Mentoring & Leadership Development Seminar


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Mentoring & Leadership Development Seminar presentation by Murdoch University International Study Centre Dubai

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Mentoring & Leadership Development Seminar

  1. 1. Mentoring and Leadership Development Seminar T: +971 4 4355700 | F: +971 4 4 355704| E: / P.O. Box 345005, Block 10, Fourth Floor | Dubai International Academic City | Dubai | United Arab Emirates | W:
  2. 2. Welcome: Session 1: 9:30am– 11:30am: Mentorship 1 Professor John Grainger, Pro-Vice Chancellor, Murdoch University Dubai Session 2: 11:45am – 13:45pm: Mentorship 2 Professor John Grainger, Pro-Vice Chancellor, Murdoch University Dubai Session 3: 14.30pm – 16.00pm: Leadership Development Amanda McStay, Academic Director – Murdoch Business School Dubai
  3. 3. Mentoring Sessions: Part 1: 9:30am – 11:30am • Introduction: Housekeeping, Breaks, Logistics • Theme 1: Introducing Partnership based Mentoring • Theme 2: The Mentor in Partnership-based Mentoring Part 2: 11:45am –1:45pm • Theme 3: The Mentoring Cycle • Theme 4: Learning Projects • Theme 5: Benefits
  4. 4. Building Effective Mentoring Partnerships to Drive Performance Presented by: Professor John Grainger Pro-Vice Chancellor Murdoch University in Dubai
  5. 5. Anticipated Outcomes of this Workshop It is anticipated that participants will be able to: • Identify both strategic and operational issues associated with mentoring. • Describe the key characteristics of a partnership based model of the mentoring process. • Explain the key characteristics of each stage of a partnership-based mentoring relationship. • Discuss key mentor attributes and functions associated with a partnership-based model of mentoring. • Understand the importance of learning projects. • Outline the benefits to be attained by mentors, protégés and organizations through participation in mentoring partnerships.
  6. 6. Mentorship: What it is: A personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity (possibly 3000 years ago) but the word itself was inspired by the character of the Mentor in Homer’s Odyssey.
  7. 7. Mentorship: What it is: Mentoring is defined in research as encompassing many roles:  cheerleader  master  coach  “opener of doors”  confidant  patron  counsellor  role model  developer of talent  seminal source  guardian  successful leader and  guru  teacher  inspiration Davis & Garrison (1979)
  8. 8. Mentoring Compared A mentor focuses on issues pertaining to career and life, and helps shape the outlook or attitude of the individual vs Instruction – the dissemination of knowledge, usually helping with the job at hand, or the study of a discipline. Coaching – deals primarily with skill building, usually related to work and career related issues.
  9. 9. Theme 1: Introducing Partnership-based Mentoring
  10. 10. Strategic Considerations • How important is partnership-based mentoring in meeting the preparation requirements of those aspiring to leadership roles? • Is partnership-based mentoring appropriate for everyone? • Under what conditions is partnership-based mentoring feasible or more likely to succeed? • Discuss key mentor attributes and functions associated with a partnership-based model of mentoring. • What role should organisations play in recognising, supporting or running a mentorship program? • Should mentoring programs be formally instituted as a program, or should conventional informal mentorship be accommodated and supported?
  11. 11. Operational Considerations • What are the essential characteristics of the role, allowing one to differentiate it from other developmental relationships? • What are the necessary attributes or qualifying criteria for mentors? • What are the defining dimensions and character of partnership-based mentoring? • What phases or stages are typical?
  12. 12. Organisational Context for Mentoring
  13. 13. Some Models of Mentoring Guru Counsellor Motivator Confidant
  14. 14. Models of Mentoring Model Remarks The Guru The Counsellor The Motivator The Confidant The Partner
  15. 15. Key Characteristics of a Partnership-based Mentoring Model: Mentoring?
