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Final project

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY A social networking site is a web-based service that allow user to construct a public or semi- public profile. User may build a networking which can connects him or her with others social networking sites user. User is allowed to share their story or activity with others user on the internet through these social networking site. Over the years, a lot of social networking sites have been constructed, and now there is more than 1 billion of user is using social networking site everyday on the world. Social network site is unique not only because they allow individuals to meet strangers, is because they allow users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between ―latent ties‖ who share some offline connection. On many of the large Social Networking Sites, participants are not necessarily "networking" or looking to meet new people; instead, they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network. To emphasize this articulated social network as a critical organizing feature of these sites, people label them as "social network sites." 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY In this project, the researcher will focus on the Kolej Asa Rawang student that age is between 18- 30 years old. Kolej Asa is a private college under Ministry of Education. The colleges offer a one or two Years Programme for students to further their studies after their SPM and as a preparation for the students before pursuing their study to the university. According to Wikipedia, A social networking service (Sites) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such
  2. 2. 2 as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network. The main types of social networking services (Sites) are those that contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust. The symbolically of the social networking services (Sites) are Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Tumblr, Friendster, Classmate and others. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Efforts to support social networks via computer- mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, Apranet, Listserv, and bulletin board services short also knows as BBS. Many prototypical features of social networking sites were also present in online services such as America Online, Prodigy, CompuServe, ChatNet, and The WELL. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as on 1995, Geocities on 1994 and on 1995. Many of these early communities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms, and encouraged users to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy-to-use publishing tools and free or inexpensive web space. Some communities - such as - took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses. In the late 1990s, user profiles became a central feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of "friends" and search for other users with similar interests. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends. This newer generation of social networking sites began to flourish with the emergence of in 1997, followed by Makeoutclub in 2000, Hub Culture and Friendster in 2002, and soon became part of the Internet mainstream. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, and eventually Bebo. Attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites' popularity, by 2005, it was reported that MySpace was getting more page views than Google. Facebook is launched in 2004; and it became the largest social networking site in the worlds in early 2009.
  3. 3. 3 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The reason of the researcher is choosing this project is because nowadays, the internet multimedia is growing with a very fast way. There is a lot internet-based or web-based application, software or website. In these entire item, the most common item would be used by the student is the social network sites. On this project, the researcher is going to find out the reason of the student in Kolej Asa is using social network sites and what are the benefit of using social network sites and is that the social network sites is convenience to use. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION I. Why Kolej Asa student is using social network site? II. What makes Kolej Asa student started to use social network site? III. What is the Benefit of Kolej Asa student while they are using social network site? IV. Is that social network site is convenience while used by Kolej Asa student? 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES I. To find that why Kolej Asa student is using social network site. II. To explore what makes Kolej Asa student started to use social network site. III. To find out what is the Benefit of Kolej Asa student while they are using social network site. IV. To find out is that social network site is convenience while used by Kolej Asa student.
  4. 4. 4 1.5 SIGNIFACANCE OF STUDY The finding of this project will be on understanding the reason of why Kolej Asa students joined social network site and is there any benefit and convenience while Kolej Asa student using social network sites. On this project, it will benefit the parent, family, college, school, student, educator and also some organizational. This project will help them to get know about what is social network site is about and what benefit there are giving. From this information, the Beneficiaries may use this information to make their changes about their children or student or research or their business. 1.6 RESEARCH SCOPE The scope of the project is focus on why and the benefit of Kolej Asa student joined and using social network site and is that the social network site is convenience to use. The students involved in this project are currently studying in Kolej Asa in Rawang. 1.7 LIMITATION The limitation in this project faced by the researcher is the limit of returned answer, time and also the transportation, due to these limitation, the researcher will giving out as many questionnaire as the researcher may do and arrange the transportation of researcher. 1.7.1 DOESN’T REFLECT THE REAL DATA The combination of primary and secondary data had been used for this research might not represent or reflect the real data exists due to the problem researcher faced 1.7.2 BROAS SUBJECT That is too hard to present the result what reflect in the research progress. Since the research is in the direction of personality factors on social networking user's attitude.
  5. 5. 5 1.8 CONCLUTION On this chapter, the overview of the study, background of the study, problem statement, research question and objectives, significance of study, research scope and limitation have been written down. This chapter is explaining about what the project is about, where that the project will take place, who will be involve in the project, why that the project is started and how the project is conducted. After completing this chapter, the project can be conducted and started to proceed due to the main element of the project is already identified and described.
