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Strategic management


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Strategic management

  1. 1. Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB 1
  2. 2. Introducing YourWorkshop Facilitator2*Image via BingTrainer & CoachHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  3. 3. 3Pensyarah/ Pembimbing (coach)Muhamad Bustaman Bin Haji Abdul ManafInstitut Aminuddin Baki, KPM0199890524/mbamiabkpm@gmail.comHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  4. 4. BIODATA PENCERAMAHMUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN HAJI ABDUL MANAFJawatan Hakiki: Pensyarah Cemerlang DG54Specialist Trainer & Specialist CoachInstutut Aminuddin Baki, KPM1. Pengalaman memberi kursus Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti di Institut Aminuddin Bakisemenjak 1995. (pensyarah paling lama di IAB)2. Menulis buku: 1. Perancangan Strategik (IAB). 2. Pengurusan Kualiti dalam pendidikan (Utusan Pub)3. Buku ketiga: Pengurusan Strategik untuk sekolah -di terbit oleh PTS.3. Pernah mengikuti Latihan Profesionalisme dalam bidang Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan KualitiLatihan Luar Negara (selain dalam negara):• i. Strategic Management & Leadership: World Trade Institute, New York, USA (1996)• ii. TQM in Education: SEAMEO Innotech, Manila. Philippine (1998)• iii. Strategic planning in education: Uni of York, England (2000- 2004) (bidang tesis Phd)• iv. Strategy Performance Measurement (BSC): Uni of Adelaide, Australia (2005)4. Berkelayakan sebagai Juruaudit (Lead Auditor) MS ISO 9000 sejak 1998.5. SUMBANGAN: Memberi khidmat konsultasi dalam Pengurusan Strategik dan KPI untuk semua peringkatBahagian dalam Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Ahli Panel Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti Star Rating (SSR)KPM, Pembentang pernyataan baru MISI, VISI dan Matlamat KPM (2004)6. Kepakaran lain:Kursus Pemikiran Strategik, Kepemimpinan Strategik, Pengurusan Organisasi, Sistem PengurusanPrestasi Strategik (SPPS), Pembinaan KPI dan BSC, TQM, Benchmarking, Quality Tools, dan ‘LeadershipCoaching and Mentoring”4Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  5. 5. • Every company is concerned withstrategy– It determines which organizations succeedand which ones struggle– Strategic blunders can hurt a company• Strategic management is a specific typeof planningStrategy5Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. • Explicit strategy is the plan of action• Competitive advantage is the organization‟sdistinctive edge for meeting customer needsStrategies should: Exploit Core Competencies Build Synergy Deliver ValuePurpose of Strategy6Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. • The long-term view of the organization andcompetition• Thinking strategically impacts performanceand financial success• Today‟s environment requires everyone tothink strategicallyThinking Strategically7Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Decisions and actions used to formulate andexecute strategies that will providecompetitively superior fit between theorganization and its environment toachieve organizational goalsStrategic Management8Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 8.1 Levels of Strategy9Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
  10. 10. What is Strategic Management?• Strategic management is the comprehensivecollection of ongoing activities and processesthat organizations use to systematicallycoordinate and align resources and actions withmission, vision and strategy throughout anorganization.Strategic management activities transform thestatic plan into a system that provides strategicperformance feedback to decision making andenables the plan to evolve and grow asrequirements and other circumstances change.(BSC Institute, 2012)10Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  11. 11. 8.2 The Strategic ManagementProcess11Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
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  14. 14. Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB 14Source: Palladium Group
