Curriculum Management for Senior Management Teams in South Africa


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Curriculum Management for Senior Management Teams in South Africa

  1. 1. Curriculum Management by School Management Team Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 18 & 19 March 2011 Kwamahlanga Mpumalanga ProgrammeDay 113h00 - 14h30 Session 1 System - What do we currently know about Curriculum Management in South Africa?14h30 - 14h45 Tea14h45 - 16h00 Session 2 School and Community - How ready are we to manage and implement the curriculum effectively in our school?Day 209h00 - 10h45 Session 3 Classroom - How do we monitor and support Curriculum Management?10h45 - 11h00 Tea11h00 - 12h45 Session 4 Learning Process - Evaluation and Feedback on Curriculum Management matters.12h45 - 13h00 Summary, Way forward and Conclusion Focus of the Workshop Know System Know School Know Job Know Self Know Context 1
  2. 2. Successful Change StrategyAwareness Sufficient awareness of the need No Raise awareness and for change? overcome denial YesDiagnosis Thorough diagnosis of problems No Engage in root cause and/or opportunities? diagnosis YesVision Solid new organising model? No Engage in strategising and visioning YesPlan Detailed plan for implementation? No Engage in planning YesSupport Critical mass of support for No Engage in coalition building implementation? Yes Successful Change!! Session 1What do we know about Education (Teachingand Learning) success in South Africa? Success-rate of Education 8%Leave Gr 12 with something worthy of trading 2
  3. 3. Cone of Learning Teacher Absenteeism Figure 4: Proportion of schools reporting a teacher absenteeism problem, by school SES100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Source: SACMEQII, 2000 School SES quintile Teacher Professional Path 1. First five to eight years (as teachers); 2. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as teacher; 3. First five to eight years (as senior teachers/mentor); 4. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as mentor; 5. First three to five years (as Head of Department); 6. First three to five years (as Deputy Principal); 7. First three to five years (as Principal); 8. Second phase [six to ten years] as Principal; 9. Third phase [eleven to twenty years +] as Principal; 10. Etc. BT1-4 T5-8 T9-12 HoD1-4 HoD5-8 HoD9-12 Pr1-4 Pr5-8 Pr9-12 Pr13 ST1-4 ST5-8 ST9-12 DP1-4 DP5-8 DP5-8 22-26 27-30 31-34 35-38 39-42 43-46 47-50 51-54 55-58 59-62 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 3
  4. 4. Defining Teaching Quality Three related schools of thought - Good teaching is defined by (a) what the teacher brings into the classroom - that is, TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS, (b) what teachers do while they are in the classroom - TEACHING PRACTICES, and © what learners take out of the classroom - LEARNERS LEARNING GAINS;A. Focusing on TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS note that standards (e.g. obtaining a degree/diploma, passing a professional examination) are set to ensure a degree of quality. The logic here is that it is difficult to measure teaching quality directly, so indirect measures should be used;B. Others argue for a more direct measure of what teachers actually do. Those who focus on TEACHING PRACTICE argue for five common pedagogical principles, namely: 1. Building on learners’ prior knowledge; 2. Linking goals, assessment and instruction; 3. Teaching content and critical thinking; 4. Developing language skills; and 5. Creating a culture of learning;C. There are those who reject measuring “inputs” (teacher characteristics) or “processes” (teaching practices) and argue that only outcomes matter. In this case, defining teaching quality is about HIGH LEARNER PERFORMANCE. Time-on-Task 2 Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%HFS Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% 4.5 days p.w.LFS Teaching Learning 30% 50% 20% 2.5 days p.w. Learn- NFS Teaching 20% 30%ing 10% 1.67 days p.w.Current educational Intelligences for School Success No Intelligences Good with … 1. Recall Associative 2. Mathematical Quantitative 3. Verbal Communicative 4. Conceptual Analytical 5. Logical Organisational 4
  5. 5. Ignored Intelligences for Life Success No Intelligences Good with … 1. Visionary Anticipatory 11. Kinesthetic Physical 2. Musical Auditory (listen) 12. Technical Mechanical 3. Functional Operational (feel) 4. Strategic Systemic 13. Empathetic Supportive 5. Intuitive Psychic 14. Spatial Relational 6. Tactile Sensory (touch) 15. Humour Novelty 7. Imaginative Creative 16. Openness Receptivity 8. Visual Observational 17. Gastronomic Olfactory (see) (smell) 9. Social Relations 18. Interpretive Diagnostic 10. Attentiveness Caring 19. Selfless Altruistic 20. Representational Expressive % Different Types of schools in SA Quality of Pass (Grades) 100% 90% 80% 70%Quantity of Pass 60% 50% 40% 20% 30% 20% 50% 10% 0% 20% -10% -20% 10% Anti- Dysfunctional Under- High- Functional Performing Performing Logistics of Teaching and Learning Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness Assess- HFS Components 30% Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% ment 10% School Readiness Disrup- LFS Teaching Learning 50% 20% Assessment Components tions 20% 30% 30% 10% School Readiness Learn- Disruptions Learning for NFS Teaching Components 30% 20% 30%ing 10% & Chaos 20% Assessment 20% Time-on-Task 5
  6. 6. DFS are ‘Full’ HFS LFS DFS Teaching Teaching 20% Teaching 30% 40% Learning 10% Learning Assessment 20% 20% Assessment Learning Disruptions 20% 20% 50% Disruptions 10% School Readiness School Components Readiness Assessment 10% 30% Comp. - 20% SRC - 30% SRC - 10% SRC - 0%Get rid of ‘waste’ HFS LFS DFS Teaching Teaching 20% Teaching 30% 40% Learning 10% Learning Assessment 20% 20% Assessment Learning 20% 50% Assessment 10% SRC - 30% SRC - 30% SRC - 30%Fill up with T&L HFS LFS DFS Teaching Teaching 20% Teaching 30% 40% Learning 10% Learning Assessment 20% 20% in g d Assessment Learning a rn a n 20% 50% L e in g d an h g ac in ing ch rn Te a a Te Le Assessment 10% SRC - 30% SRC - 30% SRC - 30% 6
