Important questions of physiology for 1st year mbbs students by dr. mudassar ali roomi
IMPORTANT SEQs of PHYSIOLOGY by DR. MUDASSAR ALI ROOMI 1. Define cardiac cycle. What are its phases? Compare and contrast the features of iso-volumic contraction and relaxation. *** 2. Draw and label the phases of action potential of ventricular and SA nodal fiber. What do you understand by pre-potential? *** 3. Draw and label the various components of cardiac conduction system along with timings of conduction of impulse. What do you understand by AV nodal delay? What is its importance? 4. Draw and label normal ECG. Describe the waves, segments and intervals of normal ECG? *** 5. What do you understand by AV blocks? Draw the rough ECG findings of 3 degrees of AV blocks. What is stocks-Adams Syndrome? *** 6. Compare the features of 1st and 2nd heart sounds. Enlist 2 conditions each which produce diastolic and systolic murmers. ** 7. Explain briefly the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the activity of heart. 8. Describe ventricular pressure and volume changes during cardiac cycle. *** 9. Describe the atrial pressure changes during cardiac cycle. What is the role of atria in ventricular filling? ** 10. Regulation of cardiac output and venous return *** 11. Measurement of cardiac output by Oxygen Fick principle and dye dilution method. *** 12. Coronary circulation and its regulation *** 13. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes during exercise *** 14. Baroreceptor reflex, CNS ischemic response *** 15. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood *** 16. Fe deficiency and B12 deficiency anemias. 17. erythroblastosis fetalis 18. Hazards of blood transfusion especially mismatched blood transfusion *** 19. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood clotting *** 20. Stages of erythropoisis and Factors affecting it. Role of erythropoitin 21. Role of reticuloendothelial system 22. Positive and negative feedback mechanisms along with examples 23. Characteristics of various types of transport across the cells membrane along with examples. *** 24. Define and explain the Frank-Starling mechanism of heart function regulation? 25. Why SA node is called as the normal pacemaker of heart? What is meant by ectopic pacemaker? What is the clinical importance of override suppressive mechanism of SA node on all other parts of cardiac conduction system? 26. Enlist the properties of cardiac muscle fibers? Explain the mechanism of autorrhythmicity seen in heart. ** 27. What do you understand by ventricular fibrillation? What is its mechanism of its development? Why it is called as the most serious of all arrhythmias? How this may be stopped? ** 28. Define sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia. Mention physiological and pathological causes of both of these arrhythmias. Why athletes have physiological bradycardia? 29. Define premature contraction of heart. What are its types and possible causes? What is the relation of ‘compensatory pause’ and ‘pulse deficit’ to premature contractions? 30. Define the following terms: a. Pacemaker potential or pre-potential . b. Windkessel effect.
c. Sinus arrhythmia. d. Tipple rhythm or Gallop Rhythm31. Give rationale or logical basis for the following phenomena of cardiac physiology? a. Incisura seen in aortic pressure curve. b. Rapid transmission in Purkinje system. c. AV nodal Delay.32. Give minimum and maximum pressures in the following structures during cardiac cycle. a. Right and left atrium. b. Right and left ventricle. c. Aorta. d. Pulmonary artery.33. Draw and label cardiac cycle. ***34. Compare Saltatory and Non-Saltatory conduction of action Potential along a nerve fiber? **35. Enlist and briefly explain the factors responsible for generation of resting membrane potential at an axonal membrane. Also give the mathematical calculations for this potential? **36. Draw and explain all the phases of action potential. Also mention the ionic bases for all these phases? ***37. Explain the molecular events occurring during muscle contraction?38. Explain in a stepwise manner the steps of excitation-contraction coupling?39. What do you understand by graded potential? How it differs from action potential?40. Draw the diagram of neuromuscular junction and explain the transmission at this junction in a stepwise manner? ***41. Define and explain the latch mechanism of smooth muscle contraction? **42. Differentiate b/w unitary and multi-unit types of smooth muscle fibers? **43. What is diffusing capacity of respiratory membrane? Which factors affect exchange of gases through this membrane? 2+3 **44. Classify causes of hypoxia. Explain hypoxic hypoxia (or any other type may be asked). 2+3 **45. Draw a spirogram and label different lung volumes and capacities. What is the significance of FEV1/FVC ratio? 3+2 ***46. Classify chemoreceptors. Also mentions their location. How do peripheral chemoreceptors modulate the rate of ventilation? 1+1+347. Draw and label oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve. Enumerate the factors which shift this curve towards the right. What is Bohr’s effect? 2+1+2 ***48. What do you understand by acclimatization at high altitude? What physiological changes occur during this process? 2+349. Mechanisms of temperature regulation during hot and cold weather50. Draw and label strength –duration curve and define rheobase, utilization time and chronaxie.