  16. 16. Key Characteristics of a Partnership-based Mentoring Model: Internal and External to the Relationship Co-ordination of Participation is Voluntary Mentoring Program Training for Partners in Mutual Growth Mentors & Protégés Mentors & Protégés Ongoing Mentor Make Time Support Confidential Relationship Thoughtful Pairing Non-Supervisory Across All Relationship Organizational Levels Learning Projects Benefits Promoted
  17. 17. Developmental Stages of Mentoring Partnerships: Three Stages Stage 1: Orientation – Getting to know each other Stage 2: Development – Building & Maintaining Trust Stage 3: Separation – The parting of the ways
  18. 18. Developmental Stages of Mentoring Partnerships: Three Stages - Stage 1 - Orientation
  19. 19. Developmental Stages of Mentoring Partnerships: Three Stages - Stage 2 - Development
  20. 20. Developmental Stages of Mentoring Partnerships: Three Stages - Stage 3 - Separation
  21. 21. Key Characteristics of a Partnership-based Mentoring Model & the Principles of Adult Learning Principle of Adult Learning Implications for a Partnership-based Approach to Mentoring Principle 1: Adults are relevance- orientated in their learning Principle 2: Many adults prefer to direct their own learning Principle 3: Experience is the richest resource for advanced learning
  22. 22. Key Characteristics of a Partnership-based Mentoring Model & the Principles of Adult Learning Principle of Adult Learning Implications for a Partnership-based Approach to Mentoring Principle 4: Adult learning is facilitated more effectively when adults work within an informal and collaborative setting Principle 5: Individual differences among adult learners increase with age and experience.
  23. 23. Matching Mentor–Protégé Styles STAGE 1 Learners of Low Self-Direction: Coaching Learners STAGE 4 The Staged Self-Directed STAGE 2 Learners of High Learners of Low Self-Direction: Learning Model Moderate “Delegating” Learners (Grow, 1991) Self Direction STAGE 3 Learners of Intermediate Self-Direction: “Facilitating” Learners
  24. 24. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model Application S4: Severe Mismatch Self-Directed Students resent authoritarian teacher Mismatch Near Match Match Learner S3: Involved Mismatch Near Match Match Near Match Learner S2: Interested Near Match Match Near Match Mismatch Learner S1: Severe Mismatch Dependent Match Near Match Mismatch Students resent freedom they Learner are not ready for T1: T2: T3: T4: Authority Salesperson, Facilitator Delegator Expert Motivator Source: Grow (1991)
  25. 25. Theme 2: The Mentor in Partnership-based Mentoring
  26. 26. Key Mentor Attributes: Personal Reflection • Think back over your experience and your interactions with your work colleagues. Do any of your work colleagues come to mind? Who really made a positive difference in your working life? • What was it that made each of these colleagues an effective mentor? What did these important people have in common? • What might your experiences with these colleagues teach you about how you want to be as a mentor?
  27. 27. Key Mentor Attributes: Four Key Attributes Openness The mentor should be able to ‘open up’ to the protégé. Nurturing The mentor should have the capacity to nurture the protégé. Sharing The mentor should have a propensity for sharing power within a partnership. Caring The mentor should be positively disposed to caring for the protégé. Care is at the heart of any mentoring partnership.
  28. 28. Key Mentor Competencies: Six Broad Competencies • Relationship Emphasis • Information Emphasis • Facilitative Focus • Confrontive Focus • Mentor Model • Protégé Vision
  29. 29. Key Mentor Competencies: Relationship Emphasis Meaning Conveys through active, empathetic listening a genuine understanding and acceptance of the protégés’ feelings Purpose To create a psychological climate of trust which allows protégés to honestly share and reflect upon their personal and professional experiences (positive and negative) as adult learners
  30. 30. Key Mentor Competencies: Facilitative Focus Meaning Guides protégés through a reasonably in-depth review of and exploration of their interests, abilities, ideas, and beliefs. Purpose To assist protégés in considering alternative views and options while reaching their own decisions about attainable personal, academic, and career objectives.
  31. 31. Key Mentor Competencies: Confrontive Focus Meaning Respectfully challenges protégés’ explanations for or avoidance of decisions and actions relevant to their development as adult learners. Purpose To help protégés attain insight into unproductive strategies and behaviours and to evaluate their need and capacity to change.
  32. 32. Key Mentor Competencies: Mentor Model Meaning Shares life experiences and feelings as a ‘role model’ with protégés in order to personalize and enrich the relationship. Purpose To motivate protégés to take necessary risks, to make decisions without certainty of successful results, and to overcome difficulties in the journey toward educational and career goals.
  33. 33. Key Mentor Competencies: Protégé Vision Meaning Stimulates protégés’ critical thinking with regard to envisioning their own future and developing their personal and professional potential. Purpose To encourage protégés as they manage personal changes and take initiatives in their transitions through life events as independent adult learners.