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is focuses on the definition of social networking sites and what does social networking sites stands for. It going to describe about the function, value and type of social networking sites have. This chapter is also going to describe that what does social networking sites provide or offer to community. 2.1 SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Social network sites is web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi- public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. While the researcher use the term "social network site" to describe this phenomenon, the term "social networking sites" also appears in public discourse, and the two terms are often used interchangeably. Researcher chooses not to employ the term "networking" for two reasons: emphasis and scope. "Networking" emphasizes relationship initiation, often between strangers. While networking is possible on these sites, it is not the primary practice on many of them, nor is it what differentiates them from other forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC). What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "latent ties" (Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline connection. On many of the large SNSs, participants are not necessarily "networking" or looking to meet new people; instead, they are primarily communicating with
  7. 7. 7 people who are already a part of their extended social network. To emphasize this articulated social network as a critical organizing feature of these sites, we label them "social network sites." While SNSs have implemented a wide variety of technical features, their backbone consists of visible profiles that display an articulated list of Friends1 who are also users of the system. Profiles are unique pages where one can "type oneself into being" (Sundén, 2003, p. 3). After joining an SNS, an individual is asked to fill out forms containing a series of questions. The profile is generated using the answers to these questions, which typically include descriptors such as age, location, interests, and an "about me" section. Most sites also encourage users to upload a profile photo. Some sites allow users to enhance their profiles by adding multimedia content or modifying their profile's look and feel. Others, such as Facebook, allow users to add modules ("Applications") that enhance their profile. The visibility of a profile varies by site and according to user discretion. By default, profiles on Friendster and are crawled by search engines, making them visible to anyone, regardless of whether or not the viewer has an account. Alternatively, LinkedIn controls what a viewer may see based on whether she or he has a paid account. Sites like MySpace allow users to choose whether they want their profile to be public or "Friends only." Facebook takes a different approach—by default, users who are part of the same "network" can view each other's profiles, unless a profile owner has decided to deny permission to those in their network. Structural variations around visibility and access are one of the primary ways that SNSs differentiate themselves from each other. After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system with which they have a relationship. The label for these relationships differs depending on the site— popular terms include "Friends," "Contacts," and "Fans." Most SNSs require bi-directional confirmation for Friendship, but some do not. These one-directional ties are sometimes labeled as "Fans" or "Followers," but many sites call these Friends as well. The term "Friends" can be misleading, because the connection does not necessarily mean friendship in the everyday vernacular sense, and the reasons people connect are varied (Boyd, 2006a). The public display of connections is a crucial component of SNSs. The Friends list contains links to each Friend's profile, enabling viewers to traverse the network graph by clicking through the Friends lists. On most sites, the list of Friends is visible to anyone who is permitted to view the profile, although there are exceptions. For instance, some MySpace users have hacked their profiles to hide the Friends display, and LinkedIn allows users to opt out of displaying their network. Most SNSs also provide a mechanism for users to leave messages on their Friends' profiles. This feature typically involves leaving "comments," although sites employ various labels for this feature. In addition, SNSs often have a private messaging feature similar to webmail. While both
  8. 8. 8 private messages and comments are popular on most of the major SNSs, they are not universally available. Not all social network sites began as such. QQ started as a Chinese instant messaging service, Lunar Storm as a community site, CY world as a Korean discussion forum tool, and Sky rock (formerly Sky blog) was a French blogging service before adding SNS features., a directory of school affiliates launched in 1995, began supporting articulated lists of Friends after SNSs became popular. Asian Avenue, Mi Gente, and Black Planet were early popular ethnic community sites with limited Friends functionality before re-launching in 2005-2006 with SNS features and structure. Beyond profiles, Friends, comments, and private messaging, SNSs vary greatly in their features and user base. Some have photo-sharing or video-sharing capabilities; others have built-in blogging and instant messaging technology. There are mobile-specific SNSs (e.g., Dodge ball), but some web-based SNSs also support limited mobile interactions (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, and CY world). Many SNSs target people from specific geographical regions or linguistic groups, although this does not always determine the site's constituency. Orkut, for example, was launched in the United States with an English-only interface, but Portuguese-speaking Brazilians quickly became the dominant user group (Kopytoff, 2004). Some sites are designed with specific ethnic, religious, sexual orientation, political, or other identity-driven categories in mind. There are even SNSs for dogs (Dogster) and cats (Catster), although their owners must manage their profiles. While SNSs are often designed to be widely accessible, many attract homogeneous populations initially, so it is not uncommon to find groups using sites to segregate themselves by nationality, age, educational level, or other factors that typically segment society (Hargittai, this issue), even if that was not the intention of the designers. (Reference from Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.)
  9. 9. 9 2.1.1 THE TYPES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES There are more social networks than ever, and more people using them. The sheer variety in social networking, though, has left us with an increasingly narrow definition of what a social network is. Perhaps the only one that applies to all of them, from Twitter to Facebook to snap chat, is this: a social network is a communications service based on your identity. It follows, then, that a social network‘s ability to affect your identity should be considered it‘s most important trait and that therefore there are two types of social network: 1) Those that simulate social mobility 2) Those that doesn‘t Mobility provides a handy lens through which to judge the networks we use every day and to understand why we like, or don‘t like, using them. It also brings them into one of the internet‘s longest running and most important conversations, from which they‘ve been oddly absent: is the internet a place for opportunity, or a place for reproduction of existing social orders? Another way to describe this distinction might be to say that some social networks are aspirational, while some replicate what already exists in your life. Some give you a way to become something your aren‘t, or, more accurately, to alter how people see you, while others, over time, insist on creating a more accurate portrait of who you are. Twitter is one of the largest, and purest, aspirational social networks. This is built into the site‘s ―Follow‖-centric vocabulary. Twitter is a place where you have followers, not friends; a place where following fewer people than follow you is a sign of status; a place where the verification of your real identity is really an acknowledgment that you‘ve become something other than yourself something better, in Twitter‘s abstracted terms. Fleeting interaction with celebrities and the powerful fuels users‘ hopes, giving them the sense, at least, of a level playing field. And while social mobility on Twitter may be overemphasized (it‘s telling that it‘s usually defined in terms of celebrity), its algorithms the closest thing it has to a societal framework aren‘t much of a mystery. Famous people in real life are famous on Twitter. You see tweets from people you follow, and people they want to introduce you to. Regular people who post and share tweets people like accrue twitter fame.
