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LBL 880 Study Guide 2010


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LBL 880 Study Guide 2010

  1. 1. STUDY GUIDE Master of Education: Educational Leadership (Code 09250577) Module: LBL 880 COMPILED BY: DR MUAVIA GALLIE Department of Education Management and Policy Studies Faculty of Education University of Pretoria © 2010 Pretoria: University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. This publication or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the Publisher, except in the case of brief quotations, duly acknowledged, for academic purposes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  2. 2. Table of Content Organisational Component 1. General premise and educationa approach ....................................................... p1 2. Contact information ............................................................................................. p1 3. Study materials .................................................................................................... p1 4. Learning activities ................................................................................................ p8 4.1 Contact time and learning hours ................................................................... p8 4.2 Contect sesssions ...................................................................................... p9 5. Assessment .......................................................................................................... p10 5.1 Assessment policy and approach ............................................................... p11 5.2 Assessment opportunities ........................................................................... p13 6. General .................................................................................................................. p13 Study Component • 1. Module specifications 1.1 Purpose statement ...................................................................................... p14 1.2 Learning presumed to be in place ............................................................... p14 1.3 Articulation with other modules in the programme ....................................... p14 1.4 Critical cross-field outcomes ........................................................................ p14 • 2. Module structure ………………………………………………………………….…p15 • 3. Study themes and units 3.1 Specific outcomes/learning outcomes ......................................................... p16 3.2 Assessment criteria .................................................................................... p16 3.3 Embedded knowledge ................................................................................. p17 3.4 Self-study activities ....................................................................................... p17 3.5 Assignments ............................................................................................... p17 ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  3. 3. 1 Organisational Component 1. General premise and educational approach Significance of this module The module will focus on the understanding of rules and regulations, relationships and systems that exist between effective teaching and learning and the way in which the principal manages the internal and external school environment. Instructions for using the The focus is not so much on the small details in the learning study guide materials, as it is on the relationships between the leadership and management responsibilities and the specific tasks of a principal in managing teaching and learning. Educational approach The delivery of the knowledge will be through lecturing and discussions, while the learning will take place through presentations, essays and examination. The assessment of the students will be 50% continuous assessment and 50% examination. Active reflection on theory and practice is central to the learning process of this module, since all students will test these theories through case study work. 2. Contact information Name Room no and Telephone no and building e-mail address Lecture Dr Muavia Gallie F205 012-420331 Aldoel building Programme manager Prof Rika Joubert G03 012-4205514 Aldoel building 3. Study materials The study materials will be supplied to candidates during the first session on 6 February 2010. It will be a compilation of numerous articles for books and academic journals, with the following units: • Management skills to ensure effective task execution in a school; • Management skills to ensure the creation and maintenance of harmonious relationships with staff, learners and parents; • Curriculum management; • Managing the instructional programme; • Cultivating a culture of teaching and learning; • The organisational climate and culture of the school; • Conflict in organisations; and ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  4. 4. 2 • Organisational change. Study unit 1 and 2: Management skills to ensure effective task execution in a school, as well as the creation and maintenance of harmonious relationships with staff and learners In these first two study units the emphasis will fall on the fact that all actions and activities in a school revolve around people, namely staff, learners and parents. These actions and activities, divided into six identified management areas (management of staff affairs, learner affairs, school finance, physical facilities, administrative affairs and school community relationships), are directed at the realisation of the mission of the school, which is to ensure effective teaching and learning. It may therefore be stated that the following summarises the basic responsibilities of any educational leader: • The achievement of predetermined aims and objectives by means of effective planning, the making or implementation of policy, decision making, organising, delegating, coordinating and control. The first responsibility thus focuses on the task. We will focus on the management area of learner affairs and specifically on the management of curricular affairs. In other words, we are concerned with the extent to which a leader fulfils his/her task of achieving a particular set of objectives. An educational leader should ensure that subordinates define tasks in accordance