Ch07

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organizational design, structure

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Ch07

  1. 1. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-1 Chapter Seven Manufacturing and Service Technologies
  2. 2. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-2 Core Transformation Process for a Manufacturing Company ENVIRONMENT Organization Raw Material Inputs Product or Service Outputs Core Work Processes Materials Handling Milling Inspection Assembly
  3. 3. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-3 Woodward’s Classification Based on System of Production  Group I  Small-batch and unit production  Group II  Large-batch and mass production  Group III  Continuous process production
  4. 4. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-4 Flexible Manufacturing Systems  Computer-aided design  (CAD)  Computer-aided manufacturing  (CAM)  Integrated Information Network
  5. 5. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-5 NEW CHOICES TRADITIONAL CHOICES Mass Production Small batch Flexible Manufacturing Mass Customization Continuous Process Relationship of Flexible Manufacturing Technology to Traditional Technologies BATCH SIZESmall Unlimited Customized Standardized PRODUCTFLEXIBILITY Source: Based on Jack Meredith, “The Strategic Advantages of New Manufacturing Technologies For Small Firms.” Strategic Management Journal 8 (1987): 249-58; Paul Adler, “Managing Flexible Automation,” California Management Review (Spring 1988): 34-56; and Otis Port, “Custom-made Direct from the Plant.” Business Week/21st Century Capitalism, 18 November 1994, 158-59.
  6. 6. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-6 Comparison of Organizational Characteristics Associated with Mass Production and Flexible Manufacturing Systems Characteristic Mass Production FMS Structure: Span of Control Wide Narrow Hierarchical levels Many Few Tasks Routine, repetitive Adaptive, craft-like Specialization High Low Decision making Centralized Decentralized Overall Bureaucratic, mechanistic Self-regulating, organic Source: Based on Patricia L. Nemetz and Louis W. Fry, “Flexible Manufacturing Organizations: Implications for Strategy Formulation and Organization Design.” Academy of Management Review 13 (1988); 627-38; Paul S. Adler, “Managing Flexible Automation,” California Management Review (Spring 1988); 34-56; Jeremy Main, “Manufacturing the Right Way,” Fortune, 21 May 1990, 54-64.
  7. 7. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-7 Comparison of Organizational Characteristics Associated with Mass Production and Flexible Manufacturing Systems (cont.) Characteristic Mass Production FMS Human Resources: Interactions Standalone Teamwork Training Narrow, one time Broad, frequent Expertise Manual, technical Cognitive, social Solve problems Source: Based on Patricia L. Nemetz and Louis W. Fry, “Flexible Manufacturing Organizations: Implications for Strategy Formulation and Organization Design.” Academy of Management Review 13 (1988); 627-38; Paul S. Adler, “Managing Flexible Automation,” California Management Review (Spring 1988); 34-56; Jeremy Main, “Manufacturing the Right Way,” Fortune, 21 May 1990, 54-64.
  8. 8. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-8 Comparison of Organizational Characteristics Associated with Mass Production and Flexible Manufacturing Systems (cont.) Characteristic Mass Production FMS Interorganizational: Customer Demand Stable Changing Suppliers Many, arm’s length Few, close relations Source: Based on Patricia L. Nemetz and Louis W. Fry, “Flexible Manufacturing Organizations: Implications for Strategy Formulation and Organization Design.” Academy of Management Review 13 (1988); 627-38; Paul S. Adler, “Managing Flexible Automation,” California Management Review (Spring 1988); 34-56; Jeremy Main, “Manufacturing the Right Way,” Fortune, 21 May 1990, 54-64.
  9. 9. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-9 Differences Between Manufacturing and Service Technologies Manufacturing Technology 1. Tangible product 2. Products can be inventoried for later consumption 3. Capital asset intensive 4. Little direct customer interaction 5. Human element may be less important 6. Quality is directly measured 7. Longer response time is acceptable 8. Site of facility is moderately important Service Technology 1. Intangible product 2. Production and consumption take place simultaneously 3. Labor and knowledge intensive 4. Customer interaction generally high 5. Human element very important 6. Quality is perceived and difficult to measure 7. Rapid response time is usually necessary 8. Site of facility is extremely important Service: Airlines, Hotels,Consultants, Healthcare, Law firms Product and Service: Fast-food outlets, Cosmetics, Real estate, Stockbrokers, Retail stores Product: Soft drink companies, Steel companies, Auto manufacturers, Food processing plantsSources: Based on F. F. Reichheld and W. E. Sasser, Jr., “Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Services,” Harvard Business Review 68 (September-October 1990): 105-11; and David E. Bowen, Caren Siehl, and Benjamin Schneider, “A Framework for Analyzing Customer Service Orientations in Manufacturing,” Academy of Management Review 14 (1989): 75-95.
  10. 10. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-10 Configuration and Structural Characteristics of Service Organizations vs. Product Organizations Service Product Structure: Separate boundary roles Few Many Geographical dispersion Much Little Decision making Decentralized Centralized Formalization Lower Higher Human Resources: Employee skill level Higher Lower Skill emphasis Interpersonal Technical
