Managing Teaching and Learning
Unit 3: Monitoring and Evaluation of Curriculum Planning
and Implementation - Session 7
Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD)
22 August 2009
2. Monitoring the deployment of physical,
material and financial resources;
3. Managing curriculum resources
- Planning with curriculum in mind;
- Resources related to curriculum delivery;
- Staff development;
- Curriculum change;
1. Teaching to fish is better than
2. Leadership is a decision, not a
position or set of skills;
3. Leaders breed leaders, not
4. You don’t need me to be a
2. There is no
What is Monitoring and Evaluation?
Monitoring is the systematic, regular collection and
occasional analysis of information to identify and possibly
measure changes over a period of time.
Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness and direction of
an activity and involves making a judgment about progress
The main differences between monitoring and evaluation are
the timing and frequency of observations and the types of
questions asked. However, when monitoring and evaluation
are integrated, the line between the two becomes rather
Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is the joint
effort or partnership of two or more stakeholders to monitor
and evaluate, systematically, one or more research or
development activities (Vernooy et al., 2003).
Why should we M&E?
In general, the purpose of monitoring & evaluation can be:
• To assess results - to find out if and how objectives are being met and are
resulting in desired changes.
• To improve management and process planning - to better adapt to
contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect
the research process.
• To promote learning - to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how
different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to
learn what works and what does not, and to identify what contextual factors
enable or constrain the participatory research.
• To understand different stakeholders' perspectives - to allow, through direct
participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people
involved in the organisation to better understand each others views and
values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and
• To ensure accountability - to assess whether the organisation is effectively,
appropriately, and efficiently executed to be accountable to they key
agencies (Estrella and Gaventa, 1998).
Methods and Techniques of
Programmes even with a good planning,
adequate organisational machinery and sufficient
flow of resources cannot automatically achieve
the desired result.
• There must be some warning mechanism, which
can alert the organisation about its possible
success and failures, off and on.
• Constant watching not only saves wastage of
scarce resources but also ensure speedy
execution of the programmes.
• Thus monitoring enables a continuing critique of
the programme implementation.
Monitoring means keeping a track of
• Monitoring involves watching the progress of a
project against time, resources and performance
schedules during the execution of the project
and identifying lagging areas requiring timely
attention and action.
• Monitoring is defined as a management function
to guide in the intended direction and to check
performance against pre – determined plans.
• Monitoring means periodic checking of progress
of works against the targets laid down in order
to ensure timely completion of the programme.
Reasons for Monitoring
Efficiency refers to the amount of time and resources put
into the programme relative to the outputs and outcomes. A
programme evaluation may be designed to find out if there
was a less expensive, more appropriate, less time-consuming
approach for reaching the same objectives.
• Effectiveness describes whether or not the organisational
process was useful in reaching programme goals and
objectives, or resulted in positive outcomes.
• Relevance or appropriateness describes the usefulness,
ethics, and flexibility of a programme within the particular
Combined, these criteria enable judgment about whether the
outputs and outcomes of the programme are worth the costs
of the inputs. Effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness can
be considered for the different methods, tools and approaches
rather than questioning the value of the approach as a whole.
Purpose of Monitoring
Programme monitoring helps to provide
constructive suggestions like.
• Re-scheduling the programme (if the
programme run behind the schedule)
• Re-budgeting the programme
(appropriating funds from one head to
another; avoiding expenses under
• Re–assigning the staff (shifting the staff
from one area to other; recruiting
temporary staff to meet the time
What to Monitor
Understanding the conditions before the
programme was initiated is useful in order to
provide a point of comparison for monitor and
evaluating changes that occur during the
• Baseline survey conducted at the beginning of
the programme can provide a point of reference
for comparison and for understanding changes.
• It is useful to distinguish between the different
kinds of results generated from the
programme: outputs, processes, outcomes,
impact and reach.
Different kinds of Results in
These can be briefly defined as follows:
• Outputs describe the concrete and tangible products of
the organisation as well as the occurrence of the
• Processes describe the methods and approaches used
for the programme.