with predetermined standards. He or she should also see to it that the predetermined objectives are achieved according to a set time schedule. • The creation and maintenance of harmonious relationships with staff, learners and parents by means of effective leadership and motivation, communication, negotiations skills and the skills necessary to form effective groups and to establish sound relationships in a school. However, the successful execution of a task is dependent on the leader’s ability to direct the action of people so that they willingly achieve the set objectives of the school. The leader has the responsibility of reinforcing sound relationships in the school, built on respect and trust. Thus we can say that true leadership is characterised by adaptability and flexibility. A good leader is a person who can maintain good human relations, but who is also able to enforce the performance of the formal activities of a school when the situation demands it (Prinsloo, 2003:138). Study unit 3: Curriculum management If the school’s key purpose is to ‘provide effective learning’, the primary task in managing the curriculum at school level is to influence the environment within which this learning takes place. This would normally encompass the following: • What is learned (and taught), i.e. curriculum content ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  5. 5. 3 • The form in which the learning content is presented, i.e. curriculum design • How the learning content is learned (and taught), i.e. methodologies, pedagogy • The circumstances under which the above can be effectively achieved (e.g. developing an appropriate culture, utilising resources efficiently, creating structures, etc.) • Assessing how effective learning is, i.e. evaluation Emphasis is placed on the roles of • the principal as curriculum leader; • the senior curriculum managers as curriculum facilitators; • educators as learners within collegial or peer groups; • educators as interpreters of the curriculum; • parents as curriculum supporters; • schools as curriculum management sites; and • departmental officials and agencies as curriculum advisory services. In the section about the role of senior curriculum managers it is clear that a prescriptive curriculum – which may be perceived as being equivalent to a syllabus or timetable (see the previous chapter) - to demand that educators and learners will do the same in each classroom in each school. In fact, of course, that some schools do it better than others. Even if physical resources were identical in each of the schools, the competence and motivation of educators would still vary and it is here that the influence of senior curriculum managers can be most evident. There is a substantial body of evidence to indicate that the most effective schools – schools that are high- achieving, highly regarded and adaptable – are those that have found ways of involving educators in decisions and hence in the ownership of them (Duffy 1988:95). The role of the most senior staff in a school is critical. Even in implementing a centrally prescribed curriculum, their actions will have a major influence on whether that curriculum is effective at school level. This role in curriculum management to display six main, each of which will be discussed: • Having a view of the whole curriculum • Having accountability for consistently high standards • Developing an appropriate culture • Managing the structures • Having operational roles • Managing the involvement of staff in curriculum management In the section about the role of curriculum middle managers we will focus on the role of the head of the department to ensure effective teaching and learning. Emphasis will be placed on ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  6. 6. 4 • the job specification of the curriculum middle manager; • interpersonal skills; and • the concepts of ‘role’ and ‘role set’. A very important question to answer here is whether any in-service training or development of heads of departments should take place. If so, who will be responsible for such training or development? The next section has to do with the role of the subject leader or subject head. In the South African education system the subject leader or subject head is not part of the formal hierarchy of a school. In bigger secondary schools and even in bigger primary schools the subject leaders play a major role in subject guidance. Managing monitoring of the curriculum. Effective monitoring offers an answer to the question ‘Are we getting there?’ and is a questioning activity. It also asks, ‘Do we do what we say we do or what we have planned to do?’ Monitoring allows managers to assess how well the institutions are performing, whether targets/objectives are being worked towards or not. It allows you to see where you are not progressing towards targets or standards. It shows where the institution needs to improve and can ‘prevent procedures becoming obsolete and insufficient’. Finally, monitoring should be part of a cycle of ‘continuous improvement’. In Educator Professionalism and Development, the focus is on those concepts of professionalism in teaching. It suggests that training and development are key features of professionalism, and crucial to the effectiveness of the curriculum changes that are required. Finally it looks at the implications for managing the steps towards creating this change and increasing educator professionalism. (Please see ”Educators’ professional and labour ethics - 2004”. Study unit 4: Managing the instructional programme The instructional leadership task of the principal is discussed in this section. The core activities of a school – its main purpose – are those of teaching and learning, and while all the various management functions of the education leader have a bearing on this, it is argued that it is his or her instructional leadership task that has the most direct effect on these core activities. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  7. 7. 