was judged as an indication of dissatisfaction.
  41. 41. of 7542 Occupants Questionnaire – Thermal Comfort
  42. 42. of 7543 Importance Satisfaction (IS) Analysis Matrix Importance-Satisfaction (IS) analysis matrix of RII versus MSI.
  43. 43. of 7544 Importance Satisfaction (IS) Analysis Matrix 3.4 =‘noise from air/HVAC system 5.6 = ‘Anti-Crime measures’ 5.11 = ‘Enforcement of maximum speed limit rules’ 1.9 = ‘Control of thermostat’ 1.3 = ‘Indoor temperature shifts’ 6.16 = ‘Paving around the building’ 6.17 = ‘Communal greenery’ 6.25 = ‘Frequency of house maintenance’ 6.23 = ‘Maintenance team keep residents informed’
  44. 44. of 7545 Importance Satisfaction (IS) Analysis Matrix 8.4 = ‘Space for landscaping’ 9.26 = ‘Open spaces, parks and reserves’ 9.24 = ‘Accessibility to disabled and aged people’ 9.13 = ‘Effectiveness of doors in preventing dust’ 9.27 = ‘Availability of children‘s playground and ladies centre’ 9.21 = ‘Storm water drainage system’ 9.5 = ‘The type of electrical outlets used’ 8.34 = ‘Quality of carpentry work for maid’s bedroom’ 8.15 = ‘Size of maids bedroom’
  45. 45. of 7546 Importance Satisfaction (IS) Analysis Matrix 12.4 = ‘Quality of materials used in floors’ 12.14 = ‘General aesthetic appearance’ 12.13 = ‘Landscaping of neighborhood’ 12.12 = ‘Green areas’ 12.11 = ‘Streets and foot paths design’ 11.14 = ‘Proximity to restaurants’ 11.15 = ‘Proximity to library’ 11.16 = ‘extent of social relation among neighbors' 10.6 = ‘Density of population within the estate’
  46. 46. of 7547 Occupants Questionnaire – Thermal Comfort • Satisfied with all indicators except two: • 'indoor temperature shifts‘ MSI of 2.84 • 'control of thermostat‘ MSI of 2.67 • The overall satisfaction with 'thermal comfort‘ MSI of 3.68 • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and a list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate issues like: • 'control and location of thermostats', • 'strong air flows' • 'indoor temperature shifts/unevenness‘ • Measurements made with instruments gave 20.5oC below (22-27oC) specified by ASHRAE standard 55
  47. 47. of 7548 Occupants Questionnaire – Indoor Air Quality • All indicators fall within the range of 3 – 4 (satisfied) • Open-ended responses by occupants indicate a concern for dust coming from HVAC units, vents, and gaps around exit doors. • Recorded level of the relative humidity (65%) was above the recommended rage stipulated by ASHRAE 62.1, 2004 (30 – 60%). Values exceeding 70% for extended periods will promote the growth of some forms of mould and fungi.
  48. 48. of 7549 Occupants Questionnaire – Acoustic Comfort • ‘Noise from neighbors', 'noise from vehicles outside', 'noise from lighting fixtures' and 'other noise outside the building' are satisfactory. • 'Noise for air/HVAC system' was perceived as dissatisfied with an MSI of 2.56 • Objective measurements of noise: a maximum value of 70.5dBA was recorded in the kitchen, and a minimum measured value of 50dBA in two of the bedrooms exceeds the required 35 – 45dBA specified for private residential buildings. • The source of noise is identified as the vents in washrooms facilities • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and a list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • The HVAC system as an extra source of noise, • Voices can be heard easily across rooms and echoes from the TV and radio are also present.
