Living energy issue1_09_10


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Living energy issue1_09_10

  1. 1. Living EnergyThe Magazine for Energy LeadershipIssue 1 | November 2009 Smart Grids A Visionary Approach to Energy Intelligence A New Era in Energy Efficiency ■ The WEC’s Christoph Frei Weighs In ■ A Tour of Innovative Installations Worldwide Clean Energy, Danish Style An Essay from a Land ahead of Its Time
  2. 2. Editorial Wolfgang Dehen,Dear Reader, Member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and CEO of the Energy SectorNever before has the smart manage- inaugural issue will focus on the being one of the companies world-ment and use of energy paid off as magic words: energy efficiency. wide with the most transparent busi-much as it does today. Why? Because Efficiency can be achieved along the ness processes. And excellent, finally,energy efficiency provides both eco- entire energy conversion chain – from not only describes our products, butnomical and ecological benefits. On the the production and transport of oil above all our global team. Well overone hand, the reduced consumption and gas and the various types of power 80,000 people at Siemens Energy workof resources costs less, offering enor- generation, to power transmission with passion, commitment and a pio-mous savings potential for compa- and distribution and ultimately the neering spirit on finding solutionsnies. And on the other hand, nature consumption of electricity. In all our meeting the needs of our customers.profits doubly: Increasingly scarce fos- work, we clearly focus on the needs I hope you will enjoy the informativesil resources are conserved and CO2 of our customers. Some 17,500 engi- articles, interviews and facts featuredemissions are reduced. neers at Siemens Energy work around in this initial issue of our business-We, the Siemens Energy Sector, want the globe on developing products to-business magazine “Living Energy.”to offer a new platform for the theme and solutions that help our customers I wish you a stimulating new viewof energy as a forum for sharing our achieve their individual efficiency of the world of energy!know-how with our customers and And because we feel the most Innovative, responsible, excellent – With best regards,pleasant form of reading is still brows- these are the three values on which alling through an interesting magazine, our actions are based. Innovationswe have launched “Living Energy” like our new SGT5-8000H gas turbinejust for you. In our new publication, or the world’s first 800-kV HVDCprominent experts and prize-winning transmission line. Responsibility thatjournalists will explore one of the is reflected in the way we work withmost urgent challenges of our time: our customers and stakeholders.How can one secure reliable and Siemens, for instance, has been hon-affordable energy supplies that also ored this year for the tenth consecu-protect the climate and environment? tive time for its sustainable businessAppropriately, the articles in this practices. Responsibility also means Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 3
  3. 3. Content Content 06 36 44 50 Content The future of undersea oil exploration – in Norway now Renewable energy: North Sea turbines Bavaria: Putting the world’s largest gas turbine into operation Urban integration of high-voltage substations from Doha to CaliforniaCover Story 03 Editorial Features 06 Living Energy recently secured Extolling 24 Photovoltaic 36 Offshore Wind Power an exclusive interview with Switzer- the virtues of Using the sun’s energy to benefit The formidable North Sea off land’s Christoph Frei, Secretary 58 Essay “Smart Grids”: mankind is not a new idea, but the coast of Suffolk in England will General at the World Energy Council Siemens’ Ralf today, Siemens is leading the way soon be home of the largest offshore and former Senior Director of Energy Christian toward capturing its power efficiently wind farm in the world, providing Industries & Strategies at the World Page 28 on much greater scale with state- a reliable source of clean energy to Economic Forum, in which he can- 62 In Short of-the-art photovoltaic technology. nearly half a million homes. didly addresses the global problem of energy demand and consumption vs. energy supply and efficiency. 