5 In the section about ‘Managing the learning environment’ the importance of a positive learning environment is stressed to enable learners to access or ‘tune in to’ learning. Within the school, an environment which gives security and encouragement to learners, which is configured for their learning needs and contains a range of types of stimuli, provides a consistent thread across the examples of good practice. In these environments, the learner feels respected, and feels that his or her needs have been assessed and acknowledged. However, if the learning is also to be relevant within the wider culture and workplace, the classroom walls need to be permeable, so that learning can be accessed from outside – ‘outsiders’ can come in and ‘insiders’ go out. Study unit 5: Cultivating a culture of teaching and learning In this section the creation and maintenance of a sound culture of teaching and learning are discussed. The main aspects of school management that contribute to the creation of a healthy culture of teaching and learning can be summarised as follows: • Utilising the elements of organisational culture in the school to create a sound culture of learning and teaching • Managing the instructional programme to maximise effective teaching and learning • Effective managing of the school’s resources in order to supplement and enhance teaching and learning activities • Getting parents to participate as partners by means of a management programme for parent involvement that suits the circumstances of the school • Working together to create a positive climate In the next section – ‘Developing a Culture of Learning and Teaching’ – it is stated that promoting effective learning and teaching, and encouraging a culture of learning have far-reaching implications for those involved in the management of schools. These implications include specific aspects of staff development, for example, examining the nature of learning and the range of learning styles and considering what these mean for classroom educators and their teaching styles. Moreover, the implications go further to necessitate principals and senior management to consider strategic management, particularly their vision and aims for the school. A supportive and collaborative culture is particularly relevant to the management of change, and effective learning by learners is more likely to take place where they are treated with fairness and challenged intellectually. In addition, the sharing and espousal of values that make learning central to the institution is of particular importance in ensuring that the school can go forward as a learning organisation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  8. 8. 6 Culture as process: Leadership challenges in the construction of productive learning cultures. Leadership is a relational process that is always exercised in an interpersonal context, and through interaction with other people: principal and educators; educators and learners; principal and parents and learners; educators and parents; learners and learners. The smallest social unit in the execution of leadership is not the individual leader, but the relation between the leader and the ones being led. Leadership in education is not a one-man task performed by the principal of the school or the educator in the classroom. It requires the participation and co-operation of all parties: school authorities on all levels, colleagues, learners, parents and local community. Leadership is a team activity. The two dimensions of a productive learning culture are cultural values and communication patterns. Several of the elements in this perspective relate to cultural values: norms of inclusion, acceptance and appreciation of individuality are towards one end. Towards the other end is collective and shared responsibility. Sometimes one can experience a tension between concern for the individual and concern for the whole group or organisation, but there are basic contradictions between the two. In fact, appreciation of individuality is an important condition for feeling included in the group. And from that feeling of inclusion and acceptance follows also the identification with the group and work towards common goals. In schools and in classrooms we also need visions and dreams. As educators, ours dreams are about what schooling can do, for children and young people, and for people in all stages of life. Schooling can open the doors of knowledge, build human potential and strengthen the confidence we have in ourselves and in our culture. “I am not only teaching Maths. I am teaching dignity and self-respect.” These words from a South African educator capture the essence of schooling. The process of knowledge transformation and knowledge construction, of personal growth and respect for oneself and others, is the overarching context of leadership in education. Study unit 6: The organisational climate and culture of schools School leaders need to help educators create high-achieving learning environments for all learners, where the most advanced curriculum and instruction techniques combine to support learning. In high-achieving learning environments educators engage learners in complex problem solving and exploring of ideas and issues, while classroom activities draw on learners’ culture, experiences and knowledge. Such educators allow learners to discuss, argue and analyse issues and concepts. Learners construct knowledge rather than memorise it. In high-achieving schools, educators have high expectations of all learners and provide an enriched curriculum. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  9. 9. 7 The school climate is dynamic, experiential and concrete, embracing all of the human interactions and teaching and learning activities in the school. A positive school climate is much more than one where learners merely feel good. It is concerned with the culture, the ethos, the mission and purpose of schooling. By creating a healthy, supportive and nurturing learning environment through effective school and classroom activities, educators can help learners develop into well- balanced adults. The following is stated in the section about ‘Organisational Culture and Organisational Climate’: The concept of organisational culture has emerged as central in the analysis of organisational behaviour and organisational effectiveness. Organisational culture is the body of solutions to problems that has worked consistently for a group and that is therefore taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think about, and feel in relation with problems. Over time, organisational culture takes on