OPV 361 Globalisation Lecture 5 8 X 2

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OPV 361 Globalisation Lecture 5 8 X 2

  1. 1. Education, Markets and Globalisation Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Lecture 5 - 8 Week 2: 15 - 18 February 2010 1 Introduction 1. Assignment (500 - 550 words) - Choose a topic on Globalisation from within your field of specialisation; 2. Design and produce an A3 poster on the assignment; 3. Work in groups of three (3) - produce your own work (different topics) - read each other’s essay and make constructive suggestions - final product must be marked out of 10 - declaration - hand in on 8 March 2010 by 14h00; 4. Test on 4 March 2010, at 17h30 at Groenkloof, Exam in June; 5. References of articles on Globalisation on page 37. 2 1
  2. 2. Lecture 5 Thinking Globally – Cohen R. and Kennedy P. (2000) • Changing concepts of space and time; 1. An increasing volume of cultural interactions; 2. The commonality of problems facing all the world’s inhabitants. 3 5.1.1 Changing concepts of space and time • Leading Globalisation theorist – Robertson (1992, p.8,27) – cultures and societies are being squeezed together • Driven towards increased mutual interaction; • “Compression of the world” – world is being one place and one system; • Therefore – need a shift in “space and time”; • Harvey (1989, p.240-254) – pre-modern society – space was understood in concrete localities; movement was dangerous and difficult, safer to remain in they enjoy fixed and unchanging rights and obligations; • However, important changes have altered this: 4 2
  3. 3. 5.1.2 Alteration to understanding of space and time 1. The beginnings of Arab, Chinese, Pacific Islander and European exploration and navigation of the world; 2. Copernicus’s theory, published in 1543, which established that the sun, not the earth, was the centre of our planetary system; 3. The discovery of the rules of perspectives in visual art; 4. The rise of humanist, people-centred, ways of thinking about human life in place of a solely religious pre- occupation spurred by Renaissance thinking; 5. The increasing use of the mechanical printing press; 6. The advent of the mechanical clock; 7. The unfolding revolution of transport technology associated with industrialisation. 5 5.1.3 Example: Transport technology Changes in the speed of transport, 1500 – 1960s 1500 – 1840 1850 – 1930 1950s 1960s Horse-drawn Steamships Propeller air Jet air coaches/ sail and ships locomotives 16 kph 56 – 104 kph 480 – 640 kph 800 – 1120 kph Source: Dicken (1992, p.104) 6 3
  4. 4. 5.1.4 Time-space compression Implication of this shift? • Time and distance have dwindled in significance as forces shaping human actions; • Less bound by ties to specific places and events; • Both space and time have become freely available for us to manipulate and control; • We can accomplish far more things in any given unit of time and events crowd in upon us at an ever-greater speed; • With life becoming faster, so distance is conquered; • We judge distance i.t.o. time required to complete a journey, not by the number of kilometres between two points; • No one people is wholly confined to one place and mass travel enables many to experience other cultures; 7 5.1.5 Time-space compression Implication of this shift? (cont.) • Our social horizons are indefinitely extended; • We are less dependent upon particular people and fixed social relationships; • Mass television, satellite communication; • World population is placed on same stage; • Emergence of global movements; • But changes are not experience equally; • Without the technology, fewer distance in kilometres could be more distant that far greater kilometres in real terms. 8 4
  5. 5. 5.2.1 Increasing Cultural Interaction • Culture = all the modes of thought, behaviour and artefacts that are transmitted from generation to generation, by example, education and public record; • Specific intellectual, artistic and aesthetic attainments in music, painting, literature, film and other forms of expression; • Culture is rich in imagery, metaphors, signs and symbols; • Also ‘abstract systems of understanding’ – computer language 9 5.2.2 Increasing Cultural Interaction • Culture and knowledge were acquired and reinforced mainly in informal, everyday learning with close family, church and community life; • Diffusion to other social contexts took place very slowly and in a fragmented way; • Cultural interaction arising from increased contact between peoples have gradually exposed all humans to meanings in other societies; • Immense expansion in the scope and spread of abstract knowledge linked to science and growing availability of mass, formal education. 10 5
  6. 6. 5.2.3 Increasing Cultural Interaction These cultural interaction has generated several important consequences: • Can use cultural meanings across societies; • Greater access to cultural meanings; • Can obtain full pictures of other lifestyles; • Possible to know about other people’s culture; • Electronic mass media affect all those who are exposed to it; • Made conscious that we live in a pluralist, multi- cultural world – invited to participate; • Western and USA influences dominate the volume and character of culture and knowledge flow. 11 5.3.1 Commonality of problems • Tsunami, earthquakes, wars, etc. – reminder of our common humanity; • Our vulnerabilities to accident and misfortune – and the existential truth that we all inhabit the same small planet; • Our choice not only rebound on our own lives, they directly affect the lives of others far away; • Often unaware of this and do not intend our action to harm distant strangers. 12 6