  34. 34. Key Mentor Competencies: Information Exchange Emphasis Meaning Directly requests detailed information from and offers specific suggestions to protégés about their current plans and progress in achieving personal, educational, and career goals. Purpose To ensure that advice offered is based on accurate and sufficient knowledge of individual protégés.
  35. 35. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions
  36. 36. Key Mentor Functions: “The Footbridge””
  37. 37. Key Mentor Functions: “The Footbridge”” Juscelino Kubitschek bridge in Brasilia, Brazil. Primitive suspension bridge over the River Astore, Pakistan Sydney Harbour Bridge Discovery
  38. 38. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions - Relationship Building The mentor should build and maintain a professional relationship with the protégé. This partnership should be based on mutual trust, openness, honesty, respect, and a willingness to work together. ‘Relationship building’ provides a solid foundation for the other mentoring functions and indeed the partnership in general.
  39. 39. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions - Coaching Coaching is the process of assisting the protégé to operate successfully within the workplace through 'passing on' and/or modeling vital professional knowledge, skills and values. As coach, the mentor creates new learning experiences for the protégé by sharing or modeling expertise, and by assisting the protégé to understand how the organization/branch/unit/team operates.
  40. 40. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions - Facilitating Prompting Reflection Resource Person
  41. 41. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key functions – Facilitating – Prompting Reflection
  42. 42. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions - Counselling Counselling is the process of helping the protégé work through her/his own professional problems and issues with a view to resolution. As counsellor, the mentor serves as a sounding board when the protégé is faced with an issue or problem. The mentor often assists the protégé to see the issue from different perspective(s).
  43. 43. Key Mentor Functions: Five Key Functions - Sponsoring Sponsoring requires that the mentor act as an advocate for the protégé. As sponsor, the mentor protects, supports and promotes the protégé in the workplace.
  44. 44. Theme 3: The Coaching Cycle
  45. 45. Overview of the Cycle The Five Steps to Mentoring on the Job DETERMINE THE NEED EXPLAIN FEEDBACK DEMONSTRATE PRACTICE
  46. 46. Giving Feedback: Some Basic Principles • couched in terms of objectives. • specific rather than general (based on first-hand data, actions, and behaviour, not on the person or speculation about his or her intentions) and validated through agreement from other observers when possible. • presented as a method of enhancing professional development rather than as “discipline” for inadequate performance.
  47. 47. Giving Feedback: Some Basic Principles continued • consider timing of feedback and amount of feedback offered. • solicit strengths and shortcomings from the protégé. • use actual examples and use non-judgmental language. • use a sandwich approach – a negative wrapped in two positives • support protégés in turning negative situations into constructive challenges. • check protégé understanding – by way of summary.
  48. 48. Theme 4: Learning Projects
  49. 49. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Diagnosing Four Key Stages Professional Development Needs Specifying Formulating Evidence of Learning Accomplishment Goals Deciding on Strategies and Resources
  50. 50. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Four Key Stages: Diagnosing Professional Development Needs Key Question(s) for Outline of Stage protégés Stage One When diagnosing professional What professional needs do I Diagnosing needs protégés endeavour to the have? Professional determine gaps between where Development they are at the present time and Which needs should be addressed Needs where they would like to be in through this learning project? relation to a particular set of professional competencies. It would be unwise to try to address all professional development needs within the one learning project — so it is recommended that protégés work with their mentors to prioritize their learning needs.
  51. 51. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Four Key Stages: Formulating Learning Goals Key Question(s) for Outline of Stage protégés Stage Two Each of the professional What should I be able to do as a Formulating development needs to be result of my participation in this Learning addressed by the learning learning project? Goals project is written up as a separate learning goal. Learning goals describe what the protégé will learn, as opposed to how it will be learned. The lead in stem "On completion of this learning project, I will be able to ...." is used for each learning goal.
  52. 52. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Four Key Stages: Deciding on Strategies and Resources Key Question(s) for Outline of Stage protégés Stage Three This stage features a description of What strategies or learning Deciding on how each learning goal will be experiences are planned to assist me Strategies and accomplished (for example, to achieve these learning goals? Resources through interviewing a colleague, through attending a professional development course, through a coaching session with the mentor, through professional reading, etc.) In addition, resources (both human and material) to be used as part of the strategy, need to be recorded.
