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Instructional leadership workshop Session 3


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Instructional leadership workshop Session 3

  1. 1. 2012/02/10 Instructional Leadership Workshop- How should we change our current practice in order to attain Quality Education for All? - Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Session 3 1 1.  Teaching to fish is better than providing fish; 2.  Leadership is a decision, not a position or set of skills; 3.  Leaders breed leaders, not follower; and 4.  You don t need me (anyone else) to be a Quality Principal! 2 1
  2. 2. 2012/02/10 There is no management withoutmonitoring and evaluation3 Monitor!4 2
  3. 3. 2012/02/10 Evaluate! 5 What is Monitoring and Evaluation?"  Monitoring is the systematic, regular collection and occasional analysis of information to identify and possibly measure changes over a period of time."  Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness and direction of an activity and involves making a judgment about progress and impact."  The main differences between monitoring and evaluation are the timing and frequency of observations and the types of questions asked. However, when monitoring and evaluation are integrated, the line between the two becomes rather blurred."  Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is the joint effort or partnership of two or more stakeholders to monitor and evaluate, systematically, one or more research or development activities (Vernooy et al., 2003). 6 3
  4. 4. 2012/02/10 Why should we M&E?!In general, the purpose of monitoring & evaluation can be:•  To assess results - to find out if and how objectives are being met and are resulting in desired changes.•  To improve management and process planning - to better adapt to contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect the research process.•  To promote learning - to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to learn what works and what does not, and to identify what contextual factors enable or constrain the participatory research.•  To understand different stakeholders perspectives - to allow, through direct participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people involved in the organisation to better understand each others views and values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and interests.•  To ensure accountability - to assess whether the organisation is effectively, appropriately, and efficiently executed to be accountable to they key agencies (Estrella and Gaventa, 1998). 7 Methods and Techniques of Monitoring! Programmes even with a good planning, adequate organisational machinery and sufficient flow of resources cannot automatically achieve the desired result.•  There must be some warning mechanism, which can alert the organisation about its possible success and failures, off and on.•  Constant watching not only saves wastage of scarce resources but also ensure speedy execution of the programmes.•  Thus monitoring enables a continuing critique of the programme implementation. 8 4
  5. 5. 2012/02/10 Defining Monitoring!Monitoring means keeping a track of implementation process.•  Monitoring involves watching the progress of a project against time, resources and performance schedules during the execution of the project and identifying lagging areas requiring timely attention and action.•  Monitoring is defined as a management function to guide in the intended direction and to check performance against pre – determined plans.•  Monitoring means periodic checking of progress of works against the targets laid down 9 in order to ensure timely completion of the programme. Reasons for Monitoring!• Efficiency refers to the amount of time and resources put intothe programme relative to the outputs and outcomes. Aprogramme evaluation may be designed to find out if there wasa less expensive, more appropriate, less time-consumingapproach for reaching the same objectives.• Effectiveness describes whether or not the organisationalprocess was useful in reaching programme goals and objectives,or resulted in positive outcomes.• Relevance or appropriateness describes the usefulness,ethics, and flexibility of a programme within the particularcontext.Combined, these criteria enable judgment about whether theoutputs and outcomes of the programme are worth the costsof the inputs. Effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness canbe considered for the different methods, tools and approachesrather than questioning the value of the approach as a whole. 10 5
  6. 6. 2012/02/10 Purpose of Monitoring!Programme monitoring helps to provideconstructive suggestions like.• Re-scheduling the programme (if theprogramme run behind the schedule)• Re-budgeting the programme(appropriating funds from one head toanother; avoiding expenses underunnecessary heading).• Re–assigning the staff (shifting the stafffrom one area to other; recruitingtemporary staff to meet the time schedule). 11 What to Monitor!Understanding the conditions before theprogramme was initiated is useful in order toprovide a point of comparison for monitor andevaluating changes that occur during theprogramme.• Baseline survey conducted at the beginningof the programme can provide a point ofreference for comparison and for understandingchanges.• It is useful to distinguish between the differentkinds of results generated from theprogramme: outputs, processes, outcomes,impact and reach. 12 6