  7. 7. Activity 1 • Is your school Dysfunctional? • Ten critical questions for every school leader 1. Does every teacher teach everyday in every class for 198 school days in the year? [10] 2. Do you as school leader regularly observe teachers teaching in their classrooms? [10] 3. Do you spend at least 70% of your time in school on matters of teaching and learning? [10] 4. Do you regularly visit parents of learners in their homes? [10] 5. Is your school consistently clean, ordered and well-decorated in ways that convey positive sentiments about the learning environment? [10] 6. Do more than 95% of learners pass the highest grade in the school every year for the past five years? [10] 7. Do more than 98% of learners enrolled attend school everyday? [10] 8. Does every learner have a textbook in every subject? [10] 9. Does your school bring in at least R100,000 every year in external (private) funds e.g. the business community? [10] 10. In the case of High Schools, do at least 80% of your learners go on to university/university of technology? In the case of Primary Schools, do all your learners go on to high school? Prof. Jonathan Jansen (Executive Leadership Programme 2008) Functionality Score for your school 100 A Functional School 80 A Moderately Functional School 60 A Marginally functional School 40 A Seriously Dysfunctional School 20 A School? School Readiness Components 8 Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness 8 School Readiness ComponentsHFS Components Indicators of NFS SRC Component 30% 1.1 High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher and Learner 1.2 High rate of learner absenteeism Attendance 2.1 High rate of staff turnover 2. Teacher Information 2.2 Negative school atmosphere School Readiness 3.1 Low learner performance 3. Learner InformationLFS Components 3.2 High dropout rates of learners 30% 4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual Planning 5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetable 6. Quarterly Teaching School Readiness schedulesNFS Components 7. Organogram 30% 8. Learner and Teacher support materials 7
  8. 8. External and internal difference SRC Full Activity 2: Self-Assessment 8
  9. 9. Principles Issues1. Understanding the Psyche of Dysfunctionality and Change; 12. Dysfunctionality by Design;3. Data/information/knowledge/intelligent decision 5 6 7 making;4. Champion/ leader driven; 12 135. Eight school readiness components (SRC); 4 16 8 26. Whole school development/ school improvement plan;7. School level support; 15 148. Networking/ partnering systems;9. Compliance/ governance/ operational management/ 11 10 9 leadership systems;10. Accountability commitments; 311. Aligning the curriculum, instruction, teaching, learning, assessment systems;12. Professional development of teachers - closing the Purpose (Vision) attitude, believes, thinking and skills gaps;13. Expert and mentor support; Hands (Action)14. Time on task; Head (Systems)15. Managing what you know (ICT);16. Focus on the core - student achievements. Heart (Believes) Session 2 How does the district ensure Curriculum Management at school level? What is a Curriculum? Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organisation, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the learners, and the content knowledge we want learners to acquire. 9
  10. 10. Curriculum Alignment ModelTaughtWrittenTested Curriculum Development Cycle Curriculum Instructional Assessment Management Management Management Plan Plan PlanDo District School TeacherM&E Provincial District HoD School Profile - Baseline Assessment Context Inputs Processes Outputs Outcomes1. Socio-economic 1. Learner participation 1. Learner educator 1. Learner graduation 1. Transition to post- status of community rates ratio rates by gender, age, secondary institutions2. Proportion of single 2. Learner enrolments 2. Class size length of time to 2. Integration of parent families 3. Average funding per distribution complete learners into the3. Employment rate of learner 3. Learner promotion/ 2. Parent satisfaction labour market community 4. Proportion of retention rates 3. Learner satisfaction 3. Employer opinions of4. Social factors learners with special 4. Learner mobility 4. Learner performance graduates of5. Ethnic and language needs rates in key tests and vocational education distribution 5. Learner attendance 5. Subject offerings exams programmes rates 6. Instructional 4. Scholarships and 6. Number of teaching approaches and awards personnel resources 5. Changes in learner 7. Number of support 7. Participation in promotion/ retention personnel extra-curriculum rates 8. Number of teacher activities 6. Changes in learner performance in key assistance 8. School safety tests and exams 9. School-based fund 9. Community-school raising relationships 10. Parent involvement 10. Early school leavers 11. Teacher retention rates 10
  11. 11. Activity 3: Accountability vs Support & Development Accountability Support and DevelopmentDistrict OfficialsPrincipalDeputy PrincipalHead ofDepartmentP1 TeacherLearners What is a Curriculum Model? A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components. Reasons and Rationale for a Curriculum Model Based on Learner Differences• Why should we differentiate our curriculum and instructional strategies?• What kinds of learner differences should we address?• How will we develop or revise curriculum and instruction to address these differences?• What should we expect from differentiation? 11