  11. 11. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-11 Departmental Technologies  CRAFT  Low analyzability  Low variety  Examples:  Performing arts  Trades  Fine goods manufacturing  ROUTINE  High analyzability  Low variety  Examples:  Sales  Clerical  Drafting  Auditing
  12. 12. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-12  ENGINEERING  High analyzability  High variety  Examples:  Legal  Engineering  Tax accounting  General accounting  NONROUTINE  Low analyzability  High variety  Examples:  Strategic planning  Social science research  Applied research Departmental Technologies
  13. 13. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-13 Relationship of Department Technology to Structural and Management Characteristics Mechanistic Structure 1. High formalization 2. High centralization 3. Little training or experience 4. Wide span 5. Vertical, written communications ROUTINE Mostly Mechanistic Structure 1. Moderate formalization 2. Moderate centralization 3. Formal training 4. Moderate span 5. Written and verbal communications ENGINEERING Mostly Organic Structure 1. Moderate formalization 2. Moderate centralization 3. Work experience 4. Moderate to wide span 5. Horizontal, verbal communications CRAFT Organic Structure 1. Low formalization 2. Low centralization 3. Training plus experience 4. Moderate to narrow span 5. Horizontal communications meetings NONROUTINE
  14. 14. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-14 Thompson’s Classification of Interdependence and Management Implications Form of Interdependence Demands on Horizontal Communications, Decision Making Type of Coordination Required Priority for Locating Units Close Together Pooled (bank) Low communication Standardization, rules, procedures Divisional Structure Low Sequential (assembly line) Medium communication Plans, schedules, feedback Task Forces Medium Reciprocal (hospital) High communication Mutual adjustment, cross- departmental meetings, teamwork Horizontal Structure High Client Client Client
  15. 15. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-15 Primary Means to Achieve Coordination for Different Levels of Task Interdependence in a Manufacturing Firm Reciprocal (new product development) Sequential (product manufacture) Pooled (product delivery) COORDINATIONINTERDEPENDENCE High Low Horizontal structure, cross-functional teams Face-to-face communication, Unscheduled meetings, Full-time integrators Scheduled meetings, task forces Vertical communication Plans Rules Mutual Adjustment Planning Standardization Source: Adapted from Andrew H. Van de Ven, Andre Delbecq, and Richard Koenig, “Determinants of Communication Modes Within Organizations,” American Sociological Review 41 (1976): 330.
  16. 16. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-16 Relationships Among Interdependence and Other Characteristics of Team Play Baseball Football Basketball Interdependence: Pooled Sequential Reciprocal Physical dispersion of players: High Medium Low Coordination: Rules that govern the sport Game plan and position roles Mutual adjustment and shared responsibility Key management job: Select players and develop their skills Prepare and execute game Influence flow of game Source: Based on William Passmore, Carol E. Francis, and Jeffrey Halderman, “Sociotechnical Systems: A North American Reflection On the Empirical Studies of the 70’s,” Human Relations 35 (1982): 1179-1204.
  17. 17. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-17 Design for Joint Optimization Work roles, tasks, workflow Goals and values Skills and abilities Design for Joint Optimization Work roles, tasks, workflow Goals and values Skills and abilities Sociotechnical Systems Model The Social System Individual and team behaviors Organizational/team culture Management practices Leadership style Degree of communication and openness Individual needs and desires The Social System Individual and team behaviors Organizational/team culture Management practices Leadership style Degree of communication and openness Individual needs and desires The Technical System Type of production technology (small batch, mass production, FMS, etc.) Level of interdependence (pooled, sequential, reciprocal) Physical work setting Complexity of production process (variety and analyzability) Nature of raw materials Time pressure The Technical System Type of production technology (small batch, mass production, FMS, etc.) Level of interdependence (pooled, sequential, reciprocal) Physical work setting Complexity of production process (variety and analyzability) Nature of raw materials Time pressure Sources: Based on T. Cummings, “Self-Regulating Work Groups: A Socio-Technical Synthesis,” Academy of Management Review 3 (1978): 625-34; Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, 8th ed. (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1998), 492; and Gregory B. Northcraft and Margaret A. Neale, Organizational Behavior: A Management Challenge, 2nd ed. (Fort Worth, Tex.: The Dryden Press, 1994), 551.
  18. 18. Thomson Learning © 2004 7-18 Technology Comparison Workbook Activity McDonald’s Subway Family Restaurant Organization Goals Authority Structure Woodward’s Technology Type Mechanistic vs. Organic Teamwork vs. Individual Interdependence Routine vs. Nonroutine tasks Task Specialization Task Standardization Technical vs. Social Expertise Centralized vs. Decentralized

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