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renewable energy resources in Uganda


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by Steven Mugema

Published in: Technology, Business

renewable energy resources in Uganda

  1. 1. PRESENTATION BY: STEVEN MUGEMA 08/U/2904/EED/PD KYU-BEEEM/III 0771489406/0703172875
  2. 2. The Republic of Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered by Kenya in the east , Republic of Southern Sudan in the north , Democratic Republic of Congo in the west , Rwanda in the southwest , and Tanzania in the south .The southeastern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also shared by Kenya and Tanzania.
  3. 3. The statistics of Uganda are as bellowCapital (largest city) KampalaOfficial languages English, SwahiliVernacular Languages Luo Luganda, Luo, Runyankore, Runyoro, Ateso, Lumasaba, Lusoga, Lunyole, SamiaTotal surface area 241,550.7 km2Total population (2010 mid-year) 31.8 million peoplePopulation density (2002 123 persons/km2census)GDP at current market prices 46,027.8 billion ShsPer capita GDP at current 1,336,400 Shsmarket pricesPer capita GDP growth rate at 1.9 percentconstant (2002) market pricesTemperature 16-31oCElectricity consumption/capita 55kWh/capita
  4. 4.  Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible assets of energy. i.e they can’t be depleted. Uganda is richly endowed with a variety of renewable energy resources which include plentiful woody and non- woody biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and hydrological resources. Presently, with the exception of biomass, only a meager fraction of the country’s renewable energy potential is exploited. It is estimated that other renewable sources of energy, excluding large hydropower, contribute less than 2% of Uganda’s total energy consumption.
  5. 5. UGANDA’S ENERGY POTENTIALIn Uganda there are various renewable energy resources but most of them areunexploited for energy production and provision of energy services.There resources include; hydro-electricity, solar, biomass, geothermal, peat, windwith there estimated potential (MW) IM as below; ENERGY SOURCES ESTIMATED ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL (MW) Hydro-electricity 2,200 Solar 200 biomass 1,650 Geothermal 450 Peat 800 wind - TOTAL 5,300
  7. 7. The process involves production of heat and electricity from mainly agricultural residue or feedstock and is convenient in situation where there are excess agricultural residues such as bagasse, coffee and rice husks. Kakira sugar works limited and Sugar Corporation of Uganda limited were issued license to generate electricity using bagasse, a by-product of sugar manufacturing process. Kakira sugar works limited generate a total of 18MW, of which 12MW is for sale to the grid and the rest for their consumption Sugar corporation of Uganda generates 9.5MW for their own use. Kinyara sugar Ltd generates 7.5MW of electricity from bagasse, where 5MW was for sale and 2.5MW for their own consumption
  8. 8. This is energy that is generated from Partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water is used as a fuel when dried. This can be used to produce about 20MW of power.Peat volume of about 250 Mton exists in Uganda but this resource would be adequate for generation of about 800 MW of electricity in the next 50 years. Available sources are dispersed mainly in western Uganda and south-western Uganda, where the desired characteristics are better than other regions in Uganda
  9. 9. Solar energy is energy that is derived from radiations from the sun. This is accomplished by battery storage and a use of a grid-connected solar system. The system feeds the grid with energy during day light and draws energy from it during night when required.Uganda has mean solar radiation of 5.1 KWh/m2 per day on a horizontal surface. The country has a potential of 11.98 108MWh gross energy resource but the conversion efficiency is just 10%. The re exists an average of 5-6 kWh /m2/day of solar insolation.Applications for solar energy. Off-grid electrification using photovoltaic solar cells that supply power to users. solar cooking and heating foodstuffs through solar ovens , and Generating electricity using space solar power satellite in geostationary orbit and beaming it down via microwaves. Heating water or air for domestic hot water and space. This needs the use of solar thermal panels. Heat and cool air through use of solar chimneys solar panels laid on house top
  10. 10. Solar photovoltaic panelsGraph showing the outside a secondary school atgrowth of solar the Bukasa demonstration sitephotovoltaic market (Lake Victoria,Uganda).
  11. 11.  This is energy that is due to tectonic processes in the earth’s crust, through the cracks , the heat from the core heats up the adjacent rocks such that any water that comes into contact with them is heated up or turned to steam. This can be used to run turbines that produce the energy Uganda has an estimated geothermal resource potential of 450 MW, mainly located in the Western Rift valley part of the country. Feasibility studies are recommended to improve confidence in the resource and promote development. The major areas under study are Katwe-Kikorongo, Buranga and Kibiro. They are all situated in the Western branch of the East African Rift valley that runs for most of its length along the border of Uganda with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The three areas were chosen as priority areas because of their volcanic and tectonic features that are indicators of powerful heat sources and permeability. Other geothermal areas are located on the outskirts and/or close to the rift valley in SW-Uganda and Northern Uganda. Surface exploration in the three areas has reached advanced stages while in the other areas it is still at preliminary level.
  13. 13.  This is energy derived from wind depending on the speed of the air currents. Recent studies indicate that the wind speed in most areas in Uganda is moderate, with average wind speed in low heights (low than 10m) ranging from 1.8m/s to 4.0m/s but high around lake Victoria and karamoja area estimated to more than 6m/s,indicating a moderate potential for wind power. Possible applications for the technology exist, for example, water pumping Small-scale power generation in mountainous areas. Most windmills in Uganda are found in Moroto district.
  14. 14.  This is power generated as a result of flowing water that rotates the turbines. Hydropower plants convert the kinetic energy contained in falling water or potential energy contained in stored water into electricity. Water goes through a turbine which converts kinetic energy in water into mechanical energy. The rotation mechanism of the water turbines transfers energy to a generator which produces electricity. Uganda’s vast hydropower potential, estimated at 3000 MW, less than 10% is currently exploited. Currently, a 250 MW hydropower project is under-way in the Jinja district of the country. .
  15. 15.  Nalubaale and Kiira Complex Currently two large power plants namely Nalubaale in Mukono District andKiira in Jinja District have been in operation since 1954 and 2002 respectively.The installed capacity of Nalubale power station is 180 MW while that of Kiira is200 MW but due to prolonged drought and the associated low water level in LakeVictoria, the effective generation lies between 130MW – 180MW Bujagali Bujagali is the third largest hydropower plant on Nile River in Ugandacurrently under construction with anticipated capacity of 250MW and it’sexpected to be fully commissioned this year Numerous other hydropower ventures are being investigated by both Ugandan and Japanese contractors, as well as the government
  16. 16. SMALL HYDRO- POWER PLANTS IN OPERATION A number of small hydropower plants with total installed capacity of slightly over 15MW are in operation in various parts of the country as indicated belowSITE DISTRICT INSTALLED STATUS CAPACITY (MW)Mobuku 3 Kasese 10 In operation by kasese cobalt company LtdMobuku 1 Kasese 5.4 In operation by Kilembe Mines LtdKuluva Arua 0.12 In operation by Kuluva hospitalKagando Kasese 0.06 In operation by Kagando hospitalKisiizi Bushenyi 0.29 In operation by Kisiizi hospital power company Ltd
  17. 17. Mr. Davis Bariho Bagamuhunda lecture notesEnergy regulatory authority (www.Renewable energy technologies in Uganda byGeoffrey Kamase