  12. 12. Ladder of participation Action BY being Collective Decided in control: invite Action or by opinion of others Co-Learning ourselves Action WITH partners: working with others to set priorities and Co-operation course of action Action FOR/ WITH being consulted: others analyse and Consultation decide course of action Action FOR being informed of set tasks: others set the Compliance agenda and direct the processAction ON being Co-option Decidedmanipulated: no Coercion byreal input or power Consumption others Activity 4: Direction finder Looking downwards - Looking upwards - Managing the staff in order Managing the department to maximise their in order to achieve performance both as organisational commitment individuals and collectively and goals Looking backwards - Looking inwards - Monitoring progress with Role of Managing yourself by appropriate control reviewing your systems, to ensure the the performance to ensure that goals are met and that the team learns from its Principal your leadership makes a positive contribution to the mistakes goals Looking outwards - Looking forwards - Managing the parents, Planning in order to ensure learners, stakeholders to that the team sets realistic ensure the learner targets, and obtains achievements meet their appropriate resources to expectations achieve those targets Origin of the Curriculum Management Model • Has its origin in the challenges faced by our dysfunctional (below 30%) and under- performing (below 60%) schools; • From research, the real problem is ‘about planning and implementing’ in a systematic way, based on information/ data (we can’t management what we don’t know); • Was never intended for schools who are already doing well and those who do have systems in place. 12
  13. 13. Intention of the CMM • To clarify the roles and responsibilities of all the different levels of education; • To ensure there is ‘accountability’ as well as ‘support and development’; • Having a system that is pro-active - will highlight success and challenges as early as possible (early warning signs); • Systematise the work of all roleplayers; • Breaking up our work in ‘chunk size’ throughout the year; • Having a strong Monitoring and Evaluation system around Curriculum Management.Curriculum Management Model Learners Educators Head of Dept. • Monitoring • Support Deputy Principal • Development • Control • Compliance Principal District Officials District Director Main purpose of Schooling• To promote learning and teaching• All to give high priority to management of teaching and learning (MTL);• Essential tools of MTL are: - Modelling; - Monitoring; - Evaluation• Three important aspects of focus: - Learning Programmes (Syllabus completion); - School based assessment completion; - Attendance of educators and learner. 13
  14. 14. Need for Evidence on the Focus• Some schools will have evidence (results of learners);• Focus on learners;• Visible during meetings with principals;• How do we know that statistics supplied to district is true?• Discrepancies between ‘reported’ information and ‘reality’ (syllabus completion);• Seniors dependent of juniors to supply information;• How do seniors verify the authenticity of information supplied by juniors? Need for a Systems approach • Curriculum management system will provide true information; • Responsibility of SMT to put system in place; • Not just the job of HoDs, but whole SMT; • Model must include all elements of the curriculum; • Refers to accountability and support of all members of the SMT. School Curriculum Management Model• In 4th term, schools must submit their CMM;• Will prevent you for picking up problems later in the year;• For example, if school only discovers in June that there is a 10% syllabus completion in Mathematics, the focus will not be on the individual educator, but rather the SMT;• SMTs must take ownership of the goals and objectives of the district;• There will be assessments for grade3, 6 and 12.• External tests will be done and results communicated to all stakeholders;• Principals must account for all the results and their interventions. 14
  15. 15. Curriculum Management Framework Cycle One Cycle Two Term One Jan - Feb Feb - Mar Term Two Apr - May May - June Term Three Jul - Aug Aug - Sept Term Four Oct - Nov Nov - Dec Reporting per Cycle (6 weeks)• Educators give a report to HoD on syllabus completion and school based assessment;• Pre-agreed dates of report to HoD (on Department or Phase), from HoD to Deputy (on whole school), from Deputy to Principal;• 24 dates plotted and communicated to stakeholders - district to monitor;• Clear plans on syllabus delivery and completion. What is the benefit of this approach?• Whole school assessment plan;• Avoid different departments doing things differently;• Easy for principal to write an authentic monthly report according to Circular 38/2007;• HoD, despite being a specialist, will overcome lack of confidence regarding unfamiliar subject areas;• Deputy will focus on managerial role;• Educators and HoDs will reclaim their content specialist areas;• Early detection of problem areas;• Logical break-down of work per cycle;• You ‘manage what you know’;• You see the ‘whole’ with the parts. 15