28 Smart Grids 44 Environmentally Friendly Energy For an accompanying article, energy 70 Imprint Capturing CO2 Finding smarter ways to operate To comply with increasingly tighter specialist and author Craig Morris pro- power distribution grids and updat- EU regulations on emissions from emissions in files ten groundbreaking projects in ing antiquated metering systems fossil fuel power plants, Siemens has Belgium with various sectors that he visited around is a worldwide trend, resulting in stepped up its research and develop- T-Power’s the globe, all aimed at increasing 71 Calendar Richard Snow savings on electricity, costs, “greener” ment in carbon capture technology. efficiency in the energy supply chain. energy consumption, and fewer Trade Fairs and Photos: Ruud Baan, Frédéric Guerdin, Kurt Paulus, Siemens Page 32 problems with power outages. Congresses 50 Urban Integration Someday, high-voltage substations 32 Financing may no longer blemish urban land- Financing a new combined-cycle scapes. In innovative projects around Scottish and power plant in Belgium was a the world, they are already being Southern success despite difficult economic integrated into city streetscapes in Energy’s Colin times, thanks to the project’s strong, not only aesthetically pleasing, but Hood on wind reputable partners, its solid busi- also environmentally conscious ways. power for ness plan, and the integrity of its the future purpose. Page 364 Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 5
  4. 4. Energy EfficiencyWorld Energy Council headChristoph Frei is also an AdjunctProfessor and Advisor to thePresident of the Swiss FederalInstitute of Technology, Lausanne(EPFL), Switzerland, where heearned his PhD in energy policy “There Is a Lot of Workand sustainable developmentin 2001. to Do Everywhere” Christoph Frei, Secretary General of the World Energy Council and former Senior Director of Energy Industries & Strategy at the World Economic Forum, spoke exclusively to Living Energy on the future of energy. Interview by Craig Morris What is the World Energy Council’s Will the drop in energy demand forecast for energy consumption? slow down economic growth? FREI: There will be great regional FREI: Most economists now agree that differences. In our scenarios, we ex- energy consumption and economic pect energy demand in the developing growth are increasingly decoupled in world to continue to grow strongly, industrialized countries. I don’t think but the developed world should actu- we have too much to worry about ally be able to meet a large share of its here. Lower energy consumption does slightly growing energy demand from not mean a lower standard of living. increased efficiency – and meet possi- bly up to 40 or 50 percent of the cur- Where are we going to get all this rent Kyoto targets through efficiency efficiency from? measures. FREI: There are a lot of areas. To take one example, we have tremendous That is the demand side – will potential in buildings, where a large production be able to keep up? chunk of our energy is consumed – FREI: You are referring to the idea and where little attention has tradi- of peak oil. The overall trend is rising tionally been paid to energy efficiency. prices as we run out of easy oil, and Mobility is another growing area of prices will rise even further when interest. And roughly 50 percent of our we get an international carbon price. electricity is consumed in electric As prices rise, of course, demand and motors, which generally do not run emissions drop. But this is the goal. optimally, so the potential here is If we return to the question of the scar- great. In the production industry, a city of resources, you have to look at lot of systems are quite old and need each source of energy on its own. If we to be modernized. So there is really talk about oil and gas, it is clear that a lot of work to do everywhere. Photo: Ruud Baan easy oil is becoming scarcer, but at the same time, unconventional sourc- Do you think people are willing es are gradually becoming profitable to become more efficient? and will partly counteract that trend. FREI: Mobility is an interesting field Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 7
  5. 5. The Energy Conversion Chain: Renewables From Start to Finish 7. UK Wind Farm: Standing in the Sea Power Distribution 9. E-DeMa in Germany: RuhrArea Model Region 10. EDISON in Denmark: Increasing E-Mobility Oil and Gas Power Generation Power Transmission 1. Subsea Exploration in Norway: Not Science Fiction 4. Power Plant in Irsching, Germany: Technology of Tomorrow 8. Tapping Hydropower in China: Novel 2. Carbon-Neutral Pipeline 5. Modernizing Power Plants in Europe: Green Megawatts High-Voltage DC System Increases 3. Coal Liquefaction in South Africa: Synthetic Gas 6. It’s Payback Time – How a ControlSystem Upgrade Saves Money Transmission Capacity by 60 Percent For our author Craig Morris, the mostin this respect. The question of wheth- astonishing figures. For instance, we E-mobility will play an important role interesting part of the tour was “seeing things in person and not just readinger people are willing to drive cars with currently have some 800 million cars in this context. However, there are about them.” He was also especially in-smaller, thriftier engines is an emo-tional one. We do know, however, thatwhen prices rise, people are willing on the road, but that number is set to rise to 2,000 million by 2030 – that’s a 2.5-fold increase. If we wanted to a number of unknowns there as well: The electricity supply will have to de- liver on the demand surge, and we