  15. 15. What Are the Steps in Strategic Planning& Management?• There are many different frameworks andmethodologies for strategic planning andmanagement. While there is no absolute rulesregarding the right framework, most follow a similarpattern and have common attributes. Manyframeworks cycle through some variation on somevery basic phases:• 1) analysis or assessment, where anunderstanding of the current internal and externalenvironments is developed,15Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  16. 16. What Are the Steps in Strategic Planning& Management?• 2) strategy formulation, where high level strategy isdeveloped and a basic organization level strategicplan is documented .• 3) strategy execution, where the high level plan istranslated into more operational planning andaction items, and• 4) evaluation or sustainment / managementphase, where ongoing refinement and evaluation ofperformance, culture, communications, datareporting, and other strategic management issuesoccurs 16Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  17. 17. 17Mission&VisionHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  18. 18. Characteristics of Good StrategicPlans18Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  21. 21. Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB 21
  22. 22. The 5 Cs of Strategy ExecutionCausalityCriticalityCompatibilityContinuityClarity22Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  23. 23. • Integrating the future into yourdecision making processes todayby thinking big, deep and long.Strategic Thinking23 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  24. 24. • Big (very broad) –do we understandhow we connectand interact withother organisationsand the externalenvironment?24 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  25. 25. Thinking Big:Thinking in Systems25 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  26. 26. • Deep – how deeply arewe questioning ourways of operating?• Do we operate from ourinterpretation of thepast, or our anticipationof the future?• Are our assumptionstoday valid into thefuture?26 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  27. 27. • Long – how farinto the future arewe looking? Dowe understandthe shape ofalternative futuresfor ourorganisation?27 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  28. 28. • Strategic thinking is identifying, imaginingand understanding possible and plausiblefuture operating environments for yourorganisation…28 Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  29. 29. AnalisisPersekitaran‘Where are we now’?29Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  30. 30. hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 30Environmental Scanning
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  33. 33. • Formulating strategy often begins with anaudit of internal and external factors– Internal Strengths and Weaknesses– External Opportunities and Threats• Information is acquired fromreports, surveys, discussions, and meetingsSWOT Analysis33Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. SWOT ANALYSIS34Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  35. 35. 8.3 SWOT: Audit Checklist35Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
  36. 36. Strategic Business Units (SBUs)have a unique mission, products, andcompetitorsCompanies manage the mix of SBUsfor synergy and competitiveadvantageOrganizations should not become toodependent on one businessFormulating Corporate-Level Strategy:Portfolio Strategy36Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. • Organizes business along twodimensions– Business growth rate– Market share• Four categories for corporateportfolio– The combination of high/low market shareand high/low business growthFormulating Corporate-Level Strategy:The BCG Matrix37Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. 8.4 The BCG Matrix38Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
  39. 39. 39mbam@IAB.MOE 07 39Govt’ Mandate &MissionVisionGoals/KRAObjectivesMeasuresTargetsActions/InitiativesWhy we existWhat we want to beWhat we must achieve to be successfulIndicators andMonitors of successDesired level ofperformance and timelinesPlanned Actions toAchieve ObjectivesO1 O2AI1 AI2 AI3M1M2M3T1T1 T1Specific outcomes expressed inmeasurable terms (NOT activities)Strategic PlanningAction PlanningImplementation /MeasuresKRA or Strategic GoalsKRA or Goals serve as the starting point for developing Objectives,Initiatives, and KPIs down through the organizationHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  41. 41. WHAT AREKRA AND KPA AND KPI• Key Result Areas“Key Result Areas” or KRAs referto general areas of outcomes oroutputs for which thedepartments role is responsible.hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 41