  10. 10. 10 Facebook, the first major social network to require real identities, sits at the other end of the spectrum. If Twitter is the place you go to remake yourself (albeit in a way that very likely will be contained entirely within Twitter), Facebook is the place that won‘t stop reminding you of who you really are (or were). In a post this week, Cliff Watson wrote of his experience on Facebook: What is Facebook to most people over the age of 25? It‘s a never-ending class reunion mixed with an eternal late-night dorm room gossip session mixed with a nightly check-in on what coworkers are doing after leaving the office. In other words, it‘s a place where you go to keep tabs on your friends and acquaintances. Facebook, to users who joined years ago, can even feel like an engine of downward mobility at best, visiting is a metaphorical trip home to ―the block,‖ where you try to find ways of explaining what your life is like, how it‘s changed, and how it‘s gotten better, or how it‘s gotten worse, without sounding like a jerk, or pathetic, or like you‘re talking too much about yourself. It‘s appropriate that, in the year since going public, Facebook has been reminded repeatedly by its new context the public market of its own inescapable identity as an ad platform. Its recent experiments in self-expression have been fraught. Facebook‘s lack of mobility is sewn into the fabric of the site. Connections for users are symmetrical a crude digital equivalent to establishing a relationship or an acquaintanceship in real life. If it feels like a popularity contest, it‘s only in an antiquated sense; it encourages none of the self-as-a-minor-celebrity illusions that Twitter does. But the overall effect, despite (or because of) its realism, can be grim. Facebook is a place where posts, not people, find mobility. If something you do gets noticed, you get little in the way of lasting benefit it‘s a place where users share content, and content doesn‘t share back. Facebook is a place where brands, not users, can become famous. On Facebook, ―followers‖ are for people who have them in real life. The other large social networks fall into these categories, too. Tumblr, a space that values performance over all else, and which lets people be both successful and unrecognizable, is an aspirational network, a place where you‘re encouraged to be who you want to be rather than who you are. Google Plus‘s ultimate goal, like Facebook‘s, is to progressively recreate your real- world identity online it‘s just starting with a different (private, and arguably therefore more relevant) set of data. LinkedIn is an aspirational service wrapped in realist mechanics. In a much more significant way than Twitter, it‘s a place that promises to make you into someone else. When that doesn‘t pan out, the mechanics overwhelm the experience. An impotent LinkedIn profile is the most depressing real estate on social media.
  11. 11. 11 In the context of near-constant Facebook doom saying, the future may seem to favor upwardly mobile networks. But in reality, it may favor neither. As Watson claims in his piece, the next generation of social networks message-heavy services like Snapchat, Kik and Whatsapp is more ―social‖ and less ―network‖ than what came before. They have no outwardly visible social structures and little in the way of profiles. Twitter brought texting to the public internet; these services are taking it back off. While they don‘t fit most pundits‘ ideas of what a social network is they fit our stripped-down, broad one: they are services based, in a simple way, on identity. Instead, though, they manifest users‘ identities not as public profiles, but as private handles a refreshing throwback that also happens to preclude most discussion of discrete mobility (these services join in on real life more than they mirror it; they create hidden parallel channels rather than online simulacra).
  12. 12. 12 2.1.2 THE VALUE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Social networks gain value by enabling users to receive updates from contacts without physically interacting with them directly. This allows users to keep up to date with a large network of family, friends, and businesses. As marketers, we would like to be able to determine the value of social networking sites – both new and upcoming. This will give marketers insights as to how to allocate social media spending and increase consumer engagement with their brands. The problem arises from the theory that the value of a social network is derived from two seemingly opposite attributes:  Low redundancy of information – users will not see similar or repeated posts throughout the feed. This allows for a greater variety of updates and will increase the value of the social network.  More strong personal ties – categorized as family > friends > businesses, will increase the value of the social network by providing more information about the user‘s interests. Yotam Shmargad presents his results from the Joint Statistical Meetings in San Diego this year about how these two attributes actually contribute to the valuation of a particular social network. Shmargad determined that the users who most valued the social networking site were those that had high redundancy within their most strong ties. In other words, users want similar or repeated information only from their friends and family. Therefore, in order to fully measure the value of a social network site, one must take into consideration not just redundancy and strong personal ties, but the interaction between the two. The social networks more highly valued by consumers are those that minimize redundancy within business networks and maximize redundancy within family networks. As marketers, this means that in order to more fully engage consumers on social networking sites we should aim to provide new and refreshing content at all times.