  7. 7. 2012/02/10 Different kinds of Results in Monitoring!These can be briefly defined as follows:• Outputs describe the concrete and tangible products ofthe organisation as well as the occurrence of the activitiesthemselves.• Processes describe the methods and approaches used forthe programme.• Outcomes describe the changes that occur that can beattributed, at least in part, to the programme process andoutputs.• Impact describes overall changes that occur which theprogramme is one of many contributing factors.• Reach describes who is influenced by the programme andwho acts because of this influence. 13 Steps in Monitoring! Identifying the different units involved in planning & implementation •  Identifying items on which feedback is required. •  Developing pro-forma for reporting. •  Determining the periodicity of reporting. •  Fixing the responsibility of reporting at different levels. •  Processing and analysing the reports. •  Identifying the critical / unreliable areas in implementation. •  Providing feedback to corrective measures. 14 7
  8. 8. 2012/02/10 Meaning of Evaluation!Evaluation has its origin in the Latin word Valupure which means the value of a particular thing, idea or action. Evaluation, thus, helps us to understand the worth, quality, significance amount, degree or condition of any intervention desired to tackle a social problem.•  Finding out the value of something.•  The procedures of fact finding•  Assessments whether or not certain activities, treatment and interventions are in conformity with generally accepted professional standards.•  Is any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or the outcome of interventions, treatment or of social change programme.•  To provide systematic, reliable and valid information on the conduct, impact and effectiveness of the projects.•  The study and review of past operating experience. 15 Purpose of Evaluation!1. From an accountability perspective:•  To make the best possible use of funds by the programme managers who are accountable for the worth of their programmes.•  Measuring accomplishment in order to avoid weaknesses and future mistakes. -Observing the efficiency of the techniques and skills employed -Scope for modification and improvement. -Verifying whether the benefits reached the people for whom the programme was meant.2. From a knowledge perspective:•  To establish new knowledge about social problems and the effectiveness of policies/programmes designed to alleviate them.•  Understanding people s participation & reasons for the same.•  Evaluation helps to make plans for future work. 16 8
  9. 9. 2012/02/10 Money taken by Administration 17 Principles of Evaluation!1. Evaluation is a continuous process (continuity).2. Evaluation should involve minimum possible costs (inexpensive).3. Evaluation should be done without prejudice to day to day work (minimum hindrance to day to day work).4. Evaluation must be done on a co-operative basis in which the entire staff and the board members should participate (total participation).5. As far as possible, the organisation should evaluate its programme but occasionally outside evaluation machinery should also be made use of (external evaluation).6. Total overall examination of the organisation will reveal strength and weaknesses (organisation/programme totality).7. The result of evaluation should be shared with all in the organisation (sharing). 18 9
  10. 10. 2012/02/10Criteria for Developing Evaluation Assistance! 19 Steps in Evaluation! 1.  Learning about the programme; 2.  Creating an evaluation plan and indicators; 3.  Brief the concerned people about the evaluation plan and indicators; 4.  Revising and elaborating on the evaluation plan; 5.  Initiating evaluation, and; 6.  Utilising/ sharing the information. 20 10
  11. 11. 2012/02/10 Phases in Evaluation! 21 Types of Evaluation!1.  By timing (when to evaluate?)" Formative evaluation•  Done during the programme (development stages)" Summative evaluation•  Done at the end of the programme (assessment)2.  By organization (who is evaluating?)" Internal evaluation•  It is a process/impact, done by management" External evaluation•  Unbiased,objective detailed assessment by outsider3.  By stage (how frequent?)" On going (during the implementation)" Terminal (at the end of or immediately after completion)" Ex-post (after a time lag from completion) 22 11
  12. 12. 2012/02/10 Views about Evaluation! Evaluation primarily perceived from three perspectives. 1.  Evaluation as an analysis - determining the merits or deficiencies of a programme, methods and process. 2.  Evaluation as an audit - systematic and continuous enquiry to measure the efficiency of means to reach their particular preconceived ends. 3.  Evaluation as administration - appraisal or judgement of the worth and effectiveness of all the processes (e.g. planning, organising, staffing, etc.) designed to ensure that the organisation accomplishes its objectives. 23Purpose: Areas of Evaluation!•  The review the objectives of the organisation/programme and how far these are being fulfilled.Programmes:•  Aspects like number of beneficiaries, nature of services rendered to them, their reaction to the services, effectiveness and adequacy of services, etc. may be evaluated.Staff:•  The success of any programme depends upon the type of the staff an organisation employs. Their attitude, qualifications, recruitment policy, pay and other benefits and organisational environment. These are the areas which help to understand the effectiveness of the organization/programme.Financial Administration:•  The flow of resources and its consumption is a crucial factor in any organisation. Whether the money is rightly consumed, any over spending in some headings, appropriation and misappropriation. These are some of the indicators that reveal the reasons for the success or failures of organisations.General:•  Factors like public relations strategies employed by the organisation, the constitution of the organisation or governing body and their contribution to future plans of the organisation are important to understand the success or failures of an organisation. 24 24 12