  7. 7. 5.3.2 Commonality of problems • Global problems require global solutions; • Can’t act alone: border problems, radio- active accidents, currencies speculation, drug-trafficking, etc; • Only collaboration between governments and regulation at the global level can provide genuine solutions; • Problem for ‘rich and poor’. 13 Lecture 6 Thinking Globally – Cohen R. and Kennedy P. (2000) 4. Growing inter-connections and inter- dependencies; 5. A network of increasingly powerful transnational actors and organisation. 14 7
  8. 8. 5.4.1 Growing inter-connections and inter-dependencies • Localities, countries, companies, social movements, professional and other groups and citizens are woven into a dense network of transnational exchanges and affiliations; • Castells 1996 – we live in a ‘network society’; • They have burst over territorial borders; • The power of knowledge flows ‘takes precedence over the flows of power’ • No clear cut separation between national and international life; • International system consists of different layers of interactions and connections; • ‘Locality and geography will disappear altogether, the world will genuinely be one place and the national state will be redundant’; 15 5.4.2 Growing inter-connections and inter-dependencies Greater need for ensure that: • Financial structure and creation of credit; • Knowledge structure maintenance; • Increase in technology across nations; • Limited choice ‘not to go global’ be protected; • Regulative control and democratic accountability not to lead to ecological destruction, social fragmentation and poverty 16 8
  9. 9. 5.5 Transnational actors and organisations • Transnational corporations (TNCs); • International governmental organisations (IGOs); • International non-governmental organisations (INGOs); • Global social movements (GSMs); • Diasporas and stateless people; • Other transnational actors (migrants; international tourists; professionals; media personalities; corporation personnel; students, diplomats, etc.) 17 5.6 Synchronisation of all dimensions • All dimensions – economic, technological, political, social and cultural – come together, reinforcing and magnifying the impact of the other; • Economic – governments lost power; • Technology – enormous growth in media and information; • Political – concern beyond borders; • Social – international movements; • Culture – expansion of cultural flow. 18 9
  10. 10. Lecture 7 Globalism: A new phenomenon 1. Thinking about ourselves collectively while identifying with all humanity; 2. The end to one-way flows and the growth of multi- cultural awareness; 3. The empowerment of self-awareness social actors; 4. The broadening of identities. 5. The origins of supra-national organisations; 6. Multi-national and trans-national corporations 19 7.1 Thinking about ourselves collectively • Humankind – thinking about ourselves collectively; • Focusing on our shared concern; • Cementing that all people have basic human rights; • Mr Nelson Mandela is embodying this concept; • Ubuntu – a person is a person through other people 20 10
  11. 11. 7.2 A network of increasingly powerful transnational actors and organisation • We are possessing the technology to support the choice of sharing the governance of our planet rather than fighting with one another to see who will be in charge – Perlmutter 1991, p.901; • The era of one-sided cultural and political flows is over; • Cooperation around a set of shared values and structures is possible, necessary and desirable. 21 7.3 Reflexive social actors and modernity • Growing number of social actors who are empowered to exercise Reflexivity in their daily lives; • Reflexive individuals tend to be self- conscious and knowledgeable – They seek to shape they own lives while redefining the world around them; • Rosenau (1990, p.13) – ‘today’s person-in- the-street are not longer as uninvolved, ignorant and manipulable with respect of world affairs as were their forbears’. 22 11
  12. 12. 7.4 Broadening of identities • No person or institution can avoid contact with, and some knowledge of other culture; • How do we feel about other cultures in the light of our participation in the particular and the local? • We can respond by: - Selection: select only what pleases us; - Adaptation: participation in local and global; - Resistance: resist due to suspicion that these may disrupt local values and customs 23 7.6 Origins of Supra-national organisations • Organisations who existence does not depend on the good will of a nation-state; • Number and variety is large: - religious organisations; - associations like Rotary International; - charitable and relief organisations like International Red Cross; - scholarly organisations like World Council of Comparative Education Societies; - professional and scientific associations; - international “development” agencies like World Bank, WHO; - international military alliances like NATO; - international political and juridical bodies like UN Security Council and General Assembly, World Court, European Parliament; - regulatory international economic relations like WTO • Survival not dependent on one nation – other national organisations owe their existence and continuation to decisions by national governments. 24 12
  13. 13. 7.7 Multi-national and Trans- national corporations • They are a special kind of supra-national organisation; • Often exclusive membership and attitude of competition; • Focus on maximising their market share at the expense of all others; • Others focus on relationship of cooperation with others, seeking maximisation of the common good. 25 Lecture 8 Impact of supra-national organisations on education (MCGinn, N. – 1996) 1. Competition between the mass media controlled by trans-national corporations and schools; 2. Stock of human resources i.t.o. the ability of education system to match demands of economy; 3. Promotion of reduced state control of public education; 4. Participation in decision about the organisation and content of education systems; 5. Offerings in exchange for influence on policy; 6. World Bank directly affect policy and practice in education; 7. Their quality concerns has to do with knowledge and skills required by the corporations; 8. New metaphor for the organisations of education; 9. First and second impact of shifts in education; 26 10. Conclusion. 13