will Innovative Projects terested in demand management, “which I have been following for years.” throughout the Energyto switch to more efficient systems. keep our emissions at the current level, not only need tremendous amountsFor instance, when the price of a bar- we would have to become 2.5 times of lithium for the batteries once theirrel of oil recently rose to more than more efficient in the sector of mobility cost comes down, but also an industry140 dollars, sales of SUVs plummeted. – just to maintain the status quo. So capable of effective recycling.Gasoline prices dropped shortly there-after and have since been rising again,but we can clearly see that a small step each vehicle is going to have to become 2.5 times more efficient, and that is not going to be possible simply by What do we have to do in Copenha- gen to reach these efficiency goals? Conversion Chainwas made in the right direction. changing people’s behavior, not even FREI: The main thing is to get an in-If we take a look at how far we need to with the kind of price increases that ternational carbonprice mechanism. Energy innovation – this catchphrase is on everyone’s lips in the globalizedgo in the field of mobility, we see some occurred last year. Anything less would simply not prop- erly contribute to greater efficiency world of energy. Siemens Energy Sector is the world’s leading supplier of and energy security. The goal in Copen- a complete spectrum for the generation, transmission and distribution of hagen – and in subsequent policies, to Christoph Frei Photo:, Graphic: Rainer Schubert the extent that this goal is not reached power and for the extraction, conversion and transport of oil and gas. Living in December – has to be a strong in- Born in Switzerland in 1969, Christoph Frei became Secretary General at ternational price for carbon. Energy invites you to take a look at ten of the most innovative projects along the World Energy Council in April 2009. He also has an assignment as Adjunct Professor and Advisor to the President of the Swiss Federal Institute of Tech- the entire energy chain, which our journalist researched or visited in person nology, Lausanne (EPFL). From 2001 to 2009, Frei was Senior Director of Is the developing world going to Energy Industries & Strategy at the World Economic Forum and a member of have to pay the same price for a ton – projects that soon may come to a power socket near you.In the Forum’s Executive Council. He holds an electrical engineering degree, of carbon as the developed world does? By Craig Morris an econometrics degree, a master in energy systems and a master in applied ethics and received his PhD from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, FREI: No, that is neither politically Lausanne, in 2001. Frei has led projects on energy security, energy poverty, feasible, nor fair. There will have to sustainable biofuels, and innovation in cities. be quotas that allow the developing If we walk through Siemens’ energy begins: coal, oil and gas, and nuclear. wind – have also increasingly become world to continue its economic devel- sector, we could start where the In recent decades, renewable energy significant players. Siemens is a major opment in the years to come. electricity supply chain traditionally sources – in particular, solar power and technology supplier in each of these8 Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 9
  6. 6. Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiencysectors, and in June of this year, the a novel all-electric system to liquefy In some projects, the positive environ- low offshore areas – the technology Finally, there is my personal favorite: to be better tailored to production –company announced how various stim- natural gas, thereby boosting its mental impact is considerable, though sounds like it could never work when smart grids. Siemens is working on rather than the other way around,ulus packages across the globe would efficiency by as much as 50 percent. it is not apparent at first glance. For you try to describe it, but since it does, two projects in Germany and Denmark which has been the case up to now.affect it. Over the next three years, A global leader in steam turbines, instance, a new high-voltage DC trans- we will do our best to tell you how. that will allow electricity consumptionthe firm expects to sign 21 billion US Siemens has retrofitted nuclear power mission system that Siemens willdollars worth of new contracts, nearly plants to produce as much as 10 per- complete in China in 2010 allows the8 billion of which will be devoted torenewables and energy efficiency.The next stage in the electricity sup- cent more energy without any other modernization of the plant. And in the field of gas, Siemens is now putting country to tap more hydropower in- stead of adding new coal plants. The CO2 emissions offset amount to a Exploring New Territory in Fossil Fuelsply chain is the transmission system. into