meaning so deep that it defines the assumptions, values, beliefs, norms, and even the perceptions of participants in the organisation. Though culture tends to drop from the conscious thoughts of participants over time, it continues to powerfully create meaning for them in their work and becomes “the rules of the game”. Studies of schools have strongly supported the belief that organisational culture is a fundamental factor in determining the quality of educational organisations. Culture cannot be studied directly but is inferred from observed behaviour such as language, use of artefacts, rituals, and symbolism commonly encountered in the workplace. Organisational climate, which is the study of perceptions of participants of certain intangible aspects of the environment, reflects the culture. Study unit 7: Conflict in organisations Whereas conflict was once thought to signal a failure of the organisation, it is increasingly being recognised as a normal and legitimate aspect of human social systems. Thus conflict is not only inevitable but, contrary to earlier views, it can serve a useful function by stimulating creative solutions to problems. Whether organisational conflict is destructive or constructive depends to a large extent on how it is managed. The days are over for the wily school principal who could head off or terminate conflict with deft tricks or a swift exercise of power. Healthy organisations – characterised by well- developed problem-solving mechanisms and a collaborative climate – are able to identify conflict ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  10. 10. 8 and deal with it in a collaborative way that leaves the organisation stronger and better developed, rather than weakened and wracked with hostility. Clearly, there is no one best way of managing conflict in organisations. There are a number of ways, each suited to circumstances in a particular situation. The basic principle in choosing a way of managing conflict, however, is to use the approach most likely to minimise the destruction aspects (for example, hostility) and to maximise the opportunities for organisational growth and development (for example, to develop greater trust, to improve problem solving). Finally, no phase in conflict management is more critical than diagnosing the situation. It is therefore important to distinguish between effects and causes. Study unit 8: Organisational change Change is an inevitable part of life. As such, we are ourselves in a continuous process of change as our circumstances and the realities of our life constantly change. Change represents the struggle between what exists and what is desired. Any existing situation within a school is in equilibrium, i.e. it is the result of driving forces and resisting forces working against each other. Any situation of change contains driving forces (pressure to change) that tend to alter existing circumstances, and forces resistance that tend to oppose or undermine the change. This opposing character of resisting forces could serve a valuable role insofar as the alternative ideas for consideration are developed. The school principal as an internal change agent is expected to initiate, facilitate and implement change. This must be done by means of : • Determining the outcomes of the proposed change; • Determining the procedures and methods for implementing change; • Scrutinising literature relevant to the proposed change; and • Contacting other school principals who have had experience of proposed change. 4. Learning activities 4.1 Contact time and learning hours The formal contact time for this module will be four Saturday sessions, from 10h00 to 15h00, with a break from 12h00 to 13h00. The total notional time will be four hours per Saturday, plus homework of six hours, investigation and case study work of fifteen hours. Your preparation for the examination and the formal writing will require another twenty-five hours of learning hours. You are therefore expected to spend at least a hundred hours during this module. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  11. 11. 9 4.2 Contact sessions The following table reflects the different Saturday sessions, the broad themes as well as the essay topics and the due dates. TIME FRAME THEMES TOPICS Saturday 6 February 2010 Knowing and understanding the difference Write an essay, focusing on a VENUE: Room L1 between Leading, Managing, Administring, combination of the concepts 9:00 to 10:00 Teaching and Learning covered during session 1. Visit to the library The essay must include 10:15 to 12:00 • Defining teaching and learning. references of at least 10 • What is the difference? articles recent (not older that • How do they inter-connect? • Which one comes first? 5 years) within the field of focus. • Defining leadership, management and administration. Due date: • What is the difference? 27 February 2010 • How do they inter-connect? • What is the logical order? Break: 12:00 to 13:00 13:00 to 15:00 • What should be the core job of principals? • During training, should we focus on knowledge, skills or disposition of principals, or a combination of them? Saturday 27 February 2010 Understanding the state of education in South Write an essay on ‘the state VENUE: Room L1 Africa, in order to know what should be changed of education’, with specific and how we Lead and Manage Teaching and reference to teaching and Learning learning, in South Africa. You should use the data that your 10:00 to 12:00 • What is our success-rate in education (national, collected from your case provincial, district, and school level) in South school to motivate and/or Africa? • What is the state of teaching and learning in support your arguments. The South Africa? essay must include • What should we do differently, what should be references of at least 10 changed, and what new interventions should be articles recent (not older that introduced? Break: 12:00 to 13:00 5 years) within the field of 13:00 to 15:00 How much do we know about: focus. • How do we currently manage our schools? • How do we currently manage the curriculum in Due date: South Africa? 13 March 2010 • How do we currently manage the teachers within the system? Saturday 13 March 2010 Managing the Curriculum in South Africa, from Write an essay on one of the national to school level three frameworks needed in VENUE: Room L1 the process of managing 10:00 to 12:00 • What is the current focus of our curriculum in curriculum in South Africa. South Africa? What type of proof is available? ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  12. 12. 10 Break: 12:00 to 13:00 You should use the data that 13:00 to 15:00 • What is the current curriculum management your collected from your case framework? At what level is this function performed, by whom, and when? school to motivate and/or • What is the current teaching (instructional) support your arguments. The management framework? At what level is this essay must include function performed, by whom, and when? references of at least 10 • What is the current learning management framework? At what level is this function articles recent (not older that performed, by whom, and when? 5 years) within the field of focus. Due date: 27 March 2009 Saturday 8 May 2010 Managing the Changes needed at the different Write an essay on the change levels (4), and the shift in Culture among needed at one of the four VENUE: Room L1 stakeholders (4) levels, with a particular focus on at least one stakeholder in 10:00 to 12:00 Needed change at: the South African education • National; system. Use comparative • Provincial; data from other countries (at • District; • School level, least two) to support your Break: 12:00 to 13:00 arguments. The essay must 13:10 to 15:00 among the following stakeholders; include references of at least • Teacher and officials; 10 articles recent (not older • Learner; that 5 years) within the field of • Parents; • Local Community and political representatives. focus. Due date: 8 May 2009 Four essays (two case studies and two theoretical papers) must be submitted before the commencement of the Saturday classes. The essays and/or homework will also serve as discussion documents during the class deliberations. Every student must be well prepared for these sessions, and therefore a presentation session of student work will take place as a reflective session at the beginning of all classes. 5. Assessment The assessment of this module will be done in the following way: • Class reflective presentations - 10% • Essays (theoretical and case studies) (4 x 20 = 80) - 40% • Examination paper: Open book 5 June 2010 (09h00-13h00) - 50% Total - 100% ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  13. 13. 11 5.1 Assessment policy and approach 5.1.1 Presentation Students will be expected to work individually, but the presentation will be done on behalf of the small group (to be determined during the first session). Please prepare yourself thoroughly in order to ensure the highest quality of presentation, based on the following criteria: • Criterion 1 – The logical arguments presented during the presentation – maximum of 5 marks; • Criterion 2 – Bridging the gap between theory and practive during the presentation – maximum of 5 marks; • Criterion 3 – The conceptual and thinking skills that show the relationship between leadership and effective teaching and learning. In particular, new discoveries and understandings should be highlighted during the presentation – maximum of 10 marks • The total will be out of 20. All presentations will be by means of a powerpoint slide presentation, and handout to all participants in the module. Student should not read their slide presentations, but rather to speak to the topic. 5.1.2 Framework of the academic essays All students will receive a powerpoint handout called ‘essay writing for students’. This handout must be studied and used as a guide to completing their essays. The structural organisation of the essay must follow the following framework: • Introduction – give a brief introduction (1 page); • Research problem – formulate it in the form of a question, in order to show what you will be investigating in the essay. The formulation must be such that one should not be able to answer it by saying ‘yes’ or ‘no’ (1 page); • Literature review – use different sources in order to assist you in building an argument to your reseach question (2 pages); • Conceptual/theoretical design – here I prefer a graphical display of what the central issue is, and what are the relationships between the different components, issues, players, etc. How do these things influence, affect, etc. each other directly and/or indirectly (2 pages); • Research methods – what is the logical way you used to go about through patterns, steps, procedures to collect, search, gather the data and the relationships, engagements, understandings, etc. in collecting the information/data? Also make a distinction between primary and secondary sources you used (2 pages); • Analysing the information/data – what instruments, tools, etc. have you used to turn the data into information, knowledge, and wisdom for the discipline and research community (2 pages); and • Recommendations and conclusion – what are the benefits, importance as well as the limitations of your arguments? (1-2 pages) Always try to write systematically, logically and argumentative. In particular, pleas not the slides in the mentioned handout on ‘essay writing for students’ focusing on the balance between your voice ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  14. 14. 12 and the voice of others. But when you make statements, you must substantiate them through the se of existing work within the literature. Finally, all essays must be at least supported by 10 references, and no sloppy referencing will be accepted (you need to consult colleagues in the library if you need assistance in this area). Your essays will be assessed according to the following assessment criteria: • Criterion 1 – Presentation: title, technical presentation, references and/or bibliography – maximum 5 marks; • Criterion 2 – Content: a good introduction, research problem and question(s), theoretical application, logical and argumentative points, connecting theory with practice through relevant examples, good line of arguments – maximum 10 marks; • Criterion 3 – Application and recommendations – relevance and applicability of the recommendations within context, conclusion – maximum 5 marks. • The total will be out of 20. 