  42. 42. Value of KRAs• Identifying KRAs helps individuals: ·Clarify their roles · Align their roles to theorganisation‟s business or strategic plan ·Focus on results rather than activities ·Communicate their role‟s purposes toothers · Set goals and objectives ·Prioritize their activities, and thereforeimprove their time/work management ·Make value-added decisionshakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 42
  43. 43. Description of KRAs• Key result areas (KRAs) capture about80% of the departments work role. Theremainder of the role is usually devoted toareas of shared responsibility(e.g., helping team members, participatingin activities for the good of theorganisation).hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 43
  44. 44. Example• KRA 1-RECRUITMENT/ SELECTIONKPA 1 (objectives) --RECRUITMENTKPI ----reduce average time taken to fillmarketing/sales vacancies by 15%KPI ----reduce average cost per recruitby 10%hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 44
  45. 45. example• CORPORATE OBJECTIVE / STRATEGY-to gain world market share of 51%DISTRIBUTION OBJECTIVE-Improve / Increase the distribution coverage by 20%KRA 1-DISTRIBUTIONKPA 1 --CHANNEL EXPANSION BY 2 NEWCHANNELS.KPI ----INCREASE THE CHANNEL NETWORK BY 20%hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 45
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  48. 48. Basic Scorecard Terminology(Institute Aminuddin Baki)ObjectivesObjectives:What thestrategy istrying toachieveTargetsTargets:The level ofperformanceor rate ofimprovementneededInitiatives:Key actionprogramsrequired toachievetargetsInitiativesMeasuresMeasures:How successor failure(performance)againstobjectives ismonitoredFinancialExcellent Financial ManagementStakeholders &Customer satisfiedwith IAB servicesStakeholders & CustomersatisfactionInnovation & GrowthStrategy MapQualityCore BusinessQuality &World ClassEducationalLeadersHigh CompetencyStaff and PeacefullInternal Business ProcessesMission & Vision48Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  49. 49. 49 What are SMART-A Measures?When creating a ‘balanced’ set measures for an organization, aligningmeasures where possible is also critical for your success ….TIMELYREALISTICAGREED TOMEASURABLESMARTMEASURESSPECIFICALIGNEDHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  54. 54. The individualneeds of eachstudent are metOur students enjoya positive andenjoyable learningexperience Our studentsdemonstrateexemplarybehaviourProviding quality &varied extracurricula activitiesEffective teachingmethods that instilthe joy of learningKnowledgeable, efficient, competent, nurturing& highly motivated staffwho display our corevaluesTransparency &AccountabilityFinancial viabilityFIDUCIARYLEARNINGINTERNALCUSTOMERb.1. „Align‟: Pemetaan Objektif dengan Misi & Visi sekolahOur studentsstrive towardsacademicexcellenceSafewelcoming, efficient, comfortable facilities andworking environmentOngoingmaintenance &upgrading offacilitiesAmple supply ofresources – teachingaids, technology, equipmentConsistentdisciplineProvidingopportunity forLearning religionPrinciplesResponsive curriculumthat encompasses themotto “work, play andlearn together”Our students arewell rounded &excel in all fieldsOur students enjoy asafe, welcoming, efficient, comfortable andfamily orientedenvironment54Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  56. 56. IUM 2015 Strategic Direction: Towards becoming a Research-Intensified UniversityS1.Produce well-roundedpersonalitiesandemployablegraduatesCustomerStakeholderFinancialLearning&GrowthInternalProcessResearch & Academic ExcellenceC1.Achieve status as aleading internationalacademic & researchinstitution imbuedwith Islamic valuesL1.Strengthen staffdevelopment andcompetencyF1.Achievebudgetarysufficiencyand efficiencyP1.Strengthen qualityintegratedcurriculumP8.Increase incomecontribution fromSBUs/RMC/IHSBS2.Become centre ofreference in nicheareas of researchP6.Secure biggerresearch grantP5.Have a significantpool of distinguishedscholarsP2.Intensify quality researchoutput and publicationP4.Increase academic staff whoare engaged in high impactresearchL2.Ensure quality ofresearch facilitiesthrough key complianceP3.StrengthenpostgraduatestudiesP7.Enhance quality serviceL3.Improve libraryfacilities to supportresearchL4.Enhance moralitywithin the universitycommunityIIUM Strategy Map 2007-201556Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  59. 59. 59Key Performance Indicatorsare quantifiablemeasurements, agreed tobeforehand, that reflect thecritical success factors of anorganisation and differdepending on the organisationHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  60. 