  16. 16. Role of the HoD Educator A Verify information submitted by teacher through Educator B HoD sample of learners’ books. Look at context. Learners Educator C Educator D Examine educators’ portfolio and Educator E workbooks, as well as HoD checking learners’ work against learner Educator F outcomes. Role of the Deputy Principal Educator A Sample one educator. Select learner books. Verify information Educator B HoD submitted with work in learners’ books.Learners Educator C Deputy Principal Educator D If you pick up discrepancies, work with HoD, and not Educator E HoD educator directly. HoD will work with educator. Encourage support and Educator F development of educators Role of the Principal Educator A Sample one HoD and one educator, by consulting the teacher attendance Educator B register. Select learner HoD books. Use data analysis Deputy Principal to guide learner selection. Verify informationLearners Educator C Principal submitted with work in learners’ books. Educator D Identify weakness and address them. Make strategic rather than Educator E HoD operational decisions. Also check the educator files of individual teachers. Check Educator F support and development from HoDs and deputy, to educators who struggle. 16
  17. 17. Subsequent Cycles • Follow same pattern, but change the focus of educator, HoD as well as the subject area; • Cross-reference the curriculum success and/or challenges with teacher and learner attendance; • In 4th cycle, focus on educators who are doing well, in order to affirm those who are doing good work. Role of the School Governing Body Parents School Governing Body Ensuring that feedback on teaching and learning is happening between learners and parents. Educator A Use and implement ideas fed by parents that will enhance teaching and learning. Educator B HoD Deputy Principal Ensure that planning,Learners Educator C monitoring and evaluation Principal tools within the process of MTL are in place at the Educator D beginning of every year. Ensure that the governance focus and resource utilisation Educator E are on enhancing the MTL HoD process, and ultimately learner achievements. Educator F Role of the District Officials Curriculum/ Subject/ Educator A Learning area DOs will monitor and evaluate the MTL by the principal, Educator B HoD Deputy and HoD. Will only render support on request by school (specific Deputy Principal Educator C DistrictLearners individuals, but respecting Officials Principal the supervisory line (DOs) functions). Educator D • Curriculum; •Institutional; • Etc. Educator E HoD Institutional and others support DOs will identify those factors that contribute Educator F negatively to the curriculum management process, and improve them. 17
  18. 18. Role of the District Director Ensure that the focus of all district officials is on MTL. All support and development are focused on improving Educator A learner achievement in the district. Ensure the eradication of dysfunctional schools. Raise the level of expectation and success among all district officials, Educator B HoD teachers, parents and learners. Deputy Principal Educator C District DistrictLearners Officials Director Principal (DOs) • with the Educator D • Curriculum; support from •Institutional; the DEMT • Etc. and DETMC Educator E HoD Work with all stakeholder structures in ensuring that their demands and expectations are responded to, with reference to MTL. Cross-referencing Educator F information received from district officials and/or schools with that of the other stakeholders, i.e. governing bodies & district E&T council members. Learner achievement will be improved if learners are more successful in the assessment processes (tasks, tests and examinations) - this is where they get their results from. It is therefore important that the management processes and plans are clear up to the learner assessment level.• National and Provincial Teaching and Learning Management Plan (NPTLMP) will feed into:• District Curriculum Management Plan (DCMP) will feed into:• School Instructional Management Plan (SIMP), which will feed into;• Teacher Assessment Management Plan (TAMP). Activity 5: Do you have a Curriculum Management Model (CMM) currently at your school? • If yes, please explain to use your CMM; • If no, what is your opinion about the CMM presented to you? 18
  19. 19. There is no management without monitoringand evaluation Monitor Evaluate 19
  20. 20. Activity 6: Do you know what is going on at your school?• If yes, how do you know (give us evidence on your methods of knowing)?;• If no, what prevents you from knowing what is going on at your school?What is Monitoring and Evaluation?Monitoring is the systematic, regular collection and occasionalanalysis of information to identify and possibly measurechanges over a period of time.Evaluation is the analysis of the effectiveness and direction ofan activity and involves making a judgment about progress andimpact.The main differences between monitoring and evaluation arethe timing and frequency of observations and the types ofquestions asked. However, when monitoring and evaluationare integrated, the line between the two becomes ratherblurred.Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is the jointeffort or partnership of two or more stakeholders to monitor andevaluate, systematically, one or more research or developmentactivities (Vernooy et al., 2003). 20
  21. 21. Why should we M&E?In general, the purpose of monitoring & evaluation can be:• To assess results - to find out if and how objectives are being met and are resulting in desired changes.• To improve management and process planning - to better adapt to contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect the research process.• To promote learning - to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to learn what works and what does not, and to identify what contextual factors enable or constrain the participatory research.• To understand different stakeholders perspectives - to allow, through direct participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people involved in the organisation to better understand each others views and values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and interests.