Being major player in national economy livestock
sector has been selected as an economy engine
for poverty alleviation from Pakistan
Its contribution to agriculture value added is
approximately 55.4 % and to national GDP is 11.9
%. Livestock is raised by more than 8.5 million
small and landless families in the rural areas and
35-40 million rural populations are dependent on
In Pakistan livestock includes cattle, buffalo,
sheep, goat, camels, horses, asses and mules.
Milk, meat, wool, hair, bones, fat, blood eggs,
hides and skins are the main livestock products
among which milk and meat are taken as major
Livestock has recorded a growth rate of 3.7
percent against the growth of 3.9 percent last
year. The milk production of milk , poultry
products and other livestock item has increased
at rate of 3.2%, 7.3%, 1.1%
The total population increase in livestock sector
during economic year 2012-13 is listed below.
Cattle population increased by 3.79% in year
2012-13. Buffalo, sheep and goat population
replicated by 3.06%, 1.41% and 2.85%
respectively. There is 0% increase in mule
Species Year 2011-12 Year 2012-13 Percentage Increase
Cattle 36.9 38.3 3.79%
Buffalo 32.7 33.7 3.06%
Sheep 28.4 28.8 1.41%
Goat 63.1 64.9 2.85%
Camels 1 1 0.00%
Horses 0.4 0.4 0.00%
Asses 4.8 4.9 2.08%
Mules 0.2 0.2 0.00%
Pakistan ranked 18th in the production of Halal
The production of other livestock products for the
meat increase 4.5% during 2012-13
Meat per capita 21.0 kg
Poultry sector is one of the fast growing sectors
of Pakistan and 1.5 million people are directly or
indirectly earning from this sector. Its contribution
in National GDP is 1.2 percent and 10.4 percent
Poultry meat contribute 26.7% to the total meat
production in Pakistan. Poultry sector has shown
a sprint growth at the rate of 7-8 percent annually.
The overall increase in poultry meat production
during the last financial year is 8.75% which is
much higher than the mutton and beef production
In Pakistan, modern milk processing in the dairy
sector started in early 1960s, and by mid-1970s
23 milk pasteurization and sterilization plants
were set up
All of them are closed due to low consumer
acceptance, the short shelf-life of the product and
lack of trained manpower.
The first UHT plant was set up in Pakistan in
The success of this plant attracted many other
investors also and during 1983-87, 20 new plants
were set up.
In the current situation, UHT capacity in the dairy
industry is more than the demand for the product
“Pakistan is the fourth largest producer of milk in
the world behind India, China and the United
States. The sector spans eight million farming
households that together produces around 36.2
million tons of milk annually,”
Mammalian livestock can be used as a source
of milk, which can in turn easily be processed into
other dairy products
Milk provides relatively quick returns for small-
scale livestock keepers
It is a balanced nutritious food and is a key
element in household food security.
More than 96% of the milk produced in Pakistan
comes from cattle and buffalo.
Milk is favorite food in Pakistan and is consumed
as fresh, boiled, powdered and in processed form
as yogurt, ghee, lassi, butter, cheese, ice cream,
sweets and in other confectioneries
The rest of it is collectively produced by sheep,
goat and camel which, most of the time, is not
sold as such, rather mixed with buffalo and cow
Major product of livestock is milk and there is 3.26
percent increase in the milk production during the
last two years that is quite satisfactory as the milk
consumption increased by 3.24% during the last
fiscal financial year.
Pakistan Milk per capita 170.0 liter
Species 2011-12 2012-13
Increase in Consumption
Milk (Human Consumption) 38,690 39,945 3.24%
Cow 13,393 13,897 3.76%
Buffalo 23,652 24,370 3.04%
Sheep 37 37 0.00%
Goat 779 801 2.82%
Camel 829 840 1.33%
The nine major dairies of the country include:
Engro Foods Ltd
Milking Seasons in Pakistan
In Pakistan there are mostly three season of milk
which are as under :
Flush Season: (1st Jan to 15th April): During this
season there is maximum production of milk in
Lean Season (16th April to 30th July) : Minimum
production of milk in the country due to high
environmental temperature, less green fodder
availability and natural reproduction cycle of
Semi-flush season (1st Aug to 31st Dec):In this
season about 70-80 % milk production in the
Housing of animal is the most important factor in
dairy farming. A good housing leads to good
management practices and ultimately optimum
production. Different types of housing of dairy
Loose Housing system
Free stall is the recommended system of housing
for successful dairy farming. Here cows are kept
free except at the time of milking. Resting area is
divided into stalls or cubicles. Cows are not
restrained in the resting area (free stall / cubicle)
and are free to enter, lie down, rise up, and leave
the stall whenever they desire.
In tie stall most of the system components are
contained in the same structure. This type of
housing is not preferred in modern dairy farming.
In this type of housing system there are two or
more rows of tie stalls with a manure gutter, feed
manger and service alley for each row:
In loose housing system animals are not tied and
there is no provision of stalls. Here animals are
free to move in an open area. In this system there
is a sloped roof with feeding table in the centre
serving two sides at a time. On both sides there is
a concrete feed alley of about 2 meters. There is
a water trough for 24 hours availability of water.
Each animal should have 50-75 feet2 shaded
area and 90-120 feet2 open area.