  14. 14. 8.1 Competition between the mass media controlled by trans-national corporations and schools • Ample evidence of the impact of advertising from supra-national organisations on consumption patterns; • Example – Nestle – advertise about the wonders of infant formulas significantly reducing breast- feeding in Africa, and contribute to increase in infant mortality; • Heroes of children – from films and videos – their values are not the same as those taught in schools; • Growing gap between values of education system and mass media. 27 8.2 Stock of human resources i.t.o. the ability of education system to match demands of economy • Ability of education system to match demands of economy; • Easy movement of sites for cost-effectiveness makes it difficult for education systems to respond to demands; • Educator argument = should make education more general; • Trans-nationals prefer training that specifically respond to their requirements. 28 14
  15. 15. 8.3 Promotion of reduced state control of public education • UNESCO encouraging regionalisation of education for 20 years; • World Bank actively promotes decentralisation and privatisation; • Both are about reduced state control over content and operations; • Increase involvement of groups that do not seek to maximise the welfare of the national community; • Libertarian ideology = use of markets instead of politics to regulate social affairs; • Sometimes ‘decentralisation of functions’ but ‘centralisation of decision making’; • Example: UK – control over management, but central government took control over curriculum. 29 8.4 Participation in decision about the organisation and content of education systems • European community direct involvement in national decisions about the organisation and content of higher education; • Mexico – government signed a compact with the “productive sector” that gives them direct role in planning of education; • Includes joint evaluation of existing study plans in technological institutions to make them more adequate to reality and needs of national industry; • Control of technological institutes is decentralised, and productive sector will participate in governing boards. 30 15
  16. 16. 8.5 Trans-national corporations’ offerings in exchange for influence on policy • Funding for the general education budget; • Funding for specific studies or projects; • Provision of physical facilities; • Conferences or travel to raise teacher awareness of certain problems; • Donation or subsidised sale of books and equipment; • Provision of instructors for certain types of training; • Promises to employ graduates of certain kinds of programmes; • Technical expertise in policy formulation and planning. 31 8.6 World Bank directly affect policy and practice in education • Providing loans only for Bank-specified programmes; • Establishing conditions that must be met before loans can be implemented; • Influencing the hiring of foreign consultants to help in implementation; • Providing overseas training and education in institutions approved by the Bank; • Organising communication among policy-makers in various countries; • Using research to justify recommendations for specific programmes; • Samoff argues – their research excludes national unity, values and participation. 32 16
  17. 17. 8.7 Their quality concerns has to do with knowledge and skills required by the corporations • Their involvement led to narrowing of curriculum; • Their trend is towards “vocationalisation” of education, with de-emphasise on social integration; • USA = these are sold with argument that they will solve problems of unemployment; • Business-education alliance are not accompanied by heave private sector investment, but rather diversion of public funds from traditional education programmes; • Corporations spending more of their own money on non-formal training programmes located outside the public education. 33 8.8 New metaphor for the organisations of education • Corporations have moved to “flexible” production (move rapidly from country to country in search of lower labour cost, and favourable tax breaks); • Key differences in new production: - Design jobs to insure that workers learn while doing; - Bring designers and producers together with clients – “just-in-time production”; - Workers are no longer specialised but instead require a broad range of skills; - Plants closer to consumer – “global localisation”. 34 17
  18. 18. 8.9 First and second impact of shifts in education • Schools organised by communities of craft workers had taught science as a set of processes by which one could generate his or her own discoveries – Common school of the State specified what knowledge would be learned, and science was taught as a body of knowledge rather than as a method of inquiry; • Professors will still tell students what to write in their notebooks, but new ways of producing and learning will be employed as well; • Still give students a grounding in concepts and facts of the disciplines, but more attention given to teaching methods of learning; • Group learning will be privileged over individual learning. 35 8.10 Conclusion • Focus from ‘teaching’ to ‘facilitation of learning; • Emphasis on ‘construction of knowledge through action over discovery of existing facts’; • Learning is a process for producing rather than acquiring knowledge (Gibbons et al, 1994). 36 18
  19. 19. Contact details: • E-mail: muavia@mweb.co.za; – Or muavia.gallie@mweb.co.za; • Fax: 0866720520 • Powerpoint website: www.slideshare.net Thank You! 37 19

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