  49. 49. of 7550 Occupants Questionnaire – Visual Comfort • Occupants are satisfied with the visual environment • 'Overall visual quality during the day' has an MSI of 4.15 • Lighting levels where measured for a combination of natural and artificial lighting to be as high as 430 Lux in living rooms, 250 Lux in the kitchen, 450 Lux in the family dining and 99 Lux in one of the bedrooms • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and a list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • The need for more lights in the bedrooms and the front yard at the building's main entrance
  50. 50. of 7551 Occupants Questionnaire – Acoustic & Visual Comfort
  51. 51. of 7552 Occupants Questionnaire – Safety and Security • Occupants dissatisfaction with 'anti-crime measure', and 'enforcement of maximum speed limit rules' with MSIs of 2.43 and 2.29 • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • Concern with the control of speed around the estate, • Provision of safety systems like fire alarms, surveillance camera and access to the buildings electric main switch board for emergency.
  52. 52. of 7553 Occupants Questionnaire – Maintenance and Management • All performance indicators are rated as satisfactory except: •'maintenance of paving around the building‘ with MSI of 2.64 • 'communal greenery' with MSI of 1.85 • Open-ended feed-back from the respondents identify issues like: • 'maintenance of water, heating and ventilation systems' • 'late response of maintenance management'.
  53. 53. of 7554 Occupants Questionnaire – Layout, Comfort & Spatial Comfort • Performance indicators were above the average satisfaction except: • 'space for landscaping', MSI of 2.81 • 'size of maid's bedroom' MSI of 2.18 • 'quality of carpentry work for maid‘s bedroom MSI of 2.97 • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • dissatisfaction with the size of the maid's room • the size of toilet and bath (T/B) in the master's bedroom. • poor quality of carpentry work • air infiltration bringing into the building dust and sand around exit doors
  54. 54. of 7555 Occupants Questionnaire – Housing Support Services • Performance indicators were satisfied with except: • 'the type of electrical outlets used', MSI of 2.97 • 'effectiveness of doors in preventing dust', MSI of 2.64 • 'storm water drainage system', MSI of 2.97 • 'accessibility to disabled and aged people', MSI of 2.45 • 'open spaces, parks and reserves', MSI of 2.69 • 'availability and children's play-ground and ladies centre', 2.06 • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • over elevated bath-tubs in the masters bedroom, • the need for a shower facility on the ground floor, • high salinity of water for domestic use, • improper location of toilet paper dispenser, • small size of washroom facility in master's bedroom, • the need for children playground areas.
  55. 55. of 7556 Occupants Questionnaire – Privacy and Territoriality • All performance indicators are above the average satisfaction • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate: • concern for privacy due to close proximity of neighboring buildings.
  56. 56. of 7557 Occupants Questionnaire – Location • Very high occupant satisfaction ratings where observed in this category. • closeness of their residential compounds to their 'work place' • 'Size of estate', • 'appropriateness of location for residential buildings' a • ‘closeness to places of worship' have MSIs above the mark for satisfaction 4.0
  57. 57. of 7558 Occupants Questionnaire – Appearance • All performance indicators are above the average satisfaction except: • ‘quality of materials used in floors', 2.97 • 'green areas (vegetation)', 1.94 • 'landscaping of neighborhood', 2.21 • 'general aesthetic appearance‘ 2.68 • Open-ended feed-back from occupants and list of problems compiled by residents of the housing estate indicate dissatisfaction with: • the paints, tiles, stains on the walls, and corrosion of fixtures in the washrooms, • landscaping of the estate • general appearance. • The rating for 'general aesthetic appearance' is 2.68
  58. 58. of 7559 Residential Satisfaction Index Mohit et al., 2010: 20-39 = very low; 40-59 = low; 60-79 = moderate; 80-100 = high.
  59. 59. of 7560 Residential Satisfaction Index Mohit et al., 2010: 20-39 = very low; 40-59 = low; 60-79 = moderate; 80-100 = high.
  60. 60. of 7561 Inferential Statistics • Two-T test analysis between building occupants 'with more children' or 'more adults‘ • P-value from this test is 0.336 which is greater than 0.05 (or 5 percent) and thus there is no evidence for a difference in residential satisfaction. • A multi linear regression (MLR) analysis of a combination of 20 performance indicators produced 10 predictor variables including • 1. 2 'indoor temperature in summer', • 6.16 'Maintenance of paving around the building', • 3.2 'noise from people between rooms', • 12.4 'Quality of materials used in floors', • 1.3 'indoor temperature shifts‘
  61. 61. of 7562 Focus Group Meetings • The following issues were discussed with four occupants of AlMarooj courts, including: a Sudanese; a Saudi; a Pakistani and an Egyptian • 'HVAC system'; • 'lightning system'; • 'size of maid's bedroom'; • 'size of washroom in masters bedroom'; • 'availability of shower facility on the ground floor'; • 'availability of parks and open spaces'; • 'privacy'; • 'use of driver's lodge'.