  13. 13. 13 2.1.3 FUNCTION OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES To address the need to structure and to identify the basic functionalities of SNS theoretically we start by the two categories ‗keeping in touch‘ (1) and ‗identity management‘ (2) which are the two main characteristics of (the definition of) SNS. (1) Keeping in touch can be split in direct communication (direct exchange with someone) and indirect communication (via artifacts 2) according to communication theories (e.g. the person- artifact framework by Dixetal). In the context of indirect communication there is a need for contact management – i.e. for defining filters of who will be able to get information about one‘s activities (access control),and from whom one wants to see information. There is a lot of research on these types of filters in CSCW on the communication of awareness – one prominent example of using indirect communication. (2) The field of identity management can be further specified regarding reasons for presenting oneself: to be found, to (enable others) building a common context (more quickly) and to generate information for indirect communication. This can also be seen from the other side: to find someone, to build a common context (see if one has something in common with the other), or to stay informed about the other (via indirect communication). The Six Basic Functionalities of SNS In addition to this theoretical approach from communication theories we have analyzed several open and closed SNS to identify common functionalities. From this analysis a list of common components was extracted and finally mapped to the tasks identified from theory. As a result we propose a list of six basic functionalities of SNS: 1. Identity management 2. Expert finding 3. Context awareness 4. Contact management 5. Network awareness 6. Exchange
  14. 14. 14 Identity Management Goff man views social interaction as human performance, which he compares to the performance in a theater, and which is shaped by the audience and the environment. Because people are constantly analyzed by others they construct consciously a social identity which they present to their counterpart. In SNS the profile people construct is this staging of oneself - for a particular audience, for a particular task to be achieved. Thus, in our context identity mana gement means managing the availability of identity information – i.e. filling in information and setting access rights (who is allowed to see what). Access rights can be direct or role based – e.g. allowing access for all users in the personal network. This form of self presentation satisfies several human needs, as a study by the SNS MySpace has shown. Examples for functions enabling identity management in SNS are: (user) profile, group memberships. Expert Search CSCW research has already dealt extensively with the use of the expert search as a possibility to identify implicit knowledge). In this context one has todistinguish between the possibility to search the network according to different criteria (e.g. name, interests, and company) and the possibility to pro-actively receiver commendations of interesting contacts by the SNS. Examples for functions enabling expert search in SNS are: search boxes. Context Awareness Context Awareness is the awareness of a common context with other people. This can be information about common contacts, about common interests, about the sameuniversity one has visited or the same company one has worked at. Context Awareness contributes a lot to creating common trust among the users, which is essential for a successful collaboration. Moreover, according to Soonhee and Hyangsoo ―knowledge sharing requires the dissemination of individual employees‘ work-related experiences and collaboration between and among individuals, […] and organizations‖. Examples for functions enabling context awareness in SNS are: ―How you‘re connected to …‖-box. Contact Management Contact management combines all functionalities that enable the maintenance of the (digital) personal network. Examples for functions enabling contact management in SNS are: tagging people, access restrictions to profile.
  15. 15. 15 Network Awareness The awareness of the activities (and/or the current status and changes of the latter) of the contacts in the personal network is supported by functionalities, too. These functionalities enable indirect communication via awareness. Examples for functions enabling network awareness in SNS are: News Feeds, ―Birthdays‖-box. Exchange Exchange combines all possibilities to exchange information directly (e.g. messages) or indirectly (e.g. photos or messages via bulletin boards). Morone and Tayler found e.g. that the reduction of communication barriers is essential for successful knowledge sharing. Examples for functions enabling exchange in SNS are: Messages, photo albums. The Process of IT Supported Social Networking When the above mentioned basic functionalities are mirrored back to the initial goal of SNS (i.e. to support building, maintenance and usage of social networks), one can identify different possible sequences in the utilization of the single functionalities. As one result of this categorization of SNS functionalities a process description of IT supported social networking has been developed (see Figure 1 and [15] for further information). Note that the two basic functionalities direct and indirect exchange of views in exchange and network awareness are integrated in one process step.
  16. 16. 16 Figure 2.1: process of IT supported social networking The process illustrates the typical succession of several steps in the individual usage of SNS (which are all more or less supported by current SNS implementations).It also shows that there are different successions thinkable. The process is not strictly chronological or repetitive, i.e. starting steps and successions can differ. Online Surveys: Private Usage of SNS in Germany In order to validate the results of the systematized organization of basic functionalities comparative user survey has been conducted. The overall goal of the survey was to obtain an overview of private usage of SNS in Germany. Realization and Questionnaire The quantitative research took place from December 5, 2007 to January 31, 2008 and consisted of an online survey directed towards all German users of every sort of open (public) SNS. The study population was approached in three different ways:
  17. 17. 17 (1) Five well-known German bloggers linked the online survey in their blogs. The readers of the blogs are mainly IT-interested and already in working age. (2) An invitation email was sent to all students and employees (n ≈ 4000) of the Bundeswehr University Munich. Two German SNS (, approached all their users directly, bringing their attention to the survey. Respondents entering the survey site ( received an introduction with the definition of SNS (mentioned above) and examples so that every participant was well informed. The questionnaire contained 24 questions that aimed towards the kinds of private use of different SNS by German web users. It consisted of four parts: 1. Socio-demographic questions (age, gender, usage of the Internet etc.; 6 questions in total), 2. Questions that allowed for the clustering of the different user types based on their SNS usage (―how often do you use SNS?‖, ―how many contacts do you have‖; 4questions in total, including filter questions on the respondents‘ specific SNS), 3. Questions concerning the functions of SNS (―how often do you use the following functions…‖, ―how important do you consider the following functions…‖; 11questions in total) and 4. Questions concerning online advertising and targeting (―how bothersome do you consider the following forms of online advertising…‖ 3 questions in total). At the end of the questionnaire a link to a wiki provided the possibilities to give additional open feedback concerning personal SNS usage in general and the survey in particular. More than 30 people wrote commentaries, some of them were very helpful for understanding some individual user behavior better. In the eight weeks under review about 5500 people visited the survey website, 2650 of them completed the full questionnaire and were included in the analysis. The sample is representative as far as education is concerned, whereas gender (62% men) and age (58% are younger than 26 years, only 18.2% are older than 35 years) are unequally distributed. The data was collected by the questionnaire tool UniPark ( and analyzed using SPSS 15 statistical software. Important Results of the Study The study had several aims – one of them was the validation of the basic functionalities presented in Section 2. In the following we present some of the results for validating the categorization of the functionalities 3.In the questionnaire we asked the respondents three times in three different ways questions about functionalities in SNS. In Question 5 we wanted to know how often the population uses different functions, in Question 7 we asked because of which function the users do not want to renounce on the SNS and in questions 13 till 18 we interrogated the importance of our basic functionalities. We considered it to be a difference if one uses a function (often or seldom) or if he considers a function so important that he doesn‘t want to leave the SNS because of the function. The functionalities interrogated in questions 5 and 7 were: ―to keep contact‖, to share information‖, ―to get to know people‖, ―to share pictures‖, ―contact
  18. 18. 18 management‖, ―to present myself‖, ―expert/person search‖, ―Dating‖, ―to find business partners‖. From the first sight it is obvious that these are not really basicfunctionalities. Those are rather ―success factors of SNS‖ i.e. reasons for people to use SNS. As can be seen in figures 2 and 3 the frequency of use and the opinion on the importance of the proposed features were quite similar. Respondents mentioned they used features ―to keep contact‖ most often (87.1%) and don‘t want to renounce on these (78.5%). Figure 2.2 The Reason Of Using Social Networking Second popular was ―sharing information‖ (frequency of use: 80.2%; importance: 50.7%). Features ―to get to know people‖ are only used half the frequency (46.6%) of the first group, and are esteemed only half so important (35.7%).
  19. 19. 19 These results reveal a lot about the intentions of the respondents to use a SNS: First of all, the users want to keep contact with friends or colleagues they already know. Secondly they want to share information with these people they already know. Getting to know people in general, dating (frequency: 17%, importance: 11.2%) and finding new business partners (17%, 9.9%) is less important and the features are less used. Further functions like expert search (frequency: 49.8%, importance: 14.8%), self-presentation (44.6%) and contact management (67.3%, 32.3%) range in them ID field. In the following we distinguish two user groups: 1. Users of the German business SNS Xing ( 2. Users of the German student SNS StudiVZ ( The importance of the features differs according to the predominant use intention of the SNS (cf. Figure 4). Xing is primarily used because it has features for contact management (58.3%), to keep contact (55.3%) and to find business partners (52.3%),whereas StudiVZ is primarily used for its features to keep contact (94.3%), to share information (53,3%) and to share pictures (52.3%). Figure 2.3 The Percentage of User of Xing and StudiVZ, Reason Of Using It. Remarkably: Only 7.1% of StudiVZ users wouldn‘t leave the SNS because of its potential for dating and only 47.7% of Xing users wouldn‘t leave the SNS because of its potential for expert finding (which is one of Xing‘s declared goals). In both cases (for business and for private use), ―to keep contact‖ was a very important reason for the respondents to use the SNS. In a group of five questions we asked the respondents how important they considered five of the six functions we have identified (identity management, expert finding, contact management, network awareness, and exchange). We couldn‘t consider context awareness, because functions like the ―How you‘re connected to…‖-path are only mostly used ―passively‖ i.e. they are displayed only.