• To ensure accountability - to assess whether the organisation is effectively, appropriately, and efficiently executed to be accountable to they key agencies (Estrella and Gaventa, 1998). Methods and Techniques of Monitoring Programmes even with a good planning, adequate organisational machinery and sufficient flow of resources cannot automatically achieve the desired result.• There must be some warning mechanism, which can alert the organisation about its possible success and failures, off and on.• Constant watching not only saves wastage of scarce resources but also ensure speedy execution of the programmes.• Thus monitoring enables a continuing critique of the programme implementation. Defining Monitoring Monitoring means keeping a track of implementation process. • Monitoring involves watching the progress of a project against time, resources and performance schedules during the execution of the project and identifying lagging areas requiring timely attention and action. • Monitoring is defined as a management function to guide in the intended direction and to check performance against pre – determined plans. • Monitoring means periodic checking of progress of works against the targets laid down in order to ensure timely completion of the programme. 21
  22. 22. Reasons for MonitoringEfficiency refers to the amount of time and resources put into theprogramme relative to the outputs and outcomes. A programmeevaluation may be designed to find out if there was a less expensive,more appropriate, less time-consuming approach for reaching the sameobjectives.•Effectiveness describes whether or not the organisational processwas useful in reaching programme goals and objectives, or resulted inpositive outcomes.•Relevance or appropriateness describes the usefulness, ethics, andflexibility of a programme within the particular context.Reasons for monitoringCombined, these criteria enable judgment about whether the outputsand outcomes of the programme are worth the costs of the inputs.Effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness can be considered for thedifferent methods, tools and approaches rather than questioning thevalue of the approach as a whole. Purpose of Monitoring Programme monitoring helps to provide constructive suggestions like. •Re-scheduling the programme (if the programme run behind the schedule) •Re-budgeting the programme (appropriating funds from one head to another; avoiding expenses under unnecessary heading). •Re–assigning the staff (shifting the staff from one area to other; recruiting temporary staff to meet the time schedule). What to MonitorUnderstanding the conditions before the programme wasinitiated is useful in order to provide a point of comparisonfor monitor and evaluating changes that occur during theprogramme.•Baseline survey conducted at the beginning of theprogramme can provide a point of reference forcomparison and for understanding changes.•It is useful to distinguish between the different kinds ofresults generated from the programme: outputs,processes, outcomes, impact and reach. 22
  23. 23. Different kinds of Results in MonitoringThese can be briefly defined as follows:•Outputs describe the concrete and tangible products of theorganisation as well as the occurrence of the activitiesthemselves.•Processes describe the methods and approaches used for theprogramme.•Outcomes describe the changes that occur that can beattributed, at least in part, to the programme process andoutputs.•Impact describes overall changes that occur which theprogramme is one of many contributing factors.•Reach describes who is influenced by the programme and whoacts because of this influence. Steps in Monitoring Identifying the different units involved in planning & implementation • Identifying items on which feedback is required. • Developing pro-forma for reporting. • Determining the periodicity of reporting. • Fixing the responsibility of reporting at different levels. • Processing and analysing the reports. • Identifying the critical / unreliable areas in implementation. • Providing feedback to corrective measures. Meaning of Evaluation Evaluation has its origin in the Latin word “Valupure” which means the value of a particular thing, idea or action. Evaluation, thus, helps us to understand the worth, quality, significance amount, degree or condition of any intervention desired to tackle a social problem. Meaning of evaluation • Finding out the value of something. • The procedures of fact finding • Assessments whether or not certain activities, treatment and interventions are in conformity with generally accepted professional standards. • Is any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or the outcome of interventions, treatment or of social change programme. • To provide systematic, reliable and valid information on the conduct, impact and effectiveness of the projects. • The study and review of past operating experience. 23
  24. 24. Purpose of Evaluation1. From an accountability perspective:• To make the best possible use of funds by the programme managers who are accountable for the worth of their programmes.• Measuring accomplishment in order to avoid weaknesses and future mistakes. -Observing the efficiency of the techniques and skills employed -Scope for modification and improvement. -Verifying whether the benefits reached the people for whom the programme was meant.2. From a knowledge perspective:• To establish new knowledge about social problems and the effectiveness of policies/programmes designed to alleviate them.• Understanding people’s participation & reasons for the same.• Evaluation helps to make plans for future work. Money taken by Administration Principles of Evaluation1. Evaluation is a continuous process (continuity).2. Evaluation should involve minimum possible costs (inexpensive).3. Evaluation should be done without prejudice to day to day work (minimum hindrance to day to day work).4. Evaluation must be done on a co-operative basis in which the entire staff and the board members should participate (total participation).5. As far as possible, the organisation should evaluate its programme but occasionally outside evaluation machinery should also be made use of (external evaluation).6. Total overall examination of the organisation will reveal strength and weaknesses (organisation/programme totality).7. The result of evaluation should be shared with all in the organisation (sharing). 24