  62. 62. of 7563 Focus Group Meetings • The results of the discussions about these issues are summarized as follows: • Performance of HVAC system: it was discovered that noise and control of the thermostat are the main issues with the HVAC system. • Lighting system: amount of lightning in the bedrooms is inadequate. • Size of maid's bedroom: need to increase the size of the maid's bedroom to accommodate some furniture including: a bed and wardrobe. • Size of washroom in master's bedroom: height of the bath-tub and inadequate spacing between the facilities in the washroom. • Availability of shower facility on the ground floor: one of the washroom facilities in the ground floor should be redesigned to include a shower facility. • Availability of parks and open spaces: not a matter of priority since other housing courts within the campus have such facilities which are easily accessible to all. • Privacy: this was identified as one of the major issues that all building occupants agree on. It was suggested that the design should be reviewed to take this issue into consideration. • The driver's lodge: some occupants might have privacy concerns if the drivers lodge was utilized while others are eager to use this facility for the convenience of their drivers
  63. 63. of 7564 Expert Interviews for POE Recommendations • To generate valuable and realistic recommendations, a design office with a huge experience in design and consultancy for residential compounds in Saudi Arabia was consulted. • An interview was conducted with an architect/project manager and also HVAC engineer to generate and validate solutions to problems identified by the study
  64. 64. of 7565 Architectural Design/Construction • A shower facility on the ground floor should be provided to be of potential service to the disabled, old-aged and guests. It is recommended that the washroom facility opposite the reception on the ground floor can be modified to incorporate a shower facility. • Noise between spaces can be controlled with the use of block walls of 45-50dB sound resistance. The type of carpets and furniture in the living space can also be selected to serve as sound proof. • 40% of the total size of the estate should be set aside to provide facilities such as children playground areas, communal greenery, landscaping and paving, parks and reserves. • The maid's bedroom as well all living rooms should have a minimum size of 3m X 3m. Space for the maid's room can be created by adjusting the size of the stair and adjacent room. See first floor plan, appendix C. • Increase the size of washroom facility in the master bedroom. A minimum size of 3m X 4m should be provided. With sufficient spacing between toilet facilities. • Toilet paper dispenser should be at the right hand side of the user and reachable within an arm's length. • Accessibility to disabled and aged people should be provided by incorporating ramps at exits and grabs in washroom facilities. It is recommended that at least one of the wash room facilities at the ground floor should be designed for people with limited mobility according to universal design standards. POE Recommendations
  65. 65. of 7566 Safety and Security • Provide security system such as surveillance camera, and burglar alarms • Electricity panel boards should be accessible for cases of emergency and kept away from children's reach • Provide speed controls like bumps and speed limit signs to reduce over speeding within the estate • Prevent the entry of insects and ants by proper sealing of door edges • Appropriate safety measures should be provided for gas outlets in kitchen • Provide sprinklers, smoke, fire alarms and heat detection systems according to IBC, 2012 and NFPA code requirements POE Recommendations
  66. 66. of 7567 Furniture, Fixtures and Equipments (FF & E) • Ensure lighting levels meet up to the required standards • Maid's room as well as all other rooms should have minimum required • Provide 3-pin large 220V adaptors for all outlets • Provide high quality exterior wood or metal doors. And ensure exterior doors are well sealed • Each washroom facility should have a water control valve aside the centralized valve existing for flexibility • Provide sweet water in all faucets, otherwise salinity of water should be controlled for domestic use. The World Health Organisation recommends 1500 mg/ L as the maximum level for human consumption, though over 1000 mg/L may be associated with excessive scaling, corrosion and unsatisfactory taste. POE Recommendations
  67. 67. of 7568 HVAC • Create more zones for thermostat control. Alternatively multi thermostats can be used. Or the thermostats can be located in a strategic position where the • Temperature represents the average temperature in the representative zone. It should be removed from the hallway. • The HVAC filter should be checked for clogging as well as the internal pressure within the building to ascertain the cause of dusts • HVAC contractor should do a testing and balancing exercise to control air flow and review maintenance program. In this exercise, the capacity (temperature and air flow), air balance and air distribution should be measured, and subsequently recommendations should be provided to facilitate even distribution of temperature and minimize indoor temperature shifts. • The HVAC system should be evaluated for potential noise sources like vibration POE Recommendations