60. 60Developing KPI*Image via BingHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  61. 61. 61• Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPIor Key Success Indicators (KSI), help anorganisation define and measure progresstoward organisational goals.• Once an organisation has analysed itsmission, identified all its stakeholders, anddefined its goals, it needs a way to measureprogress toward those goals. Key PerformanceIndicators are those measurementsHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  62. 62. 62Performance Measures• 1. Percentage of…• 2. Number of… (hours, times permonth, donation, activities, km etc)• 3. Frequency of ….• 4. Level of ….• 5. Total of …(score, costs, hours, ..)• 6. Average• 7. Grade• 8. Ratio of• 9. Degree ofHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  63. 63.  1.3 Identifying & Creating KPIs… That Can Present in Different FormsRankings(Benchmarks)AbsoluteNumbersRating(surveys)RatioPercentagesIndicesStrategic Information GeneratedComplexityofAnalysis63Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  64. 64. Define Targets: How Will WeKnow We Are There?64Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  65. 65. What is target?• Targets are quantified and time-based• Target: Desired level of performance *aperformance measure (e.g., % ofcustomer satisfaction target = 95%)(source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005)* Remember to set the baselines or take of values(TOV)/ a point to start measurement)65Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  66. 66. 66Why Do it?• 1. to make objectives explicit and tangible• 2. to quantify the expected value of thestrategy• 3. to motivate desired behaviors• 4. to set timing for performance-improvement expectations• 5. to calibrate strategic evaluation andlearningHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  67. 67. What To Do67Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  68. 68. 68• 1. Choose the Right AchievementTargets• Potential areas to consider when settingtargets:• 1. TOV or Baselines and trends• 2. National, state, local or EducationStandards.• 3. Benchmarking• 4. Feedback from customers andstakeholdersHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  69. 69. • 2. Understand the predictive (lead) andoutcomes Metrics• 3. Review the existing portfolio of metrics• 4. Listen the voices ofcustomer,stakeholders and others• 5. Consider Noneconomic• 6. Be careful with expensivebenchmarking69Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  71. 71. 71CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVEKRA: …StrategicObjectiveStrategic Measures (2011, 2012,2013) Strategic Initiatives2011StrategicInitiativesAccountabilityKPI Target KPI OwnerC1. C1.1 Tov::2011:2012:2013:C1.2 BL: NEWST:LTHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  72. 72. Misi Sekolah:…Visi Sekolah:…..Isu Strategik: Peningkatan prestasi belum mencapai tahap yang diinginkan.KRA/Matlamat Strategik: Peningkatan Prestasi AkademikObjektif Petunjuk(KPI)Tov(base)2012 2013 2014 Inisiatif / Strategi AkauntibilitiPeningkatkanprestasiUPSRGPS%Lulus% 5As2.09310%.11.894.512%1.797.016%1.5010020%1. meningkakanKapibiliti gurudalam P&P2. meningkakanKemahiran Belajarpelajar3. Meningkatkansokongan komunitiGPK 1(p)GPKHEMGPK koku72Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  73. 73. hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 73What is OrganisationalStrategy?– “A strategy is defined as a pattern, ofpurposes, policies, programmes, actions, decisions, or resource allocations that definewhat a school is, what it does, and why itdoes it. Strategies can vary by levelfunction, and by time frame.”(Bryson, 1995, p.32)
  74. 74. hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 74Apakah itu Strategi?• Strategi adalah merujuk kepada tindakan khususatau pendekatan yang diambil oleh sesuatuorganisasi untuk mencapai matlamat danobjektif.• Ia bersifat „action-oriented‟ dan berhubunganterus dengan pengukuran output.• Strategi menjelaskan bagaimanakah cara untukmencapai matlamat dan objektif berbandingdengan objektif merujuk kepada apakah yangmahu dicapai oleh sesebuah organisasi itu
  75. 75. hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 75• A strategy is an approach, or an implementationmethodology, that will lead to the achievement ofan objective.• Strategies sets the basis for the development ofaction plans that follow, in which case thewhen, how, and by whom the organization willachieve each objective is described.