5.1.3 Examination Candidates will write an openbook examination paper, in other words, you are entitled to bring your study materials, and all other relevant documentation with you to the examination room. The four-hours examination paper will consist of two 100-mark questions. A scenario will be given and you will have to analyse the given situation and answer the question(s). Although you are entitled to bring your study material with you to the examination room, you still have to prepare yourself throgourghly for the examination, otherwise the presence of these resources will of no use to you. Please make sure that you will be able to achieve the set outcomes in the study programme. Your essay in the examination will be assessed according to the follwing criteria: Criteria % Mark • The essay has a very appropriate title. 75 – 100 • The given situation is well analysed and the problem is stated clearly and explicitly. • All relevant theories have been reviewed clearly and concisely, and a very good understanding of these theories is illustrated. • The student writes systematically, logically and argumentatively. • Substantive arguments are used and application of theory is well connected with school practice. • Relevant examples are used. • The essay has an appropriate title. 50 - 74 • The given situation is analysed and the problem is stated. • Most relevant theories are reviewed clearly and concisely and an understanding of these theories is illustrated. • The student writes in a less systematic, logic and argumentative way. • Not all arguments are substantiated, although the application of theory is connected with school practice. • Examples are used. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  15. 15. 13 • The essay has a title. 25 - 49 • The given situation is poorly analysed and the problem is poorly stated. • A few theories are reviewed, and a limited and flawed understanding of these theories is illustrated. • There is little evidence of systematic, logic and argumentative writing. • Arguments are not substantiated and little or no application of theory is connected with school practice. • Little or no examples are used. • The essay has an inappropriate title or no title at all. 0 - 24 • The way in which the given situation was analysed illustrates very little or no understanding of the problem. • A few theories have been reviewed and a seriously flawed and limited understanding of these theories is illustrated. • There is a lack of a systematic, logical and argumentative writing style. • Little or no arguments are used and they are not motivated. • No or very little application of theory is connected with school practice. 5.2 Assessment opportunities The intention of this course and module in particular, is to develop exceptional leaders within the education sector, and therefore no excuses will be excepted for non or late submission of essays and/or homework. Only medically-supported requests for second-opportunities will be accommodated. Submitted work which will be regarded as ‘not acceptable’ will be returned to students for further work, but such second-opportunities will only be marked in order for students to gain 50% pass mark (acceptable). 6. General The assessment approach forms the foundation of our intention to develop leaders who will lead by example and not followers, within this programme. Students must make the choice to lead, in order for us to empower them will all the knowledge, skills and disposition to become exceptional educational leaders. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  16. 16. 14 Study Component 1. Module specifications This module focuses on the management of effective learning and teaching (management of the curriculum), as well as the effective management of all the other management areas. In particular, it will include the management of staff, learner affairs, school finance, physical facilities, school community relationships and administrative affairs as components to enhance teaching and learning – teaching and learning will therefore be regarded as the core of schooling. 1.1 Purpose statement This module will re-emphasise the core responsibility of teaching and learning as the central job of the principal, rather as just one of the numerous responsibilities. In reference to the numerous management areas mentioned earlier, these are only supportive activities to teaching and learning. 1.2 Learning presumed to be in place It is assumed that candidates with the programme have completed their B.Ed (honours) or equivalent in order to engage in the learning at a Masters level. Furthermore, such candidates should have achieved at least a 60% within their previously completed degree, and that they have mastered the skills and capacity to analyse academic text in order to write systematically and logically academic essays and papers. 1.3 Articulation with other modules in the programme Vertical articulation: Students who completed the B.Ed (honours) degree are allowed to do this module, with specific benefits to those who did the leadership theories. Furthermore, the students who further did the module within the advance certificate for school leadership will benefit from the module on managing teaching and learning. Horizontal articulation: Students who complete this modules will find it beneficial when applying to do the PhD in policy studies, and in particular a PhD in Education Management and Leadership, which is currently under discussion at the University of Pretoria. • 1.4 Critical cross-field outcomes The South African Qualifications Authority Act, 1995 and the subsequent regulations for National Standards Bodies (Government Gazette No. 18787, 28 March 1998) require that all qualifications ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  17. 17. 