• Outcomes describe the changes that occur that can be
attributed, at least in part, to the programme process
• Impact describes overall changes that occur which the
programme is one of many contributing factors.
• Reach describes who is influenced by the programme
and who acts because of this influence.
Steps in Monitoring
Identifying the different units involved in
planning & implementation
• Identifying items on which feedback is
• Developing pro-forma for reporting.
• Determining the periodicity of reporting.
• Fixing the responsibility of reporting at
• Processing and analysing the reports.
• Identifying the critical / unreliable areas in
• Providing feedback to corrective measures.
Meaning of Evaluation
Evaluation has its origin in the Latin word
“Valupure” which means the value of a
particular thing, idea or action. Evaluation,
thus, helps us to understand the worth, quality,
significance amount, degree or condition of
any intervention desired to tackle a social
• Finding out the value of something.
• The procedures of fact finding
• Assessments whether or not certain activities, treatment and
interventions are in conformity with generally accepted
• Is any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or
the outcome of interventions, treatment or of social change
• To provide systematic, reliable and valid information on the
conduct, impact and effectiveness of the projects.
Purpose of Evaluation
1. From an accountability perspective:
• To make the best possible use of funds by the programme
managers who are accountable for the worth of their
• Measuring accomplishment in order to avoid weaknesses and
-Observing the efficiency of the techniques and skills employed
-Scope for modification and improvement.
-Verifying whether the benefits reached the people for whom the
programme was meant.
2. From a knowledge perspective:
• To establish new knowledge about social problems and the
effectiveness of policies/programmes designed to alleviate
• Understanding people’s participation & reasons for the same.
• Evaluation helps to make plans for future work.
Principles of Evaluation
1. Evaluation is a continuous process (continuity).
2. Evaluation should involve minimum possible costs
3. Evaluation should be done without prejudice to day to day
work (minimum hindrance to day to day work).
4. Evaluation must be done on a co-operative basis in which
the entire staff and the board members should participate
5. As far as possible, the organisation should evaluate its
programme but occasionally outside evaluation machinery
should also be made use of (external evaluation).
6. Total overall examination of the organisation will reveal
strength and weaknesses (organisation/programme
7. The result of evaluation should be shared with all in the
Criteria for Developing Evaluation Assistance
Steps in Evaluation
1. Learning about the programme;
2. Creating an evaluation plan and
3. Brief the concerned people about the
evaluation plan and indicators;
4. Revising and elaborating on the
5. Initiating evaluation, and;
6. Utilising/ sharing the information.
Types of Evaluation (1)
1. By timing (when to evaluate?)
• Done during the programme (development stages)
• Done at the end of the programme (assessment)
2. By organization (who is evaluating?)
• It is a process/impact, done by management
• Unbiased,objective detailed assessment by outsider
3. By stage (how frequent?)
On going (during the implementation)
Terminal (at the end of or immediately after completion)
Ex-post (after a time lag from completion) 23
Types of Evaluation (2)
Present Situation Time
Mid-Term review End-of project or Ex-post or impact
final evaluation evaluation
Views about Evaluation
Evaluation primarily perceived from three
1. Evaluation as an analysis - determining the merits or
deficiencies of a programme, methods and
2. Evaluation as an audit - systematic and continuous
enquiry to measure the efficiency of means to reach
their particular preconceived ends.
3. Evaluation as administration - appraisal or judgement
of the worth and effectiveness of all the processes
(e.g. planning, organising, staffing, etc.) designed to
ensure that the organisation accomplishes its
Areas of Evaluation
• The review the objectives of the organisation/programme and how far these are
• Aspects like number of beneficiaries, nature of services rendered to them, their
reaction to the services, effectiveness and adequacy of services, etc. may be
• The success of any programme depends upon the type of the staff an
organisation employs. Their attitude, qualifications, recruitment policy, pay
and other benefits and organisational environment. These are the areas
which help to understand the effectiveness of the organization/programme.
• The flow of resources and its consumption is a crucial factor in any organisation.
Whether the money is rightly consumed, any over spending in some
headings, appropriation and misappropriation. These are some of the
indicators that reveal the reasons for the success or failures of organisations.