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  78. 78. Tools for PuttingStrategy into Action78Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
  79. 79. 79*Image via BingHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  80. 80. 80Source: Palladium GroupHak Cipta MBustamanIAB
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  82. 82. Obctacles in implmentationof strategy• Make people accountable for strategic tasks• The most frequently barrier to implementing a plan is accountability.. The bestpractice is:• Use SMART goals or objectives with clear deadlines• Be clear about responsibility and objectives (confirm and clarify), and link theobjectives to all involved• Delegate, have one person responsible for each key task• Build in incentives, recognition and give recognition- the most powerfulmotivator• Teach delegation in the organization• Give ownership to the team• Review at milestones• Be sure the boss acknowledges the assignment eye ball to eye ball• Give them the resources• No micro-managing, just coaching and feedback• Be sure the audience is the right audience - are they folks who want to beaccountable82Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  83. 83. Overcome day to day pressures? How?Overcome the barrier by individual accountablity for strategic tasks.• Review workload and delegate;• Develop “action plans” assigning responsibility and deadlines. Make individualsaccountable.• Refocus decision makers away from fires, usually at off-site thinking meetings• Dedicated staff for strategic planning• Make the strategic work part of the employees goals and provide incentives toachieve those goals• Track progress• Work on priorities and delay non-essentials, understand the source of the “fires”• Carve out time away from distractions (no phone, emails … for a day)• Take a day off• Get a new job/ transfer?• Get a Samsung Galaxy S or throw away your Samsung GS (there were mixedfeelings)83Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  84. 84. Make a strategic plan more flexible. How?No strategic plan plays out exactly to script. More frequent progressreviews increased accountability and keep the plan flexible. We canovercame this barrier by:• Frequently review progress and how the environment is changing• Keep the strategic plan at a high level, with flexibility for implementation ofthe details and some reserve funds• Increase you contact with vendors and customers as the plan rolls out• Track the details of cross-functional work, not within departments. Let thedepartment heads manage their teams• Make sure you have the right people involved -those with something in itfor them• Part of the plan includes several what if contingencies• Set the review cycle to give time for actions to take effect but not too longmiss a market opportunity• Give the key players the right to reconvene the team if they seesomething that must be addressed84Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  85. 85. How to overcome fear, resistance to changeUncertainty is one cause of fear and people resist strategic change. Asthe strategic planning team formulates its strategy, factor in how toovercome this barrier. Top down support is critical and a compellingvision is necessary.• Point out the results if there is no change; presenthard data to support the need for change, talk fact(dollars and cents)• Create a learning environment, make it part of theculture• Understand and communicate, communicate: thewhy, the benefits of the change, what is in it for me(WIIFM)• Delegate ownership of the change process85Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  86. 86. • Make sure you have the right people involved• Rewards and recognition - tied to the purpose of theorganization• Uncover and address key concerns in advance• Involve those affected by the change and value their inputs• Lead by example• Use external resources with reputation; bring in new peoplefor new ideas/questions• Decrease, mitigate the risk of change, i.e. do not shoot therisk taker, some failure is expected• Focus senior management training on change methods• Bring in outside experts• The bar length indicates the most likely method for success.86Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  87. 87. Step 9: The step nine is monitoring andcontrolling the implementation of plan• (a) control the process• (b) arrange an internal audit, to determine howclosely the performance matches the plan,• (c) arrange a management review meeting,• (d) take corrective action where needed, align theplan and undertake a continuous improvementprocess.• (e) arrange an audit of external environmentaldevelopment,• (f) maintain as quality records the results of processcontrol measures, to provide evidence of effectiveoperation and monitoring of the process. 87Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  88. 88. MISI VISIBORANG PENGUKURAN PRESTASI DAN MAKLUM BALASObjektif KPI Tov Sasaran Prestasi Sebenar UlasanMATLAMAT:88Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  89. 89. PENGUKURAN DAN PENILAIANKAEDAH BALANCE SCORECARDPERSPEKTIF Pencapaian Sebenar TargetMatlamatStrategik Objektif KPIUnitPengukuran2006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102006-2010M1 M1-O1M1-O2M1-O3M2 M2-O1M2-O2M2-O3M2-O489Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  90. 90. Six Silent Killers of Strategy90Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning.
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  92. 92. Format for a Strategic PlanningDocumentTable of Contents:• Introduction by the school Principal or Director (Head of Department)• Mission, Vision and Values Statement• Organization History and Profile• Strategic Issues and Strategic Goals or Key Results Area (KRA)• Objectives, KPI & long term targets (3-5 Years)• Strategy or initiative that link to each objectives together with a tableof action plan• Appendices (If Included)• a. Environmental Assessment (example: SWOT)• b. Summary of Client Surveys• c. Membership of Board and Planning Committee• d. Long-Range Budget Projections• e. Strategy selection analysis92Hak Cipta MBustamanIAB
  93. 93. 93SEKIAN,TERIMA KASIHHak Cipta MBustamanIAB