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Introduction to ethics first class ppt


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This slides are meant ti introduce a course on moral philosophy. All photos in it came from the net. Sources are not included though they are mainly from Google images.

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Introduction to ethics first class ppt

  2. 2. CPA CLASS Instructor: Raji Thomas INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS .
  5. 5. IT’S A GLOBAL PHENOMENON. 02/15/11
  6. 6. 02/15/11
  7. 7. KENYA FEW YEARS AGO. 02/15/11
  8. 8. You will meet ethics in your professional life. 02/15/11
  9. 9. <ul><li>The prize-winning image: A vulture watches a starving child in southern Sudan, March 1, 1993. Carter’s winning photo shows a heart-breaking scene of a starving child collapsed on the ground, struggling to get to a food center during a famine in the Sudan in 1993. In the background, a vulture stalks the emaciated child. </li></ul><ul><li>Carter was part of a group of four fearless photojournalists known as the “Bang Bang Club” who traveled throughout South Africa capturing the atrocities committed during apartheid. </li></ul><ul><li>Haunted by the horrific images from Sudan, Carter committed suicide in 1994 soon after receiving the award. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The aim of Strathmore University is to provide an all-round education for its students in an atmosphere of freedom and responsibility. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Mission statement of a university or any other institution is a promise made to society. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MISSION To provide market-driven professionals by offering high quality examinations in accountancy, management, information technology and related disciplines.
  13. 13. <ul><li>(I) Excellence and meritocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Accountability and transparency. </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Honesty and integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Competence and professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>(v) Team-work. </li></ul><ul><li>(vi) Social responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>(vii) Equal opportunities and fair play. </li></ul>We at KASNB commit ourselves to the following core values.
  14. 14. Institute of Humanities , Education and Development Studies (I.H.E.D.S) <ul><li>Strathmore offers humanities subjects in order to enable its students attain a holistic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics classes are an integral component of that all-round development. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Our aim. <ul><li>To forge personalities that are of the same caliber as the technical knowledge and skills of the person. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus providing society with good individuals and professionals who are technically and morally prepared to place their knowledge at the service of the human person and the common good of society. </li></ul>
  16. 16. QUESTIONS!
  17. 17. Course out line <ul><li>Course description: This course aims at introducing the students to various ethical concepts related to the practice of their professions and opens to them a new panorama of virtuous living. </li></ul>02/15/11
  18. 18. Course out line <ul><li>Course objectives: The course aims at creating a culture of continuous improvement and search for truth, fostering high moral standards and developing a spirit of service and respect for others based on knowledge, freedom and responsibility. </li></ul>02/15/11
  19. 19. TOPIC 1 Introduction to Ethics <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nature and object of Ethics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics as practical, theoretical and normative science. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divisions of Ethics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevance of studying Ethics. </li></ul>02/15/11
  20. 20. TOPIC 2 The Human Person <ul><li>The nature of the human person; Individual Substance of a Rational Nature; </li></ul><ul><li>The dignity of the human person; the human nature, a corporeal being, human affectivity, the spiritual soul, the intellect, the will and unity in human nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human acts. </li></ul>02/15/11
  21. 21. TOPIC 3 Human Freedom <ul><li>The nature of the human freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The truth and dynamics on the human person and his freedom. </li></ul>02/15/11
  22. 22. TOPIC 4 MORAL LAW 02/15/11 Natural law, happiness and the moral conscience.