• Factors like public relations strategies employed by the organisation, the
constitution of the organisation or governing body and their contribution to
future plans of the organisation are important to understand the success or
failures of an organisation.
• Analysis of the overall effects of the programme
• Analysis of the contribution of the proogramme purpose
Overall Objectives to the overall objectives
• Focus on long-term changes in the environment of the
• “Collection” and analysis of information, focusing on the
finalbeneficiaries of the programme
• Also analysis of unintended impacts (negativeand
Programme Purpose positive)
• Analysis on how well the production of results
• Contributes to the achievement of the purpose, i.e.: Are
Results + there clear Indications of changes and improvements
that benefit the beneficiaries?
• Uses base-line information on the pre programme
situation as a starting point
• Analysis on how successful the programme has been in
Assumptions transforming the means (i.e. the resources and inputs
allocated to the project) through activities into concrete
• Provides the stakeholders with information on inputs/costs
Means + per unit produced
3. Managing curriculum
- Planning with curriculum in mind;
- Resources related to curriculum
- Staff development;
- Curriculum change;
KZN - Need to plan for and manage
curriculum development and delivery
1. Ensure that the implementation of the curriculum is an effective and smooth process;
2. Create a safe and empowering environment for teacher and learning;
3. Create effective quality management and monitoring systems;
4. Contextualise curriculum issues within the broader school management and
5. Align the school’s development plan with the curriculum;
6. Make learning relevant to the context of the learners;
7. Manage the resources optimally (physical site, human, financial resources, learners
and support materials);
8. Ensure clarity of focus;
9. Accommodate the diversity of needs and demographics of the school;
10. Reduce the risk of non-delivery;
11. Prevent curriculum overload;
12. Integrate planning vertically, across and within learning programmes; and
13. Reflect OBE principles by modelling them in al aspects of school life. 30
Learning orientated Teaching (LoT) -
Ten Cate et al 2004
The main characteristics of the model are:
1. (1) The components of learning:
• cognition (what to learn),
• affect (why learn), and
• Meta-cognition (how to learn); and
• (2) The amount of guidance learners need.
2. If education aims at fostering one's ability to function independently in
society, an important general objective should be that one learns how to
fully and independently regulate his or her own learning; i.e., the ability
to pursue one's professional life independently.
3. This implies a transition from external guidance (from the teacher)
through shared guidance (by the learner together with the teacher) to
internal guidance (by the learner alone).
4. This transition pertains not only to the cognitive component of learning
(content) but also to the affective component (motives) and the meta-
cognitive component (learning strategies).
Features of the Teaching
and Learning Cycle
The main purpose is learner learning.
1. Expectations for learning change from the “most capable
learners” to “all learners.”
2. The pace of instruction is determined by learner learning.
3. The process begins with assessment rather than ending
4. Assessment data is used to inform instruction instead of
only for grading.
5. Learner progress toward learning targets is continuously
monitored and documented.
6. Differentiated instruction based on flexible grouping
replaces whole class instruction.
• On the provided sheet reflecting the eight
School Readiness Components, please
indicate at what level your school is
functioning, given the fact that you have
collected them all in your portfolio.
• On an A4, indicate what the next level
forward from where you are, would look
like, for each of the 8 components.
• See example on next slide!
Example of activity 7.1
School Readiness Components 0 1 2 3 4 5 Diff.
1. Attendance (T&L)
2. Teacher Information
3. Learner Information
4. Annual Planning
6. Quarterly Teaching Schedule
8. Teaching and Learning Support
Write an A4 page summary of each
of the following Models on the
Teaching and Learning process
1.John Carrol’s Model;
4.Gage and Berliner’s Model; and
After your study of the five different Models
on the Teaching and Learning process,
please analyse the model(s) which is(are)
dominant in your school. Write a report on
an A4 page about your findings, and
possible reasons for this phenomena.
Consult at least one other principal in the
University of Pretoria ACE - programme for
comments and/or advise.
Quote of the Day!
No man (or woman) can be a
good teacher unless he (she)
has feelings of warm affection
toward his pupils and a
genuine desire to impart to
them what he himself believes
to be of value.
• Bertrand Russell