  25. 25. Criteria for Developing Evaluation Assistance Steps in Evaluation 1. Learning about the programme; 2. Creating an evaluation plan and indicators; 3. Brief the concerned people about the evaluation plan and indicators; 4. Revising and elaborating on the evaluation plan; 5. Initiating evaluation, and; 6. Utilising/ sharing the information. Phases in Evaluation 25
  26. 26. Types of Evaluation (1) 1. By timing (when to evaluate?) Formative evaluation • Done during the programme (development stages) Summative evaluation • Done at the end of the programme (assessment) 2. By organization (who is evaluating?) Internal evaluation • It is a process/impact, done by management External evaluation • Unbiased,objective detailed assessment by outsider 3. By stage (how frequent?) On going (during the implementation) Terminal (at the end of or immediately after completion) Ex-post (after a time lag from completion) Types of Evaluation (2) Views about EvaluationEvaluation primarily perceived from three perspectives.1. Evaluation as an analysis - determining the merits or deficiencies of a programme, methods and process.2. Evaluation as an audit - systematic and continuous enquiry to measure the efficiency of means to reach their particular preconceived ends.3. Evaluation as administration - appraisal or judgement of the worth and effectiveness of all the processes (e.g. planning, organising, staffing, etc.) designed to ensure that the organisation accomplishes its objectives. 26
  27. 27. Areas of EvaluationPurpose:• The review the objectives of the organisation/programme and how far these are being fulfilled.Programmes:• Aspects like number of beneficiaries, nature of services rendered to them, their reaction to the services, effectiveness and adequacy of services, etc. may be evaluated.Staff:• The success of any programme depends upon the type of the staff an organisation employs. Their attitude, qualifications, recruitment policy, pay and other benefits and organisational environment. These are the areas which help to understand the effectiveness of the organization/programme.Financial Administration:• The flow of resources and its consumption is a crucial factor in any organisation. Whether the money is rightly consumed, any over spending in some headings, appropriation and misappropriation. These are some of the indicators that reveal the reasons for the success or failures of organisations.General:• Factors like public relations strategies employed by the organisation, the constitution of the organisation or governing body and their contribution to future plans of the organisation are important to understand the success or failures of an organisation. Evaluation ... Session 3 How does the principal ensures quality Instructional Management at school level? 27
  28. 28. What do we know about our teachers and/or officials? Remembering Teaching (Information Sharing) Remembering Understanding Teaching Learning (Information Sharing) (Taking ownership of Information) Types of Teaching - Learning None or to Little time and support for LearningTeaching andLearning Teaching Learning Plenty of time and support for LearningTeaching forLearning Teaching and Learning All the time and support are for LearningTeaching as Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching LearningLearning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning The Effective Teaching FrameworkInput or Context Process variablesvariables Teacher Learner perceptions, perceptions,• Teacher strategies and strategies andcharacteristics behaviour behaviour• Learner Characteristics ofcharacteristics the learning task• Class and activitiescharacteristics• Subjectcharacteristics Outcome or Product variables• School •Short and/or Long-term;characteristics •Knowledge, skills and behaviour educational• Community outcomes e.g. change in attitudes of learnerscharacteristics towards school or subject; gains on attainment tests;• Occasion increased level of self-concept; success in nationalcharacteristics examinations; greater learner autonomy; etc. 28
  29. 29. B. Models for Thinking about Effective Teaching 1. A surface level of analysis; 2. A psychological level of analysis; 3. A pedagogical level of analysis1. Surface level of analysis Maximising Active Learning LearnerTeaching Time (ALT) Learning and the Quality of Instruction (QI)2. Psychological level of analysis Psychological concepts, principles and processes - LearnerTeaching e.g. attention, memory, Learning transfer, reinforcement, expectations, motivation, information processing, etc. 29
  30. 30. 3. Pedagogical level of analysis Teacher Learner General perceptions, perceptions,Teaching teaching skills strategies strategies and and (e.g. being behaviour behaviour audible, Characteristics of managing the learning task learners and and activities activities) Presentation, -------------- content, Content structure, specific Learner monitoring, evaluation of teaching skills Learning lesson and (appropriately activities sound content and structure) C. Nature of Learner Learning Four major questions: 1. What mental processes are involved when a learner is engaged in learning? 2. What changes occur in the learners’ cognitive structure which themselves constitute learner learning? 3. Which psychological factors (concepts, principles and processes) facilitate learner learning? 4. What are the main types of learner learning? Gagne - Five main types of learner learning 1. Verbal information e.g. facts, names, principles and generalisations; 2. Intellectual skills - ‘knowing how’ rather than ‘knowing that’ e.g. concepts, rules, application; 3. Cognitive strategies - ability to control and manage mental processes e.g. thinking and memorising, problem solving, etc.; 4. Attitudes - feelings, emotions and behaviour; 5. Motor skills e.g. playing a musical instrument, typing, playing sports, etc. 30