  23. 23. TOPIC 5 Morality <ul><li>Evaluation of the morality of human acts. </li></ul><ul><li>The object, the intention, and the circumstances of human acts. </li></ul>02/15/11
  24. 24. TOPIC 6 Ethical Schools & movements <ul><li>Ethics of care, relativism, Deontological ethics , Hedonism , Utilitarianism , Proportionalism , consequentalism etc. </li></ul>02/15/11
  25. 25. Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Introduction to Aristotelian concept of virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>The cardinal virtues, prudence, temperance, fortitude and justice. Other virtues, generosity, cheerfulness, order and humility. </li></ul>02/15/11
  26. 26. TOPIC 7 Interpersonal relations <ul><li>Personal and interpersonal fulfillment, the person in society, the humanizing role of sexuality. </li></ul>02/15/11
  27. 27. TOPIC 8 Dating and courtship and marriage <ul><li>Definition of terms, purpose of dating and courtship, challenges of faced premarital sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of the term marriage, purpose of marriage, challenges faced; choice of partner, infidelity, divorce, contraception and infertility. </li></ul>02/15/11
  28. 28. TOPIC 9 The family <ul><li>Definition of the family, love and education in the family, society etc. </li></ul>02/15/11
  29. 29. LAST TOPICS.. Contemporary social issues <ul><li>Analysis of various issues and feedback for the course. </li></ul>02/15/11
  30. 30. 02/15/11 <ul><ul><li>SOME ETHICAL TOPICS THAT AFFECTS PEOPPLE. </li></ul></ul>Abortion Rights Gambling Population Domestic Violence Media Violence Adoption Gangs Pornography Driving Under the Influence Medical Ethics Affirmative Action Genetic Engineering Poverty Drug Legalization Mental Health Alcohol Global Warming Prayer In Public Schools Eating Disorders Middle East Animal Experimentation Gun Control Prisons Endangered Species Suicide Animal Rights Hate Crimes Racism Environment Teenage Pregnancy Bioethics Health Care Rape Euthanasia Terrorism Biological Weapons Homelessness School Violence Family Relations Welfare Capital Punishment Homosexuality Sex Education National Security Women’s Rights Censorship Human Rights Sexual Harassment Nuclear Weapons Women In The Military Child Abuse Immigration Smoking Nutrition Workplace Violence Cloning Internet Privacy Stem Cells Political Corruption MISSING CLASSES Crime Victims Juvenile Offenders Steroids CHEATING IN EXAMS MAKING NOISE INCLASS
  32. 32. Class participation. 02/15/11
  33. 33. INSTRUCTOR’s INFORMATION <ul><li>Raji Thomas </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Office: SOA STAFF ROOM B. Consultation hours: Weekdays between 2:00pm to 5:00pm </li></ul>
  34. 34. 02/15/11
  35. 35. QUESTIONS!
  36. 36. First class work… <ul><li>What is ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we define ethics? </li></ul>02/15/11
  37. 37. Defining Ethics <ul><li>Think and write your own definition of Ethics in your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Share / compare your definition with the people seated close to you </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite your definition of Ethics in your notes with any new ideas you may have gained by sharing your knowledge </li></ul>
  38. 38. What is ethics? <ul><li>Ethics is the branch of philosophy that studies free human acts from the point of view of their moral value (their goodness or badness) in relations to mans ultimate end. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is also termed as moral philosophy it involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ethics <ul><li>It is the systematic study of human actions from the point of view of their rightness or wrongness as a means for the achievement of man’s ultimate happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is the study of human acts from a moral perspective. </li></ul>
  40. 40. General definitions of Ethics <ul><li>“ Ethics is the area of Philosophy which studies the moral life of man; that is, his human life as a person, considered from the point of view of its goodness or badness” (Debeljuh, p. 25) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ethics may be defined as the science of the moral rectitude of human acts in accordance with the first principles of natural reason “ (Mimbi, p. 25) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Final definition for today. <ul><li>The study of the moral goodness or badness of specific, free human actions, from the perspective of the First Moral Principles! </li></ul>
  42. 42. QUESTIONS!
  44. 44. OBJECT! WHAT IS THAT? <ul><li>Material Object in any science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the WHAT you study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The matter / thing / direct object you actually study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Object of Medicine / Finance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Object of any science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the ANGLE / PERSPECTIVE from which you study the material object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Object of Medicine / Finance? </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. What is the object of study in ethics? <ul><li>The material object is the free human acts which influence and form the way of being a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The formal object of ethics is the moral value of the acts (their level of goodness or badness). </li></ul>
  46. 46. QUESTIONS!
  47. 47. Objectives of ethics. <ul><li>To help the individual to understand basic principles of ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>To help the individual gain some practical knowledge about self and about different ethical issues. </li></ul>
  48. 48. To obtain true and systematic knowledge of upright and authentic human behavior based on universal principles. To establish a series of norms and criteria for judging human acts. The aims of ethics
  49. 49. Continued.. To study the basic truths about the human nature in order to discover the deepest and most common truths about the human person Establishes guiding principles that facilitate life in a community
  50. 50. Continued.. comes up with practices and customs that fosters good habits in a personal conduct (virtues) Builds personal character by learning how to acquire good habits that can perfect us as persons and how to avoid bad habits that perverts us.
