TUT EDU210T - Transformational leadership

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TUT EDU210T - Transformational leadership

  1. 1. Transformational leadership<br />A prerequisite for implementing dynamic curriculum reform<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />
  3. 3. Shakespeare – Richard II<br />``We were not born to sue [plead or request], but to command'', he says (Richard II, I.i.196), noting repeatedly throughout the play (in variants of these words):<br />Not all the water in the rough rude sea can wash the balm off from an anointed king (Richard II, III.ii.54-5).<br />Richard expects to be obeyed simply because he is a king, incorrectly believing his authority to be unassailable. <br />This of course is precisely the managerial mentality that demands obedience on the basis of situational authority alone: ``I‘m the king (or manager, or personnel committee, or Board) and can do exactly as I please''.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Machiavelli lives on in Modern Leadership -quotes from Machiavelli's The Prince – early 1500’s<br />If you have to make a choice, to be feared is much safer than to be loved. For it is a good general rule about men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, liars and deceivers, fearful of danger and greedy for gain.<br />Those princes (leaders) have accomplished most who paid little heed to keeping their promises, but who knew how to manipulate the minds of men craftily. In the end, they won out over those who tried to act honestly.<br />You must be a great liar and a hypocrite. Men are so simple of mind, and so much dominated by their immediate needs, that a deceitful man will always find plenty who are ready to be deceived.<br />Shocking!!!!<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Machiavelli's Laws – early 1500’s<br />Law 3:  Conceal Your Intentions<br />Law 6:  Court Attention at All Costs<br />Law 7:  Get Others to Work for You, But Always Take the Credit<br />Law 17:  Keep Others in Suspended Terror: Cultivate an Air of Unpredictability<br />Is this me?<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Case study<br /> You are sent on a one-way trip to Mars by NASA and are required to meet with the Main Martian Leader in order to negotiate colonisation rights. How can you be sure that the being you are introduced to, is truly the Main Martian Leader?<br />
  7. 7. Successful leaders have:(Anthony Robbins)<br />Passion – no success without a passion for success<br />Belief – must support you in attaining goals<br />Strategy – an intelligent sense of logical progression<br />Clarity of values – no conflict between our values and strategy for achievement<br />Energy – success is inseparable from the physical, intellectual, and spiritual energy<br />Bonding power – ability to connect with and develop rapport<br />Mastery of communication – ability to communicate a vision<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Specific outcomes<br />Understand the vision and processes essential for implementing curriculum reform <br />Demonstrate competence as curriculum leaders in your school and community<br />Implement the underpinning principles of transformational leadership<br />Draw up strategy to implement transformational leadership<br />Facilitate understanding of individual and team behaviour according to the SLM<br />8<br />
  9. 9. No dynamic curriculum reform before transformational leadership<br />New philosophical base<br />Organised within new system<br />Resulting in re-conceptualisation of classroom practice<br />9<br />Having the curriculum documents (NCS) is not equal to implementing the spirit, intent and logistics in practice<br />
  10. 10. The National Department of Education is phasing in CAP<br /> To improve its implementation, the National Curriculum Statement was amended, with the amendments coming into effect in January 2011. A single comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment Policy document (CAP) was developed for each subject to replace the old Subject Statements (NCS), Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines in Grades R - 12. <br />10<br />
  11. 11. Processes imbedded in transformational leadership<br />Idealised influencing<br />Inspirational motivation<br />Intellectual stimulation<br />Individual consideration<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Idealised influencing<br />Getting collaboration and commitment to develop conditions for successful curriculum reform, i.e. Convincing role-players<br />Understanding that the level of energy is dependant on internalisation of rationale (why?) behind and goals of renewed curriculum <br />The intent behind curriculum reform should satisfy all stakeholder’s needs, wants and values<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Transformation process<br />Dependant on early decisions by originator of coalition leadership, i.e.:<br />Who is included?<br />Who is excluded?<br />Logistics?<br />Dependent on getting (convincing) the role players to want to participate as well as demonstrate a deep sense of commitment <br />13<br />