  20. 20. 20 Altogether the respondents considered all functionalities of SNS mentioned above as important. Functions that support exchange (81.3%) and awareness (74.6%) were valued as most important, whereas the functions that enable identity management where valued as less important (54.5%) (cf. Figure 5). Figure 2.4 The Reason For Not Using SNSs If we now compare these results with the answers to questions 5 and 7 one can say that, again, keeping contact (awareness about the own contacts, exchange with them) was esteemed most important by the users. In a further question we interrogated whether the users attached importance to the occasional introduction of new functions: 70% of them did, 12% did not, and the rest was undecided. Besides the features which are so important for the users that they do not want to leave a SNS, we also interrogated for which reasons users are willing to leave
  21. 21. 21 a platform (cf. Figure 6). We gave seven different reasons to leave the SNS: ―thenumber of members declines‖, ―I have other SNS with same content‖, ―I‘m nerved by the ads of the SNS‖, ―I‘m afraid of data abuse‖, ―the service is charged‖, ―I‘m no longer interested in the SNS‖ and ―My friends are no more using the SNS‖.36.7% of the respondents would leave their SNS if a majority of their contacts would. Only 27.1% would leave if the service was charged and 25% would leave if they were afraid of data abuse. A declining number of friends was the first reason for StudiVZ users to opt out (43.5%; with ―no more interested‖ on the second place: 32.2%) and the second reason for Xing users (33.4%; with ―no more interested‖ on the first place: 40.8%).In both cases (StudiVZ: 6.4%; Xing: 5.2%) the least reason for the users to leave a SNS was a diminishing number of members. This completes the picture of the other results: If a great part of friends are no longer in the SNS there is no possibility to keep contact to them. The users are neither impressed by millions of people in a SNS whom they could possibly contact, nor concerned by a small number of members. Most important to them are the people they already know and with whom they want to keep in touch. 2.2 THE COMPARISON IN 3 TYPES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Researcher has chosen three types of social networking sites among the most common social networking sites to compare their different. The three social networking sites have chosen is: I. Facebook, II. Deviant Art, III. WAYN, 2.2.1 What is Facebook? Facebook is an online social networking service, whose name stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by some university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other. It was founded in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students, and eventually
  22. 22. 22 to anyone aged 13 and over. Facebook now allows any users who declare them to be at least 13 years old to become registered users of the site. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People from Work" or "Close Friends". As of September 2012, Facebook has over one billion active users, of which 8.7% are fake. According to a May 2011 Consumer Reports survey, there are 7.5 million children under 13 with accounts and 5 million under 10, violating the site's terms of service. In May 2005, Accel partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money to the pot. A January 2009 study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Entertainment included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?" Facebook eventually filed for an initial public offering on February 1, 2012, and was headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Facebook Inc. began selling stock to the public and trading on the NASDAQ on May 18, 2012. Based on its 2012 income of USD 5.1 Billion, Facebook joined The Fortune 500 list for the first time, being placed at position of 462 on the list published in May 2013. What Offed By Facebook? User profile Users can create profiles with photos, lists of personal interests, contact information, and other personal information. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat feature. They can also create and join interest groups and "like pages" (called "fan pages" until April 19, 2010), some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising. Facebook has been prompted to add a "third gender", "other", or "intersex" tab in the gender option which contains only male and female. Facebook refused and said that individuals can "opt out of showing their sex on their profile". A 2012 Pew Internet and American Life study identified that between 20–30% of Facebook users are "power users" who frequently link, poke, post and tag themselves and others. The user page is set up in a minimal fashion with blue as the main color. This was done because Zuckerberg is red-green colorblind. On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs. Many new smartphones offer access to Facebook services through either their Web browsers or applications. An official Facebook application is available for the operating systems Android, iOS, and webOS. Nokia and Research in Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. More than 425 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries.
  23. 23. 23 News feed On September 6, 2006, a News feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's friends. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users). In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends. On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user. The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may potentially include websites such as Twitter. One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos. Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. During the first years, Facebook users were limited to 60 photos per album. As of May 2009, this limit has been increased to 200 photos per album. Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag", or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo. On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to its users. It will help the users in finding games and other applications with ease. Since the launch of the App Center, Facebook has seen 150M monthly users with 2.4 times the installation of apps. The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the algorithm EdgeRank.
  24. 24. 24 Facebook Notes Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Users were later able to import blogs from Xanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services. During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook released a Comet- based instant messaging application called "Chat" to several networks, which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers. Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipient's profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase and a personalized message can be attached to each gift. On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched Marketplace, which lets users post free classified ads. Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET, which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are seen only by users in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone. On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look. After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version starting in September 2008. On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process. Messaging A new Messaging platform, codenamed "Project Titan", was launched on November 15, 2010. Described as a "Gmail killer" by some publications, the system allows users to directly communicate with each other via Facebook using several different methods (including a special email address, text messaging, or through the Facebook website or mobile app)—no matter what method is used to deliver a message, they are contained within single threads in a unified inbox. As with other Facebook features, users can adjust from whom they can receive messages from—including just friends, friends of friends, or from anyone. Aside from the Facebook website, Messages can also be accessed through the site's mobile apps, or a dedicated Facebook Messenger app, Voice calls Since April 2011, Facebook users have had the ability to make live voice calls via Facebook Chat, allowing users to chat with others from all over the world. This feature, which is provided free through T-Mobile's new Bobsled service, lets the user add voice to the current Facebook Chat as well as leave voice messages on Facebook.