  68. 68. of 7569 Quality Assurance • Improve on the quality of construction materials and supervision of construction work for kitchen and bathroom tiles. • Specify paints that can resist wear due to humidity like enamel paints. And • Specifications should be adhered to. • Ensure quality damp-proof is specified, and they are well joint in construction and not damaged to prevent water leakage in roof and first floor. • Ensure compaction of surrounding grounds before laying of concrete slabs to stop the breakage of the slabs due to differential settlement. • Quality supervision in construction of bath-tubs to be within the maximum height of 645mm, should be ensured for ease of use • Provide high quality of hinges, locks and toilet fixtures which are corrosion resistant • Ensure quality review of design/construction to match standards POE Recommendations
  69. 69. of 7570 Maintenance and Management • Extractor fans should be well maintained to reduce dust and noise • Provide pipe chase for water lines to avoid demolition during maintenance and leakage repair • Review network design to speed-up hot water delivery at faucets in winter. • Alternatively a "point of use" hot water system can be installed. • Review maintenance plan for water heaters due to its frequent dysfunction • Review HVAC maintenance program. Preventive Maintenance (PM) once or twice a month is preferred. A PM checklist should be developed and results from the exercise be provided to the administration at regular intervals • Improve on speed, efficiency and frequency of maintenance • Responsibility for repair and replace should be taken by maintenance department POE Recommendations
  70. 70. of 7571 General • Provide fast, reliable and efficient maintenance response • Improve on design and construction quality • Improve general aesthetic appearance and construction finishing • Employ universal design (UD) standards to ensure adequate support for people with limited mobility POE Recommendations
  71. 71. of 7572 Conclusions • Objective 1: develop a holistic framework for Post Occupancy Evaluation of Residential housing facilities. • Objective 2: apply the POE framework to a case-study of the newly occupied Al- Marooj Courts at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. • A holistic evaluation of residential housing facilities provides a "rich picture" of conflicting as well as corroborating viewpoints for a robust and more realistic decision making process for facility managers, housing administrator, designers, engineers and all stakeholders of the building and construction industry
  72. 72. of 7573 Conclusions • Project and Facility managers in particular and stake-holders of the built environment in general should pay more attention to POE studies for residential housing developments. • POEs should be carried out periodically for residential compounds in the same geographic location and results and recommendations should be systematically documented to create a domain. To facilitate performance benchmarking, improve quality and serve as a wealth of resource for the construction professional practice. • Workshops and training sessions on POE should be encouraged in the industry • Results from POE studies should also be shared amongst the stakeholders of a residential housing development so that knowledge is effectively transferred.
  73. 73. of 7574 Conclusions • Professional bodies in construction and sustainable housing development should seek to develop POE tool kits for their professional members for ease of its application, uniformity in procedure and effective feed-back and feed forward. The following are future research suggested based on knowledge from this study: • It is suggested that another research be carried out to further validate the framework in an attempt to standardize it. • Another research will be to apply the framework in this paper on a separate case study and thus compare its findings with the findings of this study. • Also a research that will develop a similar framework for multi-family residential buildings is suggested. It will contain some unique performance indicators like lifts, shared areas, balconies etc. • A long term work where the POE holistic tool can be applied to a large number of case studies to create a publicly-accessible domain for benchmarking and effective feed- forward of knowledge to the construction industry.
  74. 74. of 7575 Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire Architectural Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals +966501296203