15 and unit standards be registered on the National Qualifications Framework. The NSB regulations require that all qualifications registered on the NQF shall “have both specific and critical cross-field outcomes which promote life-long learning” (NSB regulations 8 (1) (e)). In the case of unit standards “critical cross-field outcomes ...shall be embedded within a standard...provided that where such standards forms part of a qualification those critical cross-field outcomes not included in the standard shall be embedded in the qualification” (NSB regulations (2)). The following critical cross-field outcomes (SAQA, NSB Regulations, 1995) are include but are not limited to: • Critical and creative thinking have been made; • Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community; • Organising and managing oneself and one’s activities responsibly and effectively; • Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information; • Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion; • Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others; • Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation; • Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making it the underlying intention of any programme of learning to make an individual aware of the importance of reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively • Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities; • Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts; • Exploring education and career opportunities; and • Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 2. Module structure The first level of exploration within this module will be ‘knowing the self’, ‘knowing the job’ and ‘knowing the school/organisation’, but an overaching connection to ‘knowing the context’. Although the first three focia are very generic in training and development, the application of this knowledge will various due to the contextual conditions and factions which leaders will experience in different settings. The second level of exploration will focus on the different levels of functionality of the various schools/organisations. During this process, we will identify the dysfunctional, low-functioning, average and high functioning schools, in order to relate the specific intervention and support needed by such schools. In particular, the conceptualisation and implementation of the eight school readiness components will be discussed. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  18. 18. 16 The third level of exploration will focus on the different curriculum framework plans needed to manage the curriculum from conceptualisation to implementation. In particular, the different functional positions of officials and staff will be explored, with an intention to demarcate tasks and responsibilities from a systems point of view. 3. Study themes and units Module will focus on the broad themes of leadership, management, teaching and learning, in order to engage specifically with the following units: • Knowing and understanding the difference between leading, managing, administration, teaching and learning; • Understanding the state of education in South Africa, in order to know what should be changed and how we lead and manage teaching and learning; • Managing the curriculum in South Africa, from national to school level; • Managing the changes needed at the different levels and the shift in culture among stakeholders. 3.1 Specific outcomes/Learning outcomes At the end of this module, the candidates must be able to demonstrate: • A clear understanding and knowledge of the definition, inter-connectedness and order of teaching and learning; leadership, management and administration, as well as the core job of principals; • Analyse the success-rate of education, the state of teaching and learning, and what should be done to improve the learner achievement success in South Africa; • A clear understanding of the focus of curriculum, and proof related to it, as well as the management framework the related functions to it; • How to ignite changes needed at different levels of the education system, taking into account the different stakeholders in education, in order to ensure a positive shift in the peformance level of the education system. 3.2 Assessment criteria The assessment criteria and evidence requirements are as follows: In a practical situation, or simulation, or written, or a combination of these, the student will: • Generate, explore and consider options for appropriate action; • Identify the most appropriate course of action in relations to the particular context and resources available; • Explain the reasons for that particular selection as well as what was taken into account in making the selection; • Perform the identified action, while continuously monitoring and adapting performance as required; ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria
  19. 19. 17 • Explain the reasons for the performance; • Evaluate his/her performance and identify areas for improvement; • Reflect on the performance; • Develop a plan or strategy for future action, which reflects an integration of what has been learnt through reflection. 3.3 Embedded knowledge The module assumes that the student is competent in the language of instruction and the general theoretical, academic and practical professional knowledge, understanding and commitment. The focus of this module is to understand, unpack and reflect, and to empower education leaders to improve their knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding their task. It is therefore assumed that students occupy and/or have access to documents, functions and decision-making processes within leadership. A thorough knowledge of the education system of South Africa, with particular reference to the relevant Acts, bills, white papers, rules and regulations, and policies, is crucial in order to engage in the learning process of this module. 3.4 Self-study activities As covered in the orientation handouts of the module, students will be expected to engage in homework, apart from the defined four essays, which will empower them specifically with data and information that are necessary to make informed and supportive arguments during the programme. In particular, each student must have an adopted school where theoretical ideas (theories) will be tested in practice. 3.5 Assignments The assignments for this module are covered under the section 4.2, contact session. Within the mentioned table, the topics of the assignments are defined, the nature of the research projects, as well as the due dates. By locating the assignment topic within the table, students will find the relevance and the focus of the assignment topics more acceptable than locating it in a detached way. ______________________________________________________________________________________ M.Ed - Module LBL880 Faculty of Education: Department of Education Management and Policy Studies © 2010 University of Pretoria