operation the world’s largest whopping 33 million tons at the Yun- Oil and gas have been in the news a Siemens products are used in all stages Take a walk with us through threeHere, large central power stations hook combined-cycle gas turbine in Bavaria. nan-Guangdong project alone. lot lately. With prices fluctuating wildly of this sector: onshore and offshore novel sites where Siemens is either in-up to the high-voltage power grid, In the field of coal liquefaction, Siemens In other projects, the positive environ- at the pump, consumers are perhaps drilling, the use of electric drives for creasing the efficiency of the overallwhich later connects via transformers has provided the world’s largest air mental impact is obvious. As mentioned more aware of changes in the crude natural gas liquefaction, the coal-to-liq- process or allowing previouslyto the medium-voltage distribution separation compressors to a South above, Siemens is a global leader in oil market than they are of any other uid process, pipelines, and terminal inaccessible resources to be tapped.system, to which smaller generators African plant. And Siemens may soon steam turbine generators, so it comes source of energy. management.are often connected – wind turbines, be providing an electric compressor as no surprise that Siemens is a leaderfor instance. From there, the grid for a Norwegian subsea oil platform in the steam turbine generator setsbranches off into the low-voltage level that has to run maintenance-free at for concentrated solar power (CSP). 1. Subsea Exploration in Norway: Not Science Fictionthat serves individual buildings. a depth of 3,000 meters underwater. But fewer people may be aware thatAt each of these stages, Siemens is In all of these areas, efficiency is cru- Siemens may have the longest history You may have heard of the recent futuristic station. As easily exploit- to have people manning the station.working to improve energy efficiency cial. After all, fossil and nuclear plants in offshore wind, having taken over best seller The Swarm by German able oil and gas fields become rarer, The solution is to have robots operateand diversify energy production. In will continue to be our main sources Bonus, the firm behind Vindeby, one of novelist Frank Schätzing. The fully engineers are working to reach less independently. For several years, Illustration: Siemensthe following pages, we invite you to of electricity for some time to come, the first offshore wind projects in the automated subsea oil exploration accessible ones. One approach is to Siemens has tested a prototype of itsaccompany me on a visit to some of the so efficient use of these resources will world back in 1991. And in a more described in the book is not fiction, move further out to sea. But at depths electric-driven compressor in an on-most innovative projects that Siemens both extend the range of these energy spectacular development, Siemens has however. Siemens is developing a of 3,000 meters below sea level, water shore application in Holland. It willis working on. At midstream in the sources and reduce the environmen- come up with a solution to allow wind compressor with an integrated elec- pressure is a considerable challenge. provide maintenance-free operationvalue chain, Siemens has developed tal impact. turbines to be put up outside of shal- tric motor that may be used at this It is also impractical at such depths at the required depths. People will still be stationed at sea level, but remote operated vehicles (ROV) will work on the seafloor to tap remote gas resources. Gas pipelines will then fill up right at sea from the ROV. It would be too difficult to have humans stationed so deep on the seafloor.10 Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 11
  7. 7. Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency2. Carbon-Neutral Pipeline Power Plants for the FutureIn some respects, the Ruby Pipeline is day – but even that is not special in the the ones pumping the gas – will be Central power plants are our main operators tweak their processes to cause the gas lines were in place,nothing extraordinary. When it opens USA, the world’s largest energy user. powered by greenhouse-gas-free en- source of electricity, and while distrib- provide immediate efficiency gains al- but the plant was partly already outin early 2011, the 1,000-kilometer- What sets off the Ruby from the rest ergy. Their electricity mix will consist uted power is becoming more com- most overnight. Indeed, in one project, of operation. Its now unprofitablelong, 1-meter-diameter tube will trans- are its shoes. Size zero, to be precise. of renewable fuels plus conventional mon, central coal and nuclear plants Siemens’ engineers helped an opera- conventional gas-fired boilers onceport natural gas from the wilds of Thanks to Siemens, the carbon foot- fuels offset by carbon credits. can be expected to continue to pro- tor in the Netherlands to add 35 MW