  53. 53. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Four Key Stages: Specifying Evidence of Accomplishment Key Question(s) for Outline of Stage protégés Stage Four In specifying evidence of What will be accepted as evidence Specifying accomplishment, the protégé that I have achieved each learning Evidence of records the evidence that will be goal contained within the learning Accomplishment collected (for example, brief oral project plan. presentation to mentor, journal entry, demonstration, etc.) to indicate the degree to which a given learning goal has been achieved. In specifying evidence of accomplishment, emphasis should be placed on the use of simple but effective techniques for validating learning as opposed to strategies which place an unnecessary burden on the protégé’s time.
  54. 54. Learning Projects: Focusing the Relationship Four Key Stages: Diagnosing Professional Development Needs Learning Project Title Duration: Learning Goals On completion of this project I will be able to: Strategies & Resources I will: Evidence of I will: Accomplishment
  55. 55. Theme 5: Benefits
  56. 56. Benefits of Mentoring: Benefits for Protégés, Mentors & the Organisation and Organisations Protégé Mentor Organisation
  57. 57. Key Points of Learning • • • • • • •
  58. 58. Alphabetical List of Readings Burgstahler, S. & Cronheim, D. (2001). Supporting peer-peer and mentor-protégé relationships on the internet. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(1), pp. 59-74. Carruthers, J. (1993). The Principles and practice of mentoring. In B.J. Caldwell & E.M.A. Carter (eds.) The return of the mentor: Strategies for workplace learning. London: The Falmer Press. Fawcett, D.L. (2002). Mentoring – What it is and how to make it work. Aorn Journal, 75(5), pp. 950-954. Fritts, P.J. (1998). Chapter 2: The new mentoring relationship. In ‘The new managerial mentor: Becoming a learning leader to build communities of purpose.’ Palo Alto, CA: Davies Black. Higgins, M.C. & Kram, K.E. (2001). Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), pp. 264- 288. Hines, A. (2001). Investigating adult metacognition through mentoring. Paper presented at the Australasian Human Development Conference held at the University of Queensland, Australia from 2nd-4th July 2001. Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and undergraduate academic success: A literature review. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), pp. 505-532.
  59. 59. Alphabetical List of Readings MacCallum, J. & Beltman, S. (2003). Mentoring young people in Australia. In F. Kochan & J. Pascarelli (eds.) Reconstructing context, community and culture through mentoring: Global perspectives. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Murray, M. (1991). The mentor’s motivation and concerns. In ‘Beyond the myths and magic of mentoring: How to facilitate an effective mentoring program’. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. O’Neill, R.M. & Blake-Beard, S.D. (2002). Gender barriers to the female mentor – male protégé relationship. Journal of Business Ethics, 37, pp. 51-63. Ritchie, A. & Genoni, P. (2002). Group mentoring and professionalism: A programme evaluation. Library Management 23(1/2), pp. 68-78. Schatz, P.E., Bush-Zurn, T.J., Ceresa, C. & Caldwell Freeman, K. (2003). California’s professional mentoring program: How to develop a statewide mentoring program. Journal of The American Dietetic Association, 103(1), pp. 73-76. Schrodt, P., Stringer-Cawyer, C. & Sanders, R. (2003). An examination of academic mentoring behaviors and new faculty members’ satisfaction with socialization and tenure and promotion processes. Communication Education, 5(1), pp. 17-29. Wales, S. (2003). Breaking barriers in business: Coaching women for career advancement in the United Kingdom. In F. Kochan & J. Pascarelli (Eds), Global perspectives on mentoring: Transforming context, community and culture (pp.141-152).
  60. 60. Leadership Development Sensemaking and Relating 5 July 2010 Facilitated by: Amanda McStay, Academic Director, Murdoch Business School
  61. 61. Session Plan Good leader/manager Early leadership theories - quick overview Distributed Leadership: What it is Focus on: Sensemaking Relating Activities to highlight your own style
  62. 62. What makes a good leader? TIME ?
  63. 63. Manager Leader Adapted from Daft (2005) Plans and budgets Creates vision, culture, Eye on values ....................... Eye on ...................... Directs and controls Helps others grow ...................... ...................... boundaries boundaries Focuses on objects – Focuses on people – produce/sell inspires Acts as ...................... Acts as ...................... Maintains stability Creates change Creates culture of Creates culture of ................... ...................
