Lecture rm 1


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Lecture rm 1

  1. 1. M. Zeeshan Akbar M.Phil Computer Science 0321-4167063 Lecture # 1 University of Education, Lahore
  2. 2. Be considerate to others – switch off mobile phones during lectures, or put them into silent mode.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Welcome to Research Methods! <ul><li>Teaches you the skills and practices of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysing/Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directly relevant to your Research Activity (thesis/project). </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to be relevant to your future activities (research or otherwise…) ‏ </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>In general: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some work of scientist in laboratory in the shape of experiments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Term ‘Research’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re + Search whereas Re = Again and Search = to find something </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research is simply the process of findings solutions to a problem after thorough study and analysis of the situational factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>We can say that: </li></ul><ul><li>Research is oriented towards the discovery of relationship that exists among phenomena of the world in which we live. </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions: “The systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method interpreted in its broader sense, to the solution of social studiesal problems; conversely, any systematic study designed to promote the development of social studies as a science can be considered research” (George J. Mouly). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Research is, literally speaking, a kind of human behavior, an activity in which people engage. By this definition all intelligent human behavior involves some research” (Francis G. Cornell). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ Research is a carefully inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles; a diligent investigation to ascertain something, according to Webster’s New International Dictionary” (Clifford Woody). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Research is simply a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments, and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts, analysis these critically and reaches decisions based on the actual evidence. It evolves original work instead of mere exercise of personal. It evolves from a genuine desire to know rather than a desire to prove something. It is quantitative, seeking to know not only what but how much, and measurement is therefore, a central feature of it” (C. C. Crawford) </li></ul><ul><li>There are many more definitions of research available in literature. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>P.M. Cook has given a very comprehensive and functional definition of the term </li></ul><ul><li>research </li></ul><ul><li>“ Research is an honest exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meanings or </li></ul><ul><li>implications with reference to a given problem. The product or findings of a given piece of </li></ul><ul><li>research should be an authentic, verifiable and contribution to knowledge in the field studied.” </li></ul><ul><li>He has emphasized the following characteristics of research in his definition: </li></ul><ul><li>It is an honest and exhaustive process. </li></ul><ul><li>The facts are studied with understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>The facts are discovered in the light of problem. Research is problem-centred. </li></ul><ul><li>The findings are valid and verifiable. </li></ul><ul><li>Research work should contribute new knowledge in that field. </li></ul>What is research?
  9. 9. <ul><li>In fact we all do research every day – research is a particular kind of everyday thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>What is Research? Research Task Everyday Thinking Identify a problem How can I deal with my punctured tyre? Gather data Obtain prices of new tyres. Analysis the data What is the cheapest? Interpret the data That’s more than I want to pay. I need more information. Gather more data Is it reparable? Obtain prices for typre repair. Analysis the data Can it be repaired? What is the lowest cost? How does the cost compare with a new tyre? Interpret the data Repairing it is possible. Repair will cost 20% of a new tyre. Repair rather than replace means I can still afford to go out on Friday night. Draw conclusion I will get it repaired at Tyres-U-Like
  10. 10. <ul><li>Research is simply the process of finding solutions to a problem after through study and analysis of the situational factors. It is gathering information needed to answer a question, and thereby help in solving a problem. (nature of research problems could vary) </li></ul><ul><li>Some years ago man did not know what exactly the moon? (Now Man on Moon) </li></ul><ul><li>MA/M.Sc examination of the UOE 76 percent of the students failed. The researcher may come up with a variety of reasons that may relate with the students, the teachers, the curricula, the availability of books, the examination system, the family environment of the student, and many more. (This is an academic problem but certainly a research problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions in the examinations are not research because its solutions are already available in the text books, class-notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Research answers only those questions of which the answers are not available in literature i.e. in human knowledge. </li></ul>Value of Research
  11. 11. <ul><li>The researchers try to make use of their findings for generating theories and models that could be used for understanding human behavior and the functioning of different structures both at the micro (organizational) and macro (societal) level. </li></ul><ul><li>A person no longer looks up a word in dictionary or a historical fact in the encyclopedia he researches it. Many agencies claiming to do research are engaged in nothing more than fact-findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and administrators with knowledge of research have an advantage over those who are without. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers may not be doing the research themselves, in fact they could hire the services of professionals, and still they should be well conversant with research methodologies. The manager who is knowledgeable about research can interact effectively with outside researchers or consultants. </li></ul><ul><li>We are surrounded by Research </li></ul>Value of Research
  12. 12. <ul><li>Finding the truth </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based on objective evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge gained through strict methods </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge gain by experts </li></ul><ul><li>Open to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Open to scrutiny and inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Expert way of finding things out </li></ul><ul><li>Privileged way of knowing </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The following characteristics may be gathered from the definitions of ‘Research’: </li></ul><ul><li>It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources. </li></ul><ul><li>It places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses certain valid data gathering devices. </li></ul><ul><li>It is logical and objective. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher resists the temptation to seek only the data that support his hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher eliminates personal feelings and preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is patient and unhurried activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is carefully recorded and reported. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and generalizations are arrived at carefully and cautiously. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A sound philosophy as the basis of research </li></ul><ul><li>Requires an inter-disciplinary approach (It must be related to the study of complex relationships of various facts). </li></ul><ul><li>Employs deductive reasoning process (mathematical or measurement procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Should come out of a desire to do things better </li></ul><ul><li>Is not as exact as research in physical science (No two human beings have ever been found to be alike) </li></ul><ul><li>Is not the field of the specialist only </li></ul><ul><li>Generally requires inexpensive material </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps incapable of being dealt through empirical method </li></ul><ul><li>Based on inter dependence of causes and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be a mechanical process (not something that can be ground out as by a machine) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The main functions of research are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>To improve research procedures through the refinement and extension of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The refinement of existing knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge is essentially an intermediate step toward the improvement of the social studiesal process </li></ul>
  16. 16. Go forth and research…. … .but be careful out there.