replaced the oil-fired boilers that hadthe US state of Wyoming to other west- print of the pipeline will be null. This “A carbon-neutral pipeline is a first,” vide a large share of our electricity of generating capacity in the short themselves become unprofitable dur-ern states: Oregon, California, Idaho, is because the three STC-SV (08-5-A) says CEO Tom Blades of the Siemens for some time to come. In addition, space of only 35 days. ing the oil crises in the 1970s. In aNevada and Washington. It will have pipeline compressors, three 17-MW Oil & Gas Division. “And that is where since the 1980s, gas turbines have The efficiency gains are even greater way, this gigantic turbine is the thirda huge capacity – hauling some electric motors, and three Perfect Har- we want to be in the oil and gas been very popular as a way of quickly in northern Bavaria, where Siemens is generation at the plant in Irsching –40 million cubic meters of gas per mony drives that Siemens supplies – business.” reacting to rising power demand. testing the world’s largest gas turbine. one that may soon set the industry Siemens has helped a number of plant Siemens and EON chose the site be- standard.3. Coal Liquefaction in South Africa: Synthetic Gas 4. Power Plant in Irsching, Germany: Technology of TomorrowAlong with the USA and China, South liquefied coal is an economic option. In the coal-to-liquid process, highAfrica has considerable coal reserves. Siemens has provided the country concentrations of oxygen are neededIt also has a special history: During with the world’s largest compressor to produce “syngas” (synthetic gas).the years of apartheid, an embargo was for air separation. “The trend is toward As air is cooled down to minus 180 de-imposed on the country, which then larger facilities,” says Jochen Domas, grees Celsius, the various componentshad to resort to coal liquefaction as a Sales Director with Siemens. “Cus- become fluid, allowing them to bea way of producing fuel domestically. tomers prefer to have one large plant captured separately. Nearly pure oxy-These days, South Africa can, of rather than two smaller ones.” This gen can thus be used for the combus-course, buy oil on the global market, approach lowers overall project costs tion process.but its prices have risen enough that without reducing efficiency. Author Craig Morris visits the world’s largest gas turbine in an open-cycle power plant. The turbine is already installed and is currently waiting for the steam turbine and balance of plant to be added downstream. itself has an efficiency of around 40 percent, and the downstream steam turbine, which will operate at around 600° C, adds on another 20 percent- age points. “The 600° C water steam cycle with HRSG squeezes more out of the exhaust gas. Temperature of the In Irsching, Bavaria, Siemens is put- says, “Not only is this turbine extra residual exhaust is then only around ting the world’s largest gas turbine large, it also is extra efficient – thanks 85° C,” Fischer explains. Photos: Siemens, Kurt Paulus into operation in a combined-cycle to reduced losses – and this brings While Siemens’ F series gas turbines unit in cooperation with EON. As overall operating costs down.” currently makes up roughly two-thirds Siemens Program Manager Willibald The firing temperature has been of the firm’s gas turbine sales, Fischer Fischer explains, the prototype of increased by about 100 K, “which plac- says, “The H series is the technology this turbine – the H series – was built es even greater challenges on the of tomorrow. A lot of our customers in Berlin in 2007 and has since been nickel-based alloys that stand directly are very interested in this project, andAt Sasol’s coal-to-liquid plant in Secunda, South Africa, a series of chemical processes convert coal into synthetic fuels. tested on site in Irsching. Fischer in the hot-gas path.” The gas turbine we receive a lot of visitors in Irsching.”12 Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 13
  8. 8. Two of Siemens’ staff get almostdirectly to grips with the world’s larg-est gas turbine, located at Siemens’test facility in Irsching, Germany. Photo: Kurt Paulus
  9. 9. Energy EfficiencyThe installation of a modernsteam turbine can improveplant efficiency considerably. 5. Modernizing Power Plants in Europe: Green Megawatts Often, aging power plants can be mod- Region Europe, Asia, Middle East. Another example is the coal plant ernized to produce more power. For One such project is the Borssele nucle- in Farge near Bremen, Germany. instance, Siemens can retrofit the rotor ar plant in the Netherlands, where an Here, the plant’s total capacity was in- section of steam turbines used both additional 35 MW were added on in creased from 318 to 345 MW, with in coal-fired and nuclear power plants a mere 35 days. “The payback in such CO2 emissions being reduced by up to by applying novel blading and sealing projects – the euro per megawatt – is 100,000 tons per annum. In the pro- technologies. “I can think of a lot of surprisingly great,” Henkel explains. cess, the plant’s service life was ex- examples where we have done that – The new components extend the service tended by 15 years. “We speak of this at plants with outputs ranging from life of the power plants, which are gen- added generation as ‘green mega- 200 to 1,200 MW,” says Norbert Henkel, erally at least 20 years old when mod- watts,’” Henkel says. Director Steam Plant Modernization ernized, and they improve efficiency. 