  51. 51. QUESTIONS!
  52. 52. WHAT IS MORALITY? <ul><li>Write your own definition of morality in your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Share it with a few people around you and discuss the concept briefly </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite your definition of morality with any new insights you may have gained from your sharing with others </li></ul>
  53. 53. To understand “morality”... <ul><li>We need to know that there are different types of goodness in our real world </li></ul><ul><li>Natural goodness : the goodness that an act or that any real thing possesses by the very fact that it exists! </li></ul><ul><li>Technical goodness : the effectiveness or goodness of the technique and skill used in carrying out the act </li></ul><ul><li>Moral goodness : goodness of the act based on the fact that it leads the person closer to their true, objective, real, final goal </li></ul>
  54. 54. Morality… <ul><li>Morality is goodness or badness of human acts. </li></ul>02/15/11
  56. 56. The nature of ethics. <ul><li>Ethics is considered to be a theoretical (speculative), normative and practical science… </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics can also be divided into three areas; Meta ethics, Normative ethics or Applied ethics. </li></ul>
  57. 57. A theoretical science. <ul><li>Because it tries to understand the nature of value judgments and norms of behavior in order to determine the truth about what is really good or really evil for the human person. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Nature of ethics. <ul><li>Descriptive ethics: What do people think is right? ( this is relativistic ) </li></ul><ul><li>Normative (prescriptive) ethics: How should people act? </li></ul><ul><li>Applied ethics: How do we take moral knowledge and put it into practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-ethics: What does 'right' even mean? </li></ul>02/15/11
  59. 59. A normative science <ul><li>Because it establishes norms or rules of conduct to help people choose what is really good for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of value judgments and norms of behavior wit an aim of guiding the freedom of each human being. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Theories in normative ethics. <ul><li>Virtue theories, Plato, Aristotle… </li></ul><ul><li>Duty theories (Deontological theories) Deon is a Greek word for duty.(Kant, W. D Ross) </li></ul><ul><li>The rights theories (John Locke) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequationalist normative theories </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul>
  61. 61. EXAMPLE OF NORMATIVE PRINCIPLES IN APPLIED ETHICS <ul><li>PERSONAL BENEFIT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL BENEFIT </li></ul><ul><li>PRICIPLE OF BENEVOLENCE </li></ul><ul><li>PRICIPLE OF PETERNALISM </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE OF HARM </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE OF HONEST </li></ul><ul><li>PRICIPLE OF LAWFULLNESS </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE OF OUTONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>PRICIPLE OF JUSTICE </li></ul><ul><li>PRICIPLE OF RIGHT. </li></ul>
  62. 62. A practical science <ul><li>Because it provides a reference point </li></ul><ul><li>for making /taking decisions that one </li></ul><ul><li>can put into practice. It helps one to </li></ul><ul><li>know how to act well. </li></ul>
  63. 63. APPLIED ETHICS <ul><li>Medical ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Business ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Political ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Legal ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting ethics </li></ul><ul><li>and so on. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Political Ethics.
  65. 65. Environmental ethics . GO GREEN!
  66. 66. Meta ethics. <ul><li>Ethics finds its foundations in meta ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Meta ethics deals with very important topics such as the basic truths about God, Creation, the spiritual nature of man and his freedom among other topics. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Other ways of looking at ethics <ul><li>Ethics can be divided into two; </li></ul><ul><li>General ethics- basic principles regarding the morality of human acts. Example, the last end of man, the moral law, conscience, sin, and virtues </li></ul><ul><li>Social ethics- it applies the previous mentioned principles of the life of man as a member of society. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Scholars we are going to refer to: <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Plato </li></ul>
  69. 69. Recommended books <ul><li>Patricia Debeljuh 2006., Ethics. Learning to live . Translated by Cathrine Dean. Focus publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mimbi, P., The Sources of Effective Leadership, pp. 25-34; pp. 41-43; pp. 53-54. </li></ul><ul><li>Burke, Cormac, Man and values . It can be found at </li></ul>
  70. 70. The end QUESTIONS!
  71. 71. <ul><li>I kept six honest serving men. </li></ul><ul><li>They taught me all I knew. </li></ul><ul><li>Six Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Their names are What and Why and When </li></ul><ul><li>and How and Where and Who. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudyard Kipling </li></ul>02/15/11