  31. 31. Types of Learning - Ausubel Discovery Learning - content has to be discovered by learner 2.1 3 through some learning activity Reception Learning - entire content is presented to learner in 1 2.2 its final form Rote Learning Meaningful Learning - what is learned is - essential characteristic of the characterised by arbitrary learning is that it can be related in a associations with the learner’s meaningful, non-arbitrary way to previous knowledge what the learner already knows Information Processing during Learning Short-termReception of Memory Long-term Sensory • ‘Working’ Memory Information memory • Cognitive• Attention • Cognitive structure• Selective processing • Storage perception • Conscious • Retrieval thinking F. Key Classroom Teaching Qualities and Tasks • Ten characteristics having a strong association with success; • Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers; • Five qualities of classroom teaching; • Teaching Assessment Rating Scales. 31
  32. 32. Ten characteristics having a strong association with success1. Explains points clearly and at learners’ level;2. Conveys an enthusiasm for the subject of learners;3. Has a genuine interest in the subject;4. Pays attention to assessment techniques;5. Tries to make lessons interesting wherever possible;6. Conveys high expectations for work learners produce;7. Teaches for understanding rather than reproduction of learned material;8. Is confident and at ease with teaching;9. Stimulates learners to think for themselves;10. Is constructive and helpful in criticism of learners.Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers• Beginning the lesson - learners come quickly to attention;• Clarity of presentation - content is understandable to learners;• Pacing of the lesson - movement from one part of lesson to next - ‘teacher stays with class’;• Learner participation and attention - class is attentive;• Ending the lesson - lesson is ended when learners have achieved the aims of instruction;• Teacher-learner rapport - personal relationship between learners and teacher are harmonious. Five qualities of classroom teaching 1. Quality of teacher-learner relationships and class management; 2. Quality of planning and preparation of work; 3. Quality of teaching process and match of work to learners; 4. Quality of language used in the classroom; 5. Quality of questioning techniques. 32
  33. 33. Teaching Assessment Rating Scales (Kyriacou and McKelvey 1985)1. Preparedness;2. Pace and Flow;3. Transition;4. Cognitive Matching;5. Clarity;6. Business-like;7. Withitness;8. Encouragingness. Activity 7: Total divide by 8Name of Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ave.TeacherT1 English 3 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4T2 Maths 5T3 Science 5T4 Life Or. 3T5 Bus.Ec. 4T6 History 4Ave. 4 Total divide by number of Teachers Teaching Competence Three main elements: • Subject knowledge; • Interest in and enthusiasm for the subject; and • Ability to set up effective learning experiences. 33
  34. 34. Activity 8: Total divide by 3Name of Subject Subject Interest in Set up Ave. Knowledge subject learningTeacher experienceT1 English 3 5 5 4T2 Maths 5T3 Science 5T4 Life Or. 3T5 Bus.Ec. 4T6 History 4Ave. 4 Total divide by number of Teachers New Teaching and Learning ProcessModel of the Teaching-Learning Process 34
  35. 35. Learning orientated Teaching (LoT) - Ten Cate et al 2004 The main characteristics of the model are: 1.(1) The components of learning: •cognition (what to learn), •affect (why learn), and •Meta-cognition (how to learn); and •(2) The amount of guidance learners need. 2.If education aims at fostering ones ability to function independently in society, an important general objective should be that one learns how to fully and independently regulate his or her own learning; i.e., the ability to pursue ones professional life independently. 3.This implies a transition from external guidance (from the teacher) through shared guidance (by the learner together with the teacher) to internal guidance (by the learner alone). 4.This transition pertains not only to the cognitive component of learning (content) but also to the affective component (motives) and the meta- cognitive component (learning strategies). Features of the Teaching and Learning CycleThe main purpose is learner learning.1. Expectations for learning change from the “most capable learners” to “all learners.”2. The pace of instruction is determined by learner learning.3. The process begins with assessment rather than ending with it.4. Assessment data is used to inform instruction instead of only for grading.5. Learner progress toward learning targets is continuously monitored and documented.6. Differentiated instruction based on flexible grouping replaces whole class instruction. Teaching-Learning Cycle1 2 35
  36. 36. Improving Classroom EffectivenessModels of Teaching and Learning 1. Proctor Model 36
  37. 37. 2. Cruickshank Model3. Gage and Berliner Model 4. Huitt Model (1) 37
  38. 38. 5. Huitt Model (2)6. Slavin QAIT Model of Instruction 7. Transactional Model 38