6. It’s Payback Time – How a Control-System Upgrade Saves Money About 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, extra hawkeyed on return on invest- flexibility, plant security, as well as Arizona (USA), the mountainous des- ment and on improving competitive- employee morale right after project ert is the home of New Harquahala ness in the merchant power playfield. completion. Tangible savings totaled Generating Company (NHGC), a com- Both the owner and the plant saw up to more than half a million dollars bined-cycle, 1,080-MW gas-fired gen- the opportunity of achieving their busi- per year. Around two-thirds of it came erating plant that sells “merchant” ness objectives by upgrading the plant from improved reliability and avail- power. Unlike conventional utilities, control system to Siemens’ fourth- ability by significantly reduced control merchant power plants, like NHGC, are generation controls technology SPPA- system trips, which kept the plant in privately owned and sell power directly T3000 in fall of 2007. They immedi- closer alignment to its long-term ser- to wholesale buyers at competitive ately jumped into action. They were vice agreements. The rest came from rates in unregulated power markets. not disappointed by the returns. The savings of time and effort in adminis- When it comes to justifying any new plant saw intangible benefits from tration. Numbers talk and they all capital investment, NHGC’s owner is various areas: system operability and speak an important word: PROFIT. Renewables: Offshore Wind and Large-Scale Solar Since last fall, Siemens has a Solar molten salt runs through the glass source of electricity. At least in theory. Power Business with two focal points: tubes atop the parabolic troughs. In practice, offshore wind turbines large-scale rooftop and ground-mount- This approach allows salt to be stored must withstand harsher weather ed crystalline photovoltaic arrays, and so the plant can run at night plus en- conditions than onshore turbines do. concentrated solar power (CSP). As ables higher temperatures, and there- Siemens is well positioned to offer part of its intention to drive technology by greater power production. Siemens the most robust turbines on the mar- in solar thermal power plants, Siemens has a 90 percent share of the parabolic ket. The world’s first offshore wind in March 2009 bought a significant CSP market with its steam turbines. farm went up in 1991 off the coast of stake in Italy’s Archimede Solar Energy. Siemens is also focusing on a sector Denmark. Siemens later acquired the The company has innovated in CSP: that has proven quite exciting offshore. company behind that project: Bonus Photo: Siemens Instead of using oil as the heat transfer The energy potential per turbine is Energy. As a result, Siemens has nearly fluid in parabolic troughs, with the much greater at sea, where wind veloc- two decades of experience in the fledg- heat being passed on to the molten salt ities are higher and steadier than on ling offshore wind market – more in the boiler via a heat exchanger, the land, making wind a more reliable than any other company worldwide. Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 17
  10. 10. Energy Efficiency tached; these anchors prevent the the turbine standing without sinking for the generator at the top of the turbine from drifting across the sea. it. The problem becomes even more tower – is filled with heavy equip- The challenge here is to provide difficult when we realize that the ment. enough weight at the bottom to keep turbine’s nacelle – the round casing Power Transmission – Enabling Large-Scale Clean Energy Around a century ago, one of the first transport electricity from Niagara direct current has begun making a standardization struggles in industrial Falls to Buffalo, New York, by demon- comeback for transmission with the history took place between George strating that AC was more efficient latest technology. Indeed, most talk Westinghouse and Thomas Edison. In than DC in power transmission. about “super grids” revolves around what has become known as the “Battle For most of the 20th century, direct high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) of Currents,” Westinghouse and his current was therefore mainly used to transmission. Siemens is a forerun- colleague Nikola Tesla succeeded in supply power directly to power con- ner in this field. getting