Self directed learning


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Self directed learning

  1. 1. <ul><li>Presented By: </li></ul><ul><li>Jai Kirshan </li></ul><ul><li>Abdul Hafeez </li></ul><ul><li>Arif Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Amna Bibi </li></ul><ul><li>Saeeda Bano </li></ul>
  2. 2. Content focus <ul><li>Characteristics of Good Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of the Lecture Method </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Method Planning for class presentation   </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>At the the end of this presentation students will be able to:- </li></ul><ul><li>Define the concept of lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the used of lecture in the class room </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the advantages and disadvantages of lecture method </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the steps in planning classroom lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate lecture method in class room </li></ul>
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  6. 6. LECTURE <ul><li>A lecture is an oral presentation intended (planned)to present information or teach people about a particular subject </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Lecture <ul><li>Traditional oral essay </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is an orator and the only speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Participatory Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>begins with learners brainstorming ideas on the lecture topic on what they have read in preparation </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>C. Feedback Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Consists with mini lectures with 10-minute small group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity to manipulate the lecture content </li></ul><ul><li>D . Mediated Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Use of media such as films, slides, Web-based images along with traditional lecture. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purposes of Lecturing <ul><li>Lectures can be an efficient means of introducing learners a new topic . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used to stimulate students’ interest in a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be used to inspire people . </li></ul><ul><li>To integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge. (Parker, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>“The lecture is valuable where knowledge is advancing and up-to-date textbooks are not available.” (Jones,1990) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Advantages of the Lecture Method <ul><li>It is economical in terms of student time . </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of information can be communicated in a one hour lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>More important information can be taught to a student. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The lecturer can supplement a textbook by enhancing a topic and making it come to life. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. The teacher serves as a role model for students. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lectures bring enjoyment to the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>5. It helps students develop their listening skills. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method <ul><li>It provides itself to the teaching of the facts while placing little emphasis on problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking, or transfer of learning. (Black. 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturing is not helpful to meeting students’ individual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturing brings the problem of limited attention cover on the part of the learners. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Delivering the Lecture <ul><li>Control your anxiety . </li></ul><ul><li>An effective control mechanism is imaging. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Spontaneity </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid reading to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not write your lecture out in full sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse the delivery at home. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>3. Voice quality </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of lecturing in monotone. </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Do not stand glued to the podium. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your hand for emphasis but not too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of your body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>4. Speed of delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Affects both the learner’s understanding and enjoyment of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Getting of the right foot </li></ul><ul><li>Casual conversation for a minute to establish rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Give an opening “attention getter” </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE END
  18. 18. <ul><li>Lecturing is a common method for delivering a lot of material to students. In a lecture, the teacher stands in front of the room and explains the material. While you should not lecture to your students every day, there is a time and a place for a lecture, especially in the upper grades. Lectures will often provide students with the greatest amount of material in the shortest amount of time. Further, helping students work on taking notes during lectures will give them an important skill for their future educational careers. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lecture Method: It is oldest teaching method given by philosophy of idealism. As used in education, the lecture method refers to the teaching procedure involved in clarification or explanation of the students of some major idea. This method lays emphasis on the penetration of contents. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is more active and students are passive but he also uses question answers to keep them attentive in the class. It is used to motivate, clarify, expand and review the information. By changing Ms Voice, by impersonating characters, by shifting his posing, byusing simple devices, a teacher can deliver lessons effectively, while delivering his lecture; a teacher can indicate by her facial expressions, gestures and tones the exact slode of meaning that he wishes to convey. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Helping Students with Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking can be a difficult task for many students. </li></ul><ul><li>One example of a verbal clue is repetition. If you repeat a point two or three times, students should realize that it is important and is something they need to write down and remember. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>What are Some of the Advantages of the Lecture Method </li></ul><ul><li>of Teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher controls the topic, aims, content, organization, sequence, and rate. Emphasis can be placed where the teacher desires. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture can be used to motivate and increase interest, to clarify and explain, to expand and bring in information not available to the students, and to review. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of students listening to the lecturer isn't important. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can interrupt for clarification or more detail. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture can be taped, filmed, or printed for future use. </li></ul><ul><li>Other media and demonstrations can be easily combined with the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture can be easily revised and updated. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher can serve as a model in showing how to deal with issues and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are used to the lecture method. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the instructor the chance to expose students to unpublished or not readily available material. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the instructor to precisely determine the aims, content, organization, pace and direction of a presentation. In contrast, more student-centered methods, e.g., discussions or laboratories, require the instructor to deal with unanticipated student ideas, questions and comments. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to arouse interest in a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Can complement and clarify text material. </li></ul><ul><li>Complements certain individual learning preferences. Some students depend upon the structure provided by highly teacher-centered methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates large-class communication. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>What are Some of the Disadvantages of the Lecture Method? </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the students may already know the content of the lecture while some may not be ready for the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to maintain student interest and attention for a full hour of lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The communication is mostly one-way communication from the teacher to her students. Usually there is little student participation. The students who do participate are few in number and tend to be the same students each class. </li></ul><ul><li>Most students have not learned to take good notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture information is forgotten quickly, during and after the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture method encourages student dependence on the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are not very active when only listening. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Places students in a passive rather than an active role, which hinders learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages one-way communication; therefore, the lecturer must make a conscious effort to become aware of student problems and student understanding of content without verbal feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a considerable amount of unguided student time outside of the classroom to enable understanding and long-term retention of content. In contrast, interactive methods (discussion, problem-solving sessions) allow the instructor to influence students when they are actively working with the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the instructor to have or to learn effective writing and speaking skills. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Advantages of Lecture Method: The lecture method provides for the effective use of time and manpower in that the instructor can present many ideas to a large group in a relatively short period of time. Also, the lecture method can be used to supplement other methods of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of Lecture Method: The lecture method limits the amount of student participation. A lecture is inadequate for teaching hands-on skills and it is not an effective method for maintaining student interest. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture – </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ideas in a short time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for introducing a subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a common understanding of Principles or facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of student participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little check of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May present too much information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages student passiveness </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. At the end…. <ul><li>Summarize main points </li></ul><ul><li>Restate the premise </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the opening question </li></ul><ul><li>Tie all the pieces together </li></ul><ul><li>Lay groundwork for next lesson </li></ul>
  28. 28. References.. <ul><li>Michael Bassey Learning methods in tertiary education. Internal paper Nottingham Regional College of Technology 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward R. Tufte :  The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within  ( Cheshire, Connecticut :  Graphics Press , 2006, 2nd edition).  ISBN 0-9613921-5-0   The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint </li></ul>