  39. 39. Activity 9: Did you know before, the different Models of teaching and learning?; • If yes, share with us where you were exposed to it. • If no, what is your opinion about the usefulness of these models? DoE Six-step process of Timetabling (DoE MTL Module 2 of ACE School Leadership, pp.167-177)1. Determine the timetable allocation per subject in the Grades;2. Determine the number of periods per subject per week in the school timetable;3. Study the Learning Fields offered by the school and determine which of the subjects are core subjects in your school to allocate their periods in the timetable;4. Draw up the class timetable together with the teacher timetable. Start with the highest grade, and work down to lowest grade;5. Follow same process for all grades;6. Plan all grades, and remember that the learning areas differ in different phases. Activity 10:1. Who designed the timetable?2. Who was consulted?3. Who, in the school community, was not consulted?4. When was it devised?5. Who are groups formed? Allocated? Chosen? Age? Sex? Attainment?6. Do all groups study the same subjects?7. If not, when do differences begin?8. What three subjects are most frequently timetabled?9. Which three subjects are least frequently timetabled?10. Which subjects are absent from the timetable?11. Does the frequency of subject timetabling vary with groups?12. How long are the periods allocated?13. What subjects are given double periods?14. Are the timetables of boys and girls the same?15. If they differ, give details.16. How does the school timetable compare with: - An evening institute programme: - A youth club programme; - A technical college timetable?17. Why was the timetable devised in this particular way? 39
  40. 40. Session 4How do we manage the learning and assessment of all learners?Some of the Components of aComprehensive Learning Unit • Content  Grouping and Pacing • Assessment  Products • Introduction/Closure  Resources • Teaching Strategies  Extension Activities • Learning Activities  Differentiation Activity 11: What is your learning style, and those of your learners?• If you know, where were you exposed to this?• If you don’t know, why is it important? 40
  41. 41. What is a “learning style”? • “The way that he or she concentrates on, processes, internalizes, and remembers new and difficult information or skills”. – Dr. Rita Dunn, St. John’s University • “Characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment”. – James W. Keefe Learning Style - In Simple Terms• Children learn through a combination of these elements: –Physiological Conceptual Understanding –Cognitive –Affective Thoughts on Learning … 41
  42. 42. Your brain learn by … How do you learn? Like this? Or like this? What are we learning?Old view!The key skill was … 42
  43. 43. New view of learning … But watch out … The key skills are … 43
  44. 44. And remember … Level 1 - Facts• The first level of learning deals with facts-details or data which result from direct observation and research.• Facts make up the most basic level of learning.• Taken on their own at this level, facts have no direct application.• But without facts, you cannot move on to the other levels of learning. Level 2 - Information• The second level of learning deals with information-observational data in a usable form.• The descriptions that information consists of tell who, what, when, where, and how many.• With information, you can begin to make use of facts. 44
  45. 45. Level 3 - Know-how• Know-how is the focus of the third level of learning.• Know-how consists of a collection of descriptions in the form of instructions.• Know-how is about having the instructions you need to make use of the information you have.• With know-how, you derive knowledge from experience. Level 4 - Comprehension• The fourth level of learning deals with comprehension.• Comprehension answers the question "Why?"• At the comprehension level, learning is composed of explanations.• When you understand why, you are better able to use the knowledge and know-how you already have. Level 5 - Wisdom• Wisdom is the focus of the fifth and final level of learning.• Wisdom is the ability to evaluate, and it incorporates values.• It is essential for development.• Using know-how and comprehension without wisdom can result in actions that dont work for the overall mission of the learning process. 45
  46. 46. Learning: From Past to Future Activity 12: Which level of learning is facilitated in your school? 5 Levels of LearningLevel Teaching Type of Days Teaching 1 35 Facts 2 70 Information 3 105 Know-How 4 140 Comprehension 5 175 Wisdom 46
  47. 47. Bloom’s Level of learning and Thinking1. Know - Define, match, repeat, memorise, label, outline, record, recognise, state, sort, list2. Understand - Restate, show, illustrate, summarise, predict, locate, paraphrase, describe, explain3. Apply - Demonstrate, solve, test, use, manipulate, organise4. Analyse - Examine, debate/defend, compare/contrast, refute, relate, generalise, classify, research5. Synthesise - Propose, design, construct, invent, formulate, plan, imagine6. Evaluate - Judge, recommend, critique/criticise, justify, choose Levels of Time Academic Learning Time Engaged Time Instructional Time Allocated Time School Day Length Attendance for the Year School Academic Year Activity 13: Do the Maths! Summary 47
  48. 48. Learning is our Business We want to ensure and increase student learning and achievement. Learning begins with attention to students’ prior knowledge, motivation, attention, effort, and perception. Different learners have different levels of prior knowledge, motivations, effort, and learning styles. If we attend to learner differences we can make our curriculum more efficient. Efficiency, effectiveness, and planning increases the quality of curriculum. Focus on Teaching Misguided Indicators 48
  49. 49. Focus on LearningLearning systemLearning Signature (Business Lab, 2002) Attribute: •is taking place; •is unused or unconsidered; •has a barrier. Activity 14: 49
  50. 50. Levels of Time 50