  14. 14. Convincing stakeholders for curriculum reform means:<br />Creating a warm climate conducive to:<br />Renewal<br />Enthusiasm<br />Ownership <br />Accountability<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Behavioural research findings:<br />Only form of sustainable change comes from “within”.<br />Fundamental role of leadership – to create an environment where people exercise their freedom of choice to change<br />People’s level of commitment is relative to their understanding and internalisation of the rationale behind the goals of renewed curriculum<br />The greater the perceived coherence between individual values, needs, wants and intent of curriculum reform, the higher the individual’s motivation<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Development of ideal conditions<br />The essence of idealised influencing is locked into a collaborative process of getting team members committed to developing ideal conditions for successful curriculum implementation.<br />Ideal conditions represent specific end-state deliverables, values, best practices and new working habits.<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Development of ideal conditions<br />Reiterative process – long time<br />Provides platform for facilitative leader to create understanding of all issues, consequential thinking and what the trade-offs are for each decision<br />This stage produces waves of intense conflict, disillusionment, confusion and resistance to change<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Attitudes towards change<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Attitudes towards change<br />Enthusiasts – pioneers, high risk, innovation<br />Supporters – readily accept challenge of new if well founded & tested<br />Acquiescers – receive but not initiate new ideas (path of least resistance)<br />Laggards – sceptical, comfort zone, go with majority<br />Antagonists – explosive resistance to change<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Stages of concern<br />I have some ideas about something that would work better<br />I am concerned about relating what I am doing to what other teachers are doing <br />How is my use (of change) affecting learners?<br />6 refocusing<br />5 collaboration<br />4 consequences<br />impact<br />task<br />3 management<br />I seem to be spending all my time getting material ready<br />2 personal<br />1 informational<br />0 awareness<br />How will using it (change) affect me?<br />I would like to know more about it.<br />I am not concerned about the innovation (change)<br />self<br />
  21. 21. Inspirational motivation<br />Reducing multitude of intricate matters to a few key issues<br />Simplicity forms a platform for further discussions – understanding and consensus<br />Aim to energise critical mass of all stakeholders (teachers, learners, etc.) towards common goal<br />Goals broken up into manageable chunks – timeframes, acceptance criteria, responsibilities<br />Controlling of all issues relating to curriculum re-design<br />Achievements publically recognised<br />Recognition sparks inspiration<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Intellectual stimulation<br />Policy terminology – common understanding/shared mental model<br />Break paralysing effect of rumours prior to implementation<br />Continuous Professional Development (CPD) – quality in-service training<br />Performance assessment- check knowledge of teachers<br />Utilise co-operative learning context – no intimidation<br />Systematic facilitation of meetings, action plans, information dissemination – district office, Prov. Ed. Dept. <br />22<br />
  23. 23. Individual consideration<br />Effectiveness of curriculum reform is dependant on individual’s interests, value system, roles, etc.<br />Leader must show empathy, social judgement, timing, situational analysis skills<br />Establish one-on-one interpersonal relationship<br />Leader to focus on individual strengths – not weaknesses<br />Situational differences – school’s HR management ethos/culture not identical <br />23<br />
  24. 24. Situational Leadership Model<br />Situational facilitation is based on the relationship between:<br />Amount of guidance & direction (task behaviour) a facilitator gives related to a specific task<br />Amount of emotional support (relationship behaviour) a facilitator provides<br />The ability & willingness of learners/ teachers/ people to perform the task/function/activity<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Behaviour modes<br />Task/directive behaviour = the extent to which a facilitator spells out the responsibility and/or next steps, i.e. How, what, when ,where, who, etc. <br />Relationship/supportive behaviour = extent to which facilitator engages in a two/multi way communication – listening & supporting<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Components/variables of maturity<br />Ability – knowledge, skills, values, attitude (experience) of group or person to do the task/part-task<br />Willingness – extent to which person/group has the confidence, commitment, motivation to do the task/part-task - strong connection with Stages of Concern Model<br />The specific task defines/the what and how of willingness and ability – thus the facilitator needs to display various degrees of task and/or relationship (support) behaviour to manage the gap<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Situational Leadership Model<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Facilitation toolkit for transformational leaders<br />Attract strong feelings of identity and emotions<br />Send clear message of purpose and mission<br />Generate excitement via heightened expectations<br />Establish intense one-on-one relationships<br />Poses empathy for individuals<br />Arouse interest in change through critical thinking and debate<br />Challenge the process of change<br />Be visionary and empowering <br />Be role models/icons <br />28<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />
  30. 30. The transformational Leader provides dynamic action by:<br />Providing clarity of focus – all understand intent and outcomes<br />Understanding group and change dynamics – natural phenomena<br />Starting and keeping productive group dynamics going – uses models<br />Monitoring progress – clear outcomes, accountability of individuals<br />Effectively networking – share ideas, best practices, provide emotional support<br />Creating clear priorities and systematic implementation<br />Celebrating small successes<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Assignments<br />7.1.1 List the four social processes/principles underpinning transformational leadership within the context of implementing curriculum reform (4)<br />Answer<br />Idealised influencing<br />Inspirational motivation<br />Individual consideration<br />Intellectual stimulation<br />31<br />
  32. 32. 7.1.2 As a curriculum leader, implement the principles underpinning transformational leadership within the context of implementing a reformed curriculum. Be brief in your approach and only highlight eight (8) aspects of each one of the principles.<br />Answer<br />Principle 1 - Idealised influencing<br />Getting collaboration and commitment to develop conditions for successful curriculum reform, i.e. Convincing role-players<br />Understanding that the level of energy is dependant on internalisation of rationale (why?) behind and goals of renewed curriculum <br />The intent behind curriculum reform should satisfy all stakeholder’s needs, wants and values<br />Creating a warm climate conducive to renewal, enthusiasm, ownership, accountability<br />Ideal conditions represent specific end-state deliverables, values, best practices and new working habits.<br />The five (5) attitudes towards change<br />The six (6) stages of concern<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Principle 2 - Inspirational motivation<br />Reducing multitude of intricate matters to a few key issues<br />Simplicity forms a platform for further discussions – understanding and consensus<br />Aim to energise critical mass of all stakeholders (teachers, learners, etc.) towards common goal<br />Goals broken up into manageable chunks – timeframes, acceptance criteria, responsibilities<br />Controlling of all issues relating to curriculum re-design<br />Achievements publically recognised<br />Recognition sparks inspiration<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Principle 3 – Intellectual stimulation<br />Policy terminology – common understanding/shared mental model<br />Break paralysing effect of rumours prior to implementation<br />Continuous Professional Development (CPD) – quality in-service training<br />Performance assessment- check knowledge of teachers<br />Utilise co-operative learning context – no intimidation<br />Systematic facilitation of meetings, action plans, information dissemination – district office, Prov. Ed. Dept. <br />34<br />
  35. 35. Principle 4 – Individual consideration<br />Effectiveness of curriculum reform is dependant on individual’s interests, value system, roles, etc.<br />Leader must show empathy, social judgement, timing, situational analysis skills<br />Establish one-on-one interpersonal relationship<br />Leader to focus on individual strengths – not weaknesses<br />Situational differences – school’s HR management ethos/culture not identical <br />35<br />
  36. 36. 7.1.3 Identify five(5) attitudes of change and briefly give meaning to each one of the attitudes.<br />Answer<br />Enthusiasts – pioneers, high risk, innovation<br />Supporters – readily accept challenge of new if well founded & tested<br />Acquiescers – receive but not initiate new ideas (path of least resistance)<br />Laggards – sceptical, comfort zone, go with majority<br />Antagonists – explosive resistance to change<br />7.2.1 Labelled diagram (Page 17 of Educational management)<br />36<br />
  37. 37. 7.3.1 How does the facilitative leader ensure that the team remains enthusiastic and that team’s interest and commitment do not wane after the initiation phase?<br />Answer<br />Providing clarity of focus – all understand intent and outcomes<br />Understanding group and change dynamics – natural phenomena<br />Starting and keeping productive group dynamics going – uses models<br />Monitoring progress – clear outcomes, accountability of individuals<br />Effectively networking – share ideas, best practices, provide emotional support<br />Creating clear priorities and systematic implementation<br />Celebrating small successes<br />37<br />

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