(DR JOHAN EDDY LUARAN)
The study of the cultural patterns
and perspectives of participant in
their natural settings.
To understand the situation about
& interpret the
culture of a group
Culture set of
& practices shared
1. PURPOSE OF
3. SITE AND
5. BEGIN DATA
6. ANALYZE &
INTERPRET DATA ,
The most complex of all research
To obtain as holistic a picture as possible
A holistic perspective of:
A particular group of society
Conducted in a natural context.
Emphasis on documenting everyday
experiences of individuals by observing
Involves intimate face-to-face
interactions with participants.
Reflects participants’ perspectives and
Data is collected primarily through
Uses multiple data sourced including
both quantitative and qualitative.
Key tools : indepth interviewing &
Within a socio-political and historical
Establishing rapport in a new community
Researcher learn to act naturally (so
people go about their business as usual)
Investigates a small number of cases in
Uses data analysis that involve the
explicit interpretation of the meanings
and functions of human actions
Interpretations of people’s actions and
behaviours that are uncovered through
the investigation of what they actually do
and the reason for doing it.
Offers a representation or interpretation
of people’s lives and behaviours.
Built on the points of understanding that
occur between the researcher and
Non-judgmental orientation (researcher
refrain from making value judgement)
Eg of Title: Inside High School:The student
perspective/Amalan Pengetua Cemerlang
Three major techniques:
Collecting data using many
sources rather than a single one.
• - Interviews
• - Observations
• - Artifacts
Consistency across sources and
informants creates a stronger
understanding of what is truly
The researcher is immersed in the research setting in order to
get close to those studied as a way of understanding what
their experiences and activities mean to them.
• Two purposes:
1) To observe the activities, people and physical aspects of a
2) To engage in activities that provide useful information in a
• Make mental notes and record them as soon as
possible after observing.
• Jot down key information.
• Capture key words and phrases without a lot of
• Use a mnemonic device to help reconstruct the
• Don’t worry about grammar or other rules.
• Trace what you did during the day.
• Avoid the temptation to recreate dialogue
• Describe as completely and accurately
as you can all relevant aspects of the
• Record your personal reactions (i.e.:
reflective field notes)
• Observe and record everything you
• Observe and look for nothing in
Historical research is the act of researching the
events that have happened in history.There are
many classes available for this type of research.
The definition of historical research is finding out
what happened in the past. Research is done by
using old newspapers, old census forms, or other
historical documents.This type of research is
done to understand past events.
it is a process of critical inquiry into past events
in order to produce an accurate description of
those event. - Wiersma (1986)
Historical research is conducted to
Uncover the unknown
Identify the relationship that the past has
to the present
Record and evaluate accomplishments of
individuals, agencies, or institutions
Aid in understanding the culture in which
1. Defining the
Examples of historical
studies that have been
• “Shakespeare Under
Different Flags: The Bard
in German Classrooms
from Hitler to Honecker.”
1 • “A Better Crop
of Boys and Girls: The
Movement, 1890–1920.” 2
It is better to study in
depth a well-defined
problem so that the
investigator is off to a
Insufficient data include
(certain kinds of
documents, such as
diaries or maps from a
particular period) simply
cannot be located in
problems should be
clearly and concisely
stated, be manageable,
have a defensible
rationale, and (if
1. Defining the problem
Documents : It refers to any kind of information that
exists in some type of written or printed form, such as
annual reports, artwork,newspapers and magazines .
Numerical records : It can be any type of numerical data
in printed form such as test scores, attendance figures
and school budgets.
Oral statements : Oral statement is the statements people
make orally such as stories, myths, tales, legends and
Relics : Relic is any object whose physical or visual
characteristics can provide some information about the
past. Examples include furniture, clothing, buildings,
monuments, or equipment.
It is one prepared by an
individual who was a
participant in or a direct
witness to the event
Example : Songs
composed by members
of a high school glee
club in the 1930s.
Source It is a document
prepared by an
individual who was not a
direct witness to an
event but who obtained
his or her description of
the event from someone
Example : A magazine
Aristotle’s views on
Determining the relevancy
of the particular material
to the question or problem
Recording the full
bibliographic data of the
Organizing the data one
collects under categories
related to the problem
facts, quotations, and
questions) on note cards
3. Summarizing information obtained from historical sources
Reading and summarizing
historical data is rarely, if ever,
a neat, orderly sequence of steps
to be followed, however.
Often reading and writing are
It is refer to the
genuineness of any
and all documents the
Researchers engaged in
historical research want to
know whether or not the
documents they find were
really prepared by the
(supposed) author(s) of the
Several questions come to mind
in evaluating the genuineness of
a historical source example:
a) Who wrote this document?
b) For what purpose was the
c) When was the document
d) Where was the document
It means that researchers
need to determine if the
contents of the document
Both the accuracy of the
information contained in a
document and the
truthfulness of the author
need to be evaluated.
As with external criticism, several questions
need to be asked in attempting to evaluate the
accuracy of the truthfulness of its author,
a) Was the author present at the event he or
she is describing?
b) Was the author a participant in or an
observer of the event?
c) Was the author emotionally involved in the
d)Was the author competent to describe the
With regard to the contents of the document,
such as :
a) Do the contents make sense?
b) Could the event described have occurred
at that time?
c) Would people have behaved as
d) Does the language of the document
suggest a bias of any sort?
• Historical research is that which utilizes
historical sources like documents to
study events or ideas of the past,
including the philosophy of persons and
• As in all research, researchers who
conduct historical studies should
exercise caution in generalizing
from small or non-representative
• It can illuminate the effects of
key interactions within a culture or
• Researchers can apply scientific
objectivity in attempting to determine
exactly what did happen in the past.
• Throw light on present and future
• Can make use of more categories
of evidence than most other methods
(with the exception of case study and
• History also depends on valuable
materials which are difficult to
• Can only give a fractional view of
the past; its knowledge is never
complete and derived from the
surviving records of a limited number of
• Researchers cannot ensure
representation of the sample.
• Limited to whatever data are available
and excessively relies on
secondary source of data.
• Lydia Ann Stow: Self-Actualization in a Period
– Vivian C. Fox , Worcester State College
• This paper is concerned with a crucial period
of self-actualization in the life of Lydia Ann
1. What is definition of Relic? Give FOUR example
2. Why is it important to establish rapport with
collaborators or group of society we want to do
our research on?
3. What is referred to as in the technique of
4. What are the purposes of the researcher being
immersed in the research setting?
5. State ONE disadvantage of historical research.