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International Conflict

Give more detail about what happen in international conflict previously.

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International Conflict

  1. 1. International Conflict
  2. 2. The Wars of the World • Largest contemporary wars – Iraq – Western Sudan (Darfur) – Afghanistan • Of the 13 wars, all are in the global South. • All but Colombia and the Philippines are in a zone of active fighting spanning parts of Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. • In five smaller zones, dozens of wars of recent decades have ended. • Most peace agreements in the world’s postwar zones are holding up. 2
  3. 3. Figure 5.1 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2010 3
  4. 4. Types of War • Hegemonic war – War over control of the entire world order – the rules of the international system as a whole, including the role of world hegemony. – Last hegemonic war was World War II – Likely that due to the power of modern weaponry, this kind of war could not occur any longer without destroying civilization 4
  5. 5. Types of War • Total war – Warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another – Goal is to reach the capital city and force the surrender of the government, which can then be replaced with one of the victor’s choosing – Napoleonic Wars – Evolved with industrialization, which further integrated all of society and economy into the practice of war – Last total war: World War II 5
  6. 6. Types of War • Limited war – Includes military actions carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy. – War to retake Kuwait from Iraq (1991) – Raids • Limited wars that consist of a single action • Raiding that is repeated or fuels a cycle of retaliation usually becomes a limited war that is sometimes called a low- intensity conflict. 6
  7. 7. Types of War • Civil war – Refers to war between factions within a state trying to create or prevent a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it. – U.S. Civil War of the 1960s - secessionist civil war – El Salvador in the 1980s - civil war for control over the entire state – May often be among the most brutal wars 7
  8. 8. Types of War • Guerrilla war – Includes certain types of civil wars; is warfare without front lines – Irregular forces operate in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations. – Purpose is not to confront an enemy army but rather to harass and punish it so as to gradually limit its operation and effectively liberate territory from its control. 8
  9. 9. Conflicts of Ideas • Six types of international conflict: – Ethnic – Religious – Ideological – Territorial – Governmental – Economic • Most difficult types of conflict have intangible elements such as ethnic hatred, religious feeling, or ideology – all conflicts of ideas • These identity-based sources of international conflict today have been shaped historically by nationalism – link between identity and internationally recognized statehood Ideas interests 9
  10. 10. Nationalism • Devotion to the interests of one’s own nation over others – May be the most important force in world politics in the past two centuries – Nationality is a difficult concept to define precisely. • Historical development of “nationalism” – Principle of self-determination 10
  11. 11. Ethnic Conflict • Quite possibly the most important source of conflict in the numerous wars now occurring throughout the world. • Ethnic groups – Large groups of people who share ancestral, language, cultural, or religious ties and a common identity – Often form the basis for nationalist sentiments • Territorial control – Pressures to redraw borders by force – Outside states concerned about the fate of “their people” living as minorities in other state • Ex.: Albanians in Kosovo, Armenia and Azerbaijan, India and Pakistan 11
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  13. 13. Control of Governments • Most struggles to control territory do not involve changing borders. • They are conflicts over which governments will control entire states. • In theory, the norm of sovereignty keeps states from interfering in each other’s governance. • Not so in practice. – Cold War • Occasionally, one state invades another in order to changes its government. – Soviet Union --> Czechoslovakia – U.S. --> Iraq • International conflicts over the control of governance usually lead to violence. 13
  14. 14. Religious Conflict • Because religion is the core of a community’s value system in much of the world, people whose religious practices differ are easily disregard and treated as unworthy or even inhuman. – Fundamentalist movements – Secular political organizations • Islamist movements • Islamist groups – Turkey – Nationalist movements expressed through religious channels 14
  15. 15. Ideological Conflict • Ideology symbolizes and intensifies conflicts between groups and states more than it causes them. – Because they have a somewhat weaker hold on core values and absolute truth than religions do, they pose somewhat fewer problems for the international system. – China Maoist communism in 1949; Russia’s Leninist communism in 1917, U.S. democracy in 1776 • All eventually went on to pursue national interests rather than ideological ones – Angola • Ideologies can mobilize national populations 15
  16. 16. Conflicts of Interest • Territorial disputes – Means of controlling territory – primarily military – Secession – province or region leaving an existing state • Ethnic cleansing - driving out or massacre of designated ethnic population – Interstate borders • Role of the norm of territorial integrity – Remaining disputes – Israeli borders; Kashmir; Spratly Islands; Okinotori; Falkland Islands; Kuril Islands – Territorial waters – part of national territory • UNCLOS • EEZs – Airspace 16
  17. 17. Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2010 17
  18. 18. Economic Conflict • Economic competition is the most lasting form of conflict in international relations because economic transactions are continuing. • Such transactions contain a strong element of mutual economic gain. – Usually do not lead to military force and war – But this was not always the case historically 18