  64. 64. Leadership Traits Studies Stogdill Mann Stogdill Lord, Kirkpatric (1948) (1959) (1974) DeVader k & Alliger & Locke (1986) (1991) Alertness Adjustment Achievement Dominance Confidence Intelligence Conservatis Cooperation Intelligence Cognitive m ability Initiative Influence Masculinity Dominance Drive Insight Initiative Extroversion Integrity Persistence Insight Intelligence Motivation Responsibilit Persistence y Masculinity Task Responsibilit knowledge Self- y confidence Self- Sociability confidence Sociability
  65. 65. low Concern For People high 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 Palm Valley 3 4 9 5 6 (Blake & Mouton, 1964) 7 8 Behavioural: Leadership Grid
  66. 66. Situational Leadership Hersey & Blanchard 4 leader styles 4 employee styles
  67. 67. LASI – example questions
  68. 68. Transactional leadership Exchange relationship: “Transaction” = organisation pays staff in return for effort and compliance. = economic, social or psychological trading. Common organisational style. Staff “obey”. Leader “punishes”. C.A. Focus on short-term tasks. Creative work? Job satisfaction?
  69. 69. Transformational: The 4 “I”s Ind___________ Ins___________ Id____________ Int___________
  70. 70. The P ………………..… (sheep) Positive: Seldom resists. Relies on leader’s judgment and thinking. Negative: Just puts in their time, little else. Requires a lot of supervision. Believes that: The organisation doesn’t want their ideas. The leader will do what he/she wants anyway.
  71. 71. The C………………..… (yes people) Positive: Accepts assignments easily from leader. Seeks to minimise conflict. Negative: Lacks own ideas. Unwilling to make unpopular decisions. Believes that: Following established order is more important than outcomes.
  72. 72. The P……………..… (survivor/bureaucrat) Positive: Keeps things in perspective. Plays by rules and regulations. Negative: Plays political games. Covers their tracks - risk averse. Believes that: Should try to avoid uncertainty and instability.
  73. 73. The A ………………..… (cynic) Positive: Maverick - thinks for self - potential innovator. Plays devil’s advocate. Negative: Troublesome, cynical. Not a team player. Extreme cases = saboteur Believes that: Their leader does not recognise or utilize their talents.
  74. 74. The E ………………..… (star) Positive: Contributes above and beyond. Does not follow blindly. Negative: Highly idealistic - can suffer disillusionment. Burnout. Believes that: Their contribution is important … even essential.
  76. 76. DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP Creating a compelling vision of the future Making sense of Developing productive the relationships and world around us networks within/across organisations Creating new ways of working together to realise the vision Your own unique way of making change happen
  77. 77. Sensemaking – what do you see?
  78. 78. Question Do you believe everyone deserves an equal chance?
  79. 79. What did you see?
  80. 80. Espoused theory To improve your ability to communicate, first start with yourself. Easy to say/think one thing (espoused theory), then use opposite theory to act (theory-in-use). Be aware of: What you say VS what you do
  81. 81. Relating m WHO? / JOBS? VERBS to describe communication style? eg. tell / ask
  82. 82. Relating Assert TELL GENERATE hig Bystand h Here’s what I say, never mind why! Clarify BAD Dialogue Dictate ADVOCAC Discuss Pretends to be open, but sneaky, self- serving Explain and maintains own view. BAD Interrogat Why do you think this? e Why can’t you see you’re wrong? Y Interview BAD Politic Sense Check out. Don’t pay attention. Test BAD Withdraw OBSERVE ASK low INQUI Senge et al 1994, p254 hig
  83. 83. Balancing advocacy with inquiry Nothing wrong with drawing inferences and conclusions: necessary in order to act and thus live. But... we must: Inquire of others. Deal in facts. Understand our own tendencies (defensiveness/stereotyping). Assess merit of others’ positions. Change our own views if needed.
  84. 84. The Great Debate: Activity Background: Smelting and Refining Company - pollution. Task: Piece of paper with your role and background info. Meet individually and find out about each other. (Speaking only, do not show papers.) Then - group discussion, inquire / advocate (as appropriate) to find group solution to problem. Aims: Apply communication skills of inquiry vs advocacy. Apply effective problem solving skills. Think outside box for common solution.
  85. 85. The Great Debate: Reflection How did you feel as an advocate/inquirer? Did your opinion change as you received more info? Did you have any biases or assumptions? How strong was your defensive reasoning? Were you happy with the outcome?
  86. 86. Recap
  87. 87. Early theories of leadership Participa Sel te l Delegat Tel e l
  88. 88. Distributed Leadership
  89. 89. “We must become the change we want to see.” M. K. Gandhi THANK YOU for being a great audience