alternating current used to sumers. But in an interesting reversal, 8. Tapping Hydropower in China: Novel High-Voltage DC System Increases Transmission Capacity by 60 Percent were then installed on site.” In total, site.” Once assembled, the equipment 24 transformers with four different is gigantic. “We increased the trans- YELLOW CHINA SEA types are installed at each station mission capacity by over 60 percent Shanghai with one spare for each type. “If one from around 3 to 5 GW at one go, and 40 km of the transformers needs to be re- we are working on 6.4 and 7.2 GW in Gezhouba M W / 1,0 1,200 Anshun placed, it could take months to get other projects.” a new one out here, so we chose to “But the air clearance grew by 100 per- 3, Xingren 0 00 3,0 keep one for each type in reserve on cent in the process here,” Häusler M Tian- 00 W 1,2 MW /9 shengqiao 25 40 km Guangzhou km 1,800 M W / 960 km Zhaoqing Shenzen Kunming 5,000 MW / 1,400 km Photos: Siemens, Kurt Paulus, Graphic: independent Medien-Design Sharing power in China: HVDC systems.Off the shelf: Siemens has the right-sized turbines, ready today for commercial installation and operation. By providing an 800-kV direct-current transmission system, Siemens allows China to connect a large hydropower plant to its quickly expanding grid7. UK Wind Farm: Standing in the Sea instead of adding on additional coal plants. The remoteness of the site wasAt the Lynn and Inner Dowsing Off- will be surpassed by Greater Gabbard’s You may be familiar with the slogan, the first problem. “We specially de-shore Wind Farms some 5 kilometers 504 MW – see p. 36.) “Weebles wobble, but they don’t fall signed the actual transformer units tooff the shore of Lincolnshire, UK, But the waters around these two proj- down.” Siemens is using the basic idea fit through the mountain tunnels bySiemens has supplied 54 of its SWT- ects off the coast of Skegness are behind these toys for “floating” wind train,” explains Marcus Häusler, Tech-3.6-107 turbines for an overall capacity relatively shallow, with a maximum turbines: The bottom is weighted so nical Director System & Equipmentof 194 MW, making these two adjacent depth of around 13 meters. Siemens is that the turbine always stands upright. Engineering HVDC at Siemens. “Theprojects the largest collective wind going further to find ways of installing There are three anchors on the seafloor connector arms, the transformer bush- Craig Morris (right) discusses the model of the HVDC station with Siemens Technicalfarm in the world. (A year later they turbines at much greater depths. to which the turbine is flexibly at- ings, as well as parts of the windings, Director Marcus Häusler.18 Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 19
  11. 11. Behemoths in action – as this “snapshot” from UHV DC transformer shows, the equipment is the size of the entire building. Those are not ants in the pictures, they are people. explains. Some of the equipment 10 meters up is a challenge.” Where or North America too, but as Director therefore has to be twice as far from possible, Siemens suspended some Technical Marketing & Innovations the ground – 10 meters instead of equipment to allow it to move flexibly HVDC Dietmar Retzmann explains, 5 meters up. “If you then consider that during earthquakes while retaining “China’s grids are incredibly dynamic. a single piece of equipment can weigh the required distance from the ground. The European grid would first have around 30 tons, and this region is Siemens’ 800-kV DC transmission to be expanded for this technology to prone to earthquakes, suspending it could, of course, be used in Europe be used properly.” Changes in Demand Side Management One level down from transmission of power in the grid. For instance, As intermittent renewable energy comes the distribution grid. Here, heating and cooling loads are fairly provides an ever larger share of our power begins to be channeled to spe- easy to shift across the day. Air-condi- electricity supply, such solutions will Photo: Siemens, 3-D Graphic: Siemens cific consumers. At this level, man- tioners can be switched off for 15 min- become indispensable. Within the agement of energy demand and cen- utes without any noticeable rise in next decades we will need to be able tral control of distributed power can temperature in most buildings, but the to shift part of our consumption to lower peaks and raise valleys in de- relief for the grid would be clearly the hours when the wind is blowing mand, thereby lowering power costs noticeable. Likewise, industrial freez- and the sun is shining. overall and increasing power quality. ing units can run full blast when Two Siemens’ staff look With demand side management, electricity is plentiful and switch offover an ultra-high-voltage power consumers can be switched for brief periods when power be- (UHV) DC converter. on and off depending on the amount comes scarce. Living Energy · Issue 1/ November 2009 · 21