Till weaning or until calves attain a body weight of
about 90 kg, they should preferably be kept in
individual pens. These pens may also be
Basically there are two methods of milking:
CATTLE AREA MILK
Sahiwal cattle Punjab 1500-2200
Red-Sindhi Thatta and dadu
Cholistani Rahim yar district 1200-1800
Achai-cow North-western(KPK) 1000-1200
Exotic-breed Holland 7200-9000
Crossbred animals are the combination of two or
more breeds. In the process of cross breeding
characteristics of two or more good breeds are
This is an exotic breed and originated from Fries
Land in Holland.
Range of average daily milk production may be 22-
This breed is originated from Jersey islands close
to England. This breed is well known around the
world for tits high fat and yellow milk. Its milk is
liked in the world for its great cheese making
Daily milk production 18-22 liters.
Goat & Sheep Farming
Sheep and goat farming in Pakistan is very
common and popular. Many people of Pakistan
prefer the goat and sheep farming business.
Goats are known as „poor man‟s cow‟
About 90% of total goat population of the world
can be found in the developing countries
Sheep farming is among the traditional business
and occupations of the people of some countries
around the world.
Sheep farming means „rearing sheep
commercially for the purpose of meat, milk and
Goats and Sheep are comparatively cheaper to
buy and sell than cattle.
Easy to maintain than any other livestock.
You can easily manage goats and sheep with
other livestock animals and crop production.
Raising goats and sheep is very easy and simple.
Even children and women can easily raise and
take good care of them
Goat farming in Pakistan costs less than
establishing any other livestock animal farming
Require comparatively less labor and
High quality and healthy goat breed plays an
important role in their overall production.
Beetal, Barpari, Pak Angora, Dera Din Panah,
Chapper, Bilkaneri, Kamori, Ieddy, Kaghani,
Nachi, Khurasani, Tappray, Pateri, Kapla Gulabi
Are very suitable for farming according to the
climate of Pakistan.
All goats produce skin. But Beetal, Dera Din
Panah and Nachi produce high quality skin.
The farmers should not only select good quality
breed which can bring better results for fattening
but also select most suitable animals from the
Through better management, the weight gain of
these selected breeds would be higher. The most
suitable breeds for fattening include “Baluchi”,
“Harnai” and “Bibrik” sheep.
Baluchi sheep is a large sized fat tailed breed,
found in Central, Southern and some South-
western parts of the Balochistan.
It is used for meat and milk. Body weight of adult
varies between 35 and 40 Kg, milk yield is
between 40-50 kg
It is a fat and short tailed, mutton type sheep that
is found in parts of.
Loralai Kohlu, Bugti, Barkhan, Musakhel and Sibi
districts in Balochistan province. It is a medium
size breed. Body colour is white with black or
brown head. The wool yield is about 1.7 kg.
Average adult live-weight is 27 kg.
Harnai is a fat tail, mutton / wool type breed. It is
found in parts of Loralai, Quetta, Sibi and Zhob
districts in Balochistan.
The wool yield is 2.6 kg .Its wool is dense and
heavy. Average adult body weight is around 30-32
kg. The breed also produces excellent quality
Livestock product total exports are $457 million.
Livestock product exports are meat, live animal, raw
wool, rugs, leather products, hides, skins and footwear.
Major export markets are Germany, Japan, UK, Hong
Kong, & OIC countries.
About 40% of powdered milk is imported from Ireland
and 40% form Holland and Sweden and rest of
Total milk and milk food imports are $ 112.4 million in
2012-13. They were $134.4 million in 2011-12
How is Synthetic Milk
The synthetic milk technology was invented by
milkmen of Kurukshetra (Haryana) about 15
Synthetic milk is prepared by mixing urea, caustic
soda, refined oil (cheap cooking oil) and common
The cost of preparing synthetic milk is less than
Rs. 5 per liter
Urea and caustic soda are very harmful to heart,
lever and kidneys.
How is Synthetic Milk
Urea is an additional burden for kidneys as they
have to do more work to remove urea from the
Caustic soda which contains sodium acts as slow
poison for those suffering from hypertension and
Poor availability of nutrients
Animal health issues
Issues related to marketing
Lack of value addition facilities
Issue of peri-urban dairy colonies
Potential threats to livestock breeds
Insufficient extension services
Low productivity of dairy animals
Poor performance of livestock services
Lack of policy
Poor development of milk processing indstry
Environmental issues due to increasing
Favorable breeding backgrounds.
Relatively cheap farmland.
High domestic consumption
Good milk quality.
Major source of food, i.e. Milk& Meat
Ample human resource employment sector.
Low cost living standard.
Full family involvement, Devoted & Hardworking
High production costs.
Low levels of bulk feed production.
Poor management level in quite a few cases.
Lack of education and initiative in farmer.
Unorganized sector, unaware of basic farm
No or low application of research work and
pedigree record keeping.
Govt. of Pakistan & Sate Bank of Pakistan priority
Dairy products needs are much higher than
Commercially viable sector with great credit
potential and absorption capacity.
Vast range of area of operation, more needs and
scope of development.
Value added dairy products are in demand.
Cooperatives can play a big role for development
in dairy sector like India.
High risks of diseases in livestock.
Imbalance between prices of inputs & outputs.
Rising trend of cost of production with higher rate
of interest as compared to profit ratio.
Increasing level of poverty.
Allowing import of high yielding animals
Semen and embryos for crossbreeding
Extension improvement and modernization of
facilities to diagnose and treat livestock diseases
Expanding animal health service
Duty free import of veterinary dairy and livestock
Allowing import of feed inputs and vaccines at