BAQAI MEDICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF PHARM-D ASSIGNMENT OF PHYSICAL PHARMACYNAME: MUHAMMAD SIKANDARCLASS: 1ST YEAR (PHARM-D)SESSION: 2013COURSE CODE: PD-309ROLL NO: 07TEACHER NAME: MS. SHARMEENDATE: 18-02-2013
CONTENTSDEFINATION OF PHARMACYDEFINATION OF PHYSICAL PHARMACYDEFINATION OF PHARMACISTHISTORY OF PHARMACYROLE OF MUSLIM PHARMACISTSREFRENCES
PHARMACY1. The branch of the health sciences dealing with the preparation, dispensing, andproper utilization of drugs.2. A place where drugs are compounded or dispensed. PHYSICAL PHARMACYIn the past physical pharmacy was associated with the area of pharmacy thatdeals with the quantitative and theoretical principles of science as they applied tothe practice of pharmacy. But now a day’s physical pharmacy attempted tointegrate the factual knowledge of pharmacy through the development of BroetPrinciples. Pharmacist should have the knowledge about the compatibility,stability and biological reaction of drug. PHARMACISTThe health professionals who are involved in the practice of the science as well asthe art of pharmacy are called Pharmacists. HISTORY OF PHARMACYThe history of pharmacy dates back to ages. The most well known practice ofmodern pharmacy began in the Middle East. The Muslim chemists made hugeprogress in the field of chemistry as well as in botany. With this advancementgradually the development of Pharmacology began by the Muslim physicians.Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi was a Persian alchemist, physician, chemist,scholarand philosopher who made noteworthy contributions in the fields of alchemy andmedicine. He also advocated the use of chemicals and compounds as medicine.If recorded History is to be believed then the Muslims of the Middle East were thefirst Pharmacists in the world. Muslim Physicians developed the art ofPharmacology with the help of botany and Chemistry. Interesting experimentswere conducted in those days with rare plants and their extracts to invent the
most amazing life saving medicines.Consolidating the efforts of inventing medicines however, has been a recentevent. With market economy ruling the world, medicine production anddistributions gradually developed into an altogether different field. Today aPharmaceutical company is a commercial hub whose main action revolves aroundresearch development, and distribution of drugs and other health care products.The History of Pharmaceutical Company dates back to the earlier part of the 19the Century. During the early years Switzerland, Germany and Italy wereconsidered to be the hub of most of the Pharmaceutical companies in the world.The invention of life saving drugs like Penicillin and Insulin gave the growth ofPharmaceutical Companies the much needed boost. Newer kinds of legislationsand laws came up in almost all the countries across the globe to legalize theattempt of providing better health care by the Pharmaceutical Companies.The History of Pharmaceutical Science also takes into account the understandingof human biology and scientific approaches to study the human beings. Manygovernments today offer special rewards to the companies who are willing toconduct such voluntary health projects and market surveys. According to theHistory of Pharmacology with the maturing of Pharmaceutical Companies thedistinction between prescribed drugs and non prescribed drugs became morecommon. Today it is a norm everywhere that no Pharmaceutical company or shopshould sell or encourage in the selling of those products which can have anadverse effect on a normal person who is not infected with the respectivedisease. According to the History of Pharmaceutical Studies, the 1950s and theI960s were the decades which saw tremendous growth in the mass production ofa whole lot of medicines. None of them, however, were as popular as the oralcontraceptive pill for the women. This method of contraception not only receivedtremendous support from the Feminist organizations but also from the prostitutequarters spread all across the world. Even today, such oral contraceptive pills aredistributed free of coast in many parts of the world. The History ofPharmaceutical Science also takes into account the invention and distribution of
medicines meant for curing life style diseases like Asthma, Obesity, Cardiacproblems, Diabetes and High Blood Pressure.ROLE OF MUSLIM PHARMACISTSIn the field of pharmacy, the first drugstores were opened by Muslim pharmacistsin Baghdad in 754, while the first apothecary shops were also founded by Muslimpractitioners.Another renowned name behind the development of the Muslim pharmacy isAbul al Qausim as Zahhrawi who si also known as Abulcasis in the western world.The world famous physician, surgeon and scientist of Arabian as well asAndalusian origin apart from being considered as the father of modern surgerywas the first one to prepare medicine by the processes of distillation as well assublimation. His book on liver servitors is a very important book in this regards inwhich he gave some recipes to the readers to prepare the simple thichs,compounding which the physicians and chemists can produce the complex drugswhich were in use at that time.According to many hiostorians Sabur Ibn Sahl was the first physician in the worldwho started writing a book on pharmacy in which he has described a variety ofdrugs as well as th dosage and remedies of different ailments. Al Biruni the wordfamous Persian Muslim polymath also penned one of the most famous Islamicworks on pharmacology which is named Kitabal-Saydalah or the book of drugs. Inthis book he has given the details about the properties of different drugs. In thisbook he has also gave an idea about the role of pharmacy as well as the functionsand duties of the pharmacists.Ibn Sina in his book gave a list of more than 700 preparations of drugs, theproperties of these drugs. The mode of action and the indication of the drugswere also there. In the cannon of medicine Ibn Sina actually devoted an entirevolume to the simple drugs that are easy to prepare at home. The works of Al-
madrini of Baghdad an cairo are also of importance. These works as well as theworks by Ibn al Wafid were printed in Latin language for more than 50 times. Thisproves that the modern western pharmacy has been greatly influenced by theMuslim pharmacy. The works of the pioneers behind the Muslim pharmacy oftentranslated inb different western languages. Many of the pioneers like AlMuwaffaq has contributed to Muslim pharmacy. In the 10th century he in hisbook The Foundation of the True properties of Remedies described the use ofresinous oxide as well as silicic acid. He also distinguished between sodiumcarbonate and potassium carbonate. He in his book also mentioned about thepoisonous feature of copper compounds. He has also mentioned the distillation ofsea water before drinking it.
REFRENCESWWW.SOMALIDOC.COMWWW.QUIZLET.COMWWW.PHARMAZING.COMLECTURES OF PHYSICAL PHARMACY