  13. 13. 2012/02/10 KZN - Need to plan for and manage curriculum development and delivery!1.  Ensure that the implementation of the curriculum is an effective and smooth process;2.  Create a safe and empowering environment for teacher and learning;3.  Create effective quality management and monitoring systems;4.  Contextualise curriculum issues within the broader school management and governance context;5.  Align the school s development plan with the curriculum;6.  Make learning relevant to the context of the learners;7.  Manage the resources optimally (physical site, human, financial resources, learners and support materials);8.  Ensure clarity of focus;9.  Accommodate the diversity of needs and demographics of the school;10.  Reduce the risk of non-delivery;11.  Prevent curriculum overload;12.  Integrate planning vertically, across and within learning programmes; and13.  Reflect OBE principles by modelling them in all aspects of school life. 25 25 Focus on Teaching! 26 13
  14. 14. 2012/02/10 Misguided Indicators!27 Focus on Learning!28 14
  15. 15. 2012/02/10 New Teaching and Learning Process! 29Model of the Teaching-Learning Process! 30 15
  16. 16. 2012/02/10 Learning orientated Teaching (LoT) - ! Ten Cate et al 2004! The main characteristics of the model are: 1. (1) The components of learning: • cognition (what to learn), • affect (why learn), and • Meta-cognition (how to learn); and • (2) The amount of guidance learners need. 2. If education aims at fostering ones ability to function independently in society, an important general objective should be that one learns how to fully and independently regulate his or her own learning; i.e., the ability to pursue ones professional life independently. 3. This implies a transition from external guidance (from the teacher) through shared guidance (by the learner together with the teacher) to internal guidance (by the learner alone). 4. This transition pertains not only to the cognitive component of learning (content) but also to the affective component (motives) and the meta- cognitive component (learning strategies). 31 Features of the Teaching and Learning Cycle!The main purpose is learner learning.1. Expectations for learning change from the most capablelearners to all learners.2. The pace of instruction is determined by learner learning.3. The process begins with assessment rather than endingwith it.4. Assessment data is used to inform instruction instead ofonly for grading.5. Learner progress toward learning targets is continuouslymonitored and documented.6. Differentiated instruction based on flexible groupingreplaces whole class instruction. 32 16
  17. 17. 2012/02/10 Teaching-Learning Cycle!1. 2. 33 Improving Classroom Effectiveness! 34 17
  18. 18. 2012/02/10 Activity!•  On the provided sheet reflecting the eight School Readiness Components, please indicate at what level your school is functioning, given the fact that you have collected them all in your portfolio.•  On an A4, indicate what the next level forward from where you are, would look like, for each of the 8 components.•  See example on next slide! 35 36 18
  19. 19. 2012/02/10 Example of activity 6!School Readiness Components 0 1 2 3 4 5 Diff. Dysfunctionalit1. Attendance (T&L) Functionality2. Teacher Information3. Learner Information4. Annual Planning5. Timetable6. Quarterly Teaching Schedule7. Organogram8. Teaching and Learning Support yMaterials 378.Systemic location of the 8 Components Input Process OutputWho? 1.Teacher and 4. Annual Planning learner attendance ScheduleWhat? 2.Learner information 5. TimetablingWhere? 3.Teacher 6. Quarterly information Teaching 8.Learner Support ScheduleWhen? Material 7. OrganogramHow? 19
  20. 20. 2012/02/10 Example 1:Child-headed households in SA (2001 = July 2007) 0 - 14 yrs 15 - 19 yrs TotalEastern Cape 3,870 38,886 42,756Free State 771 15,463 16,234Gauteng 1,175 31,313 32,488Kwazulu Natal 4,303 38,052 42,355Limpopo 5,232 53,229 58,461Mpumalanga 1,466 19,621 21,087Northern Cape 344 3,443 3,787North West 1,119 19,070 20,189Western Cape 429 10,638 11,067 18,709 229,715 248,424Source: Dept of Social Development - 7 July 2007 3.System INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT IMPACT Dysfunctional Schools Low-functional Schools High-functional Schools 20
  21. 21. 2012/02/10 Model for Engaging Parents! Personal Disclosure Leadership, 5% Few Parents Intensive commitment Active Policy and AdvocacyParent Education 10% Collaborative 20% support fromschool community vs Collaborative 40%support for school vs programme Most Parents vs vs Information- 60%sharing activities Passive PublicInformation-giving 100% Brief activities 41 Activity! Download and reflect on the following Models of Teaching and Learning processes! 1. John Carrol s Model; 2. Proctor s Model; 3. Cruickshank s Model; 4. Gage and Berliner s Model; and 5. Huitt s Model. 42 21
  22. 22. 2012/02/10 Quote No man (or woman) can be a good teacher unless he (she)has feelings of warm affection toward his pupils and a genuine desire to impart tothem what he himself believes to be of value. 43 • Bertrand RussellVideo - Turning around a school 5:53 44 22