  25. 25. 25 Video calling On July 6, 2011, Facebook launched its video calling services using Skype as its technology partner. It allows one-to-one calling using a Skype Rest API. Following On September 14, 2011, Facebook added the ability for users to provide a "Subscribe" button on their page, which allows users to subscribe to public postings by the user without needing to add them as a friend. In conjunction, Facebook also introduced a system in February 2012 to verify the identity of certain accounts. Unlike a similar system used by Twitter, verified accounts do not display a special verification badge, but are given a higher priority in a user's "Subscription Suggestions". In December 2012, Facebook announced that due to user confusion surrounding its function, the Subscribe button would be re-labeled as a "Follow" button—making it more similar to other social networks with similar functions. Privacy To allay concerns about privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who can see specific parts of their profile. The website is free to users, and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads. Facebook requires a user's name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings. According to comScore, an internet marketing Research Company, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo. In 2010, the security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users' privacy, but privacy concerns remain. On November 6, 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Beacon, which was an ultimately failed attempt to advertise to friends of users using the knowledge of what purchases friends made. As of March 2012, Facebook's usage of its user data is under close scrutiny. FTC settlement On November 29, 2011, Facebook agreed to settle US Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. Technical aspects Facebook is built in PHP which is compiled with Hip-hop for PHP, a source code transformer built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. The deployment of Hip-hop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%. Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build engineer at Facebook, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which
  26. 26. 26 is then distributed to the servers using a custom Bit Torrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes approximately 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process is zero downtime and new changes to Facebook are rolled out daily. Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, new events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them into storage. The User Interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook). Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out (thus the name). Ptail data is separated out into three streams so they can eventually be sent to their own clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the amount of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article will generate a lot of impressions and news feed impressions which will cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table. After this, data is output in PHP format (compiled with Hip-hop for PHP). The backend is written in Java and Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions are used to make the web pages display more quickly. The more and longer data is cached the less real-time it is. The data is then sent to Map Reduce servers so it can be queried via Hive. This also serves as a backup plan as the data can be recovered from Hive. Raw logs are removed after a period of time. Like button The like button is a social networking feature, allowing users to express their appreciation of content such as status updates, comments, photos, and advertisements. It is also asocial plug-in of the Facebook Platform – launched on April 21, 2010 – that enables participating Internet websites to display a similar like button. Continuously liking any contents of one's friend will cause flooding of notifications on his/her part and Facebook will display message to the liker stating that (s)he must slow down; (s)he must wait for five minutes in order for him/her to continue liking. Lawsuit Patents relating to the "Like" button and other social features held by deceased Dutch programmer Joannes Jozef Everardus van Der Meer are subject of a lawsuit brought against Facebook by Rembrandt Social Media.
  27. 27. 27 Criticism of Facebook Facebook has met with controversies. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the People's Republic of China, Iran, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Syria (unblocked in Syria), and Bangladesh on different bases. For example, it was banned in many countries of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti-Islamic and containing religious discrimination. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent employees from using it during work hours. The privacy of Facebook users has also been an issue, and the safety of user accounts has been compromised several times. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property. In May 2011 emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making critical allegations about Google's privacy policies; however it was later discovered that the anti- Google campaign, conducted by PR giant Burson-Marsteller, was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called a "clumsy smear". In July 2011, German authorities began to discuss the prohibition of events organized on Facebook. The decision is based on several cases of overcrowding by people not originally invited. In one instance, 1,600 "guests" attended the 16th birthday party for a Hamburg girl who accidentally posted the invitation for the event as public. After reports of overcrowding, more than a hundred police were deployed for crowd control. A policeman was injured and eleven participants were arrested for assault, property damage and resistance to authorities. In another unexpectedly overcrowded event, 41 young people were arrested and at least 16 injured. In 2007, it was reported that 43% of British office workers were blocked from accessing Facebook at work, due to concerns including reduced productivity and the potential for industrial espionage. A 2011 study in the online journal First Monday, "Why Parents Help Their Children Lie to Facebook About Age: Unintended Consequences of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act," examines how parents consistently enable children as young as 10 years old to sign up for accounts, directly violating Facebook's policy banning young visitors. This policy technically allows Facebook to avoid conflicts with a United States federal law, the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), which requires minors aged 13 or younger to gain explicit parental consent to access commercial websites. Of the more than 1,000 households surveyed for the study, more than three-quarters (76%) of parents reported that their child joined Facebook when she was younger than 13, the minimum age in the site's terms of service. The study notes that, in response to widespread reports of underage users, a Facebook executive has said that "Facebook removes 20,000 people a day, people who are underage." The study's authors also note, "Indeed, Facebook takes various measures both to restrict access to children and delete their accounts if they join." The findings of the study raise questions primarily about the shortcomings of United States federal law, but also implicitly continue to raise questions about whether or not Facebook does enough to publicize its terms of service with respect to minors. Only 53% of parents said they were aware that Facebook has a minimum signup age; 35% of these parents believe that the minimum age is a site recommendation (not a condition of site use), or thought the signup age was 16 or 18, and not 13. In November 2011, several Facebook users in Bangalore, India reported that their accounts had been hacked and their profile pictures were replaced with pornographic images. For more than a week, users' news feeds were spammed with pornographic, violent and sexual contents, and it was reported that more than 200,000 accounts were affected. Facebook described the reports as
  28. 28. 28 inaccurate, and Bangalore police speculated that the stories may have been rumors spread by Facebook's competitors. A 2013 study‘s in the journal of CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, "Who Commits Virtual Identity Suicide? Differences in Privacy Concerns, Internet Addiction, and Personality between Facebook Users and Quitters" points to the fact that there are a rising number of Facebook users who are discontent with Facebook and finally decide to quit Facebook. The number one reason for users to quit Facebook was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with Facebook (14%), negative aspects regarding Facebook friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to Facebook (6%). Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious. The Impact Made By Facebook Media impact In April 2011, Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook. The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebook's top executives at an "influencers' summit" in February 2010. Facebook has now been involved in campaigns for True Blood, American Idol, and Top Gear. News and media outlets such as the Washington Post, Financial Times and ABC News have used aggregated Facebook fan data to create various info graphics and charts to accompany their articles. In 2012, the beauty pageant Miss Sri Lanka Online was run exclusively using Facebook. Social impact Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. With its availability on many mobile devices, Facebook allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. It can also unite people with common interests and/or beliefs through groups and other pages, and has been known to reunite lost family members and friends because of the widespread reach of its network. One such reunion was between John Watson and the daughter he had been seeking for 20 years. They met after Watson found her Facebook profile. Another father– daughter reunion was between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson, who had not seen each other for nearly 48 years. Some argue that Facebook is beneficial to one's social life because they can continuously stay in contact with their friends and relatives, while others say that it can cause increased antisocial tendencies because people are not directly communicating with each other. Some studies have named Facebook as a source of problems in relationships. Several news stories have suggested that using Facebook can lead to higher instances of divorce and infidelity, but the claims have been questioned by other commentators.
  29. 29. 29 Facebook envy Recent studies have shown that Facebook causes negative effects on self-esteem by triggering feelings of envy, with vacation and holiday photos proving to be the largest resentment triggers. Other prevalent causes of envy include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such envious feelings leave people lonely and dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about their own lives following an increase in the amount of time spent on Facebook. Political impact Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary, when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Charles Gibson moderated both debates, held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College. Facebook users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote, and message questions. reported in 2012 that the Facebook fanbases of political candidates have relevance for the election campaign, including:  Allows politicians and campaign organizers to understand the interests and demographics of their Facebook fanbases, as with Wisdom for Facebook, to better target their voters.  Provides a means for voters to keep up-to-date on candidates' activities, such as connecting to the candidates' Facebook Fan Pages. Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part, and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook as a popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. An article by Michelle Sullivan of illustrates how the "Facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates, support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election. In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name). In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the official news agency of the country, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook. In January 2011, Facebook played a major role in generating the first spark for the 2011 Egyptian revolution. On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem Create Event to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. As in Tunisia, Facebook become the primary tool for connecting all protesters, which lead the Egyptian government of Prime Minister Nazif to ban Facebook, Twitter and
  30. 30. 30 another websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt at midnight January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Mubarak to resign. In 2011 there was a controversial ruling by French government to uphold a 1992 decree which stipulates that commercial enterprises should not be promoted on news programs. President Nicolas Sarkozy's colleagues have agreed that it will enforce a law so that the word "Facebook" will not be allowed to be spoken on the television or on the radio. In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "FB PAC will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected." Front Page of Facebook
  31. 31. 31 2.2.2 What is Deviant Art? DeviantArt (stylized as deviantART; abbreviated as dA) is an online community showcasing various forms of user-made artwork. It was first launched on August 7, 2000 by Scott Jarkoff, Matthew Stephens, Angelo Sotira and others. DeviantArt, Inc. is headquartered in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California, United States. DeviantArt aims to provide a platform for any artist to exhibit and discuss works. Works are organized in a comprehensive category structure, including photography, digital art, traditional art, literature, Flash, filmmaking, skins for applications, operating system customization utilities and others, along with extensive downloadable resources such as tutorials and stock photography. Additional utilities include journals, polls, groups and portfolios. "Fella," a small robotic cat character, is the official deviantArt mascot. As of March 2013, the site consists of over 25 million members, and over 246 million submissions, and receives around 140,000 submissions per day. In addition, deviantArt users submit over 1.4 million "favorites" and 1.5 million comments daily. The domain attracted at least 36 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a study. As of July 2011, it is the 13th largest social network with 3.8 million weekly visits. What Does Deviant Art Offer? The site has over 253 million images which have been uploaded by its over 26 million members. As of July 2011, deviantArt was the largest internet art platform. Members of deviantArt may leave comments and critiques on individual deviation pages, allowing the site to be called ―a [free] peer evaluation application‖. Along with textual critique, deviantArt now offers the option to leave a small picture as a comment. This can be achieved using an option of deviantArt Muro, which is a browser-based drawing tool that deviantArt has developed and hosts. It is simple, with eight free brushes available for anyone‘s use, although only members of deviantArt can save their work as deviations. Another feature of Muro is what is called ―Redraw‖; it records the user as they draw their image, and then the user can post the entire process as a film deviation. Individual deviations are displayed on their own pages, with a list of statistical information about the image, as well as place for uploader and member comments , and ‗sharing‘ through other social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.). These deviations are required to be organized into categories when a member uploads an image, and this facilitates the deviant Art‘s search engine in finding images concerning similar topics. Individual members can also organize their own deviations into folders, allowing further organization on their personal pages. These personal member pages, or profiles, show a member‘s personally uploaded deviations and journal postings. Journals are like a personal blog accompanying a member‘s profile page, and topic coverage is up to the member; some use it to talk of their personal or art-related lives, others use it to spread awareness or marshal support for a cause. Also displayed are a member‘s ―favourites‖, or collection of other users‘ images from deviantArt, which the member can save to a folder of its own. Another thing to be found on the profile page is a member‘s ―watchers‖; a member may add another member to their ―watch list‖ in order to be notified when that member uploads something. The watcher notifications are
  32. 32. 32 gathered with other notices in a member‘s Message Center, other notices being when other users comment on that member‘s deviations, or when the member receives favorites. In order to communicate on a more private level, ―Notes‖ can be sent between individual members, similar to an email within the site. Other opportunities for communication among members are deviant Art‘s forums and chatrooms; chatrooms being for group instant messaging, and forums being for more structured, long-term discussions. Special Event DeviantArt Summit On June 17 and June 18, 2005, deviantArt held their first convention, the deviantArt Summit, at the Palladium in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California, United States. The summit consisted of several exhibitions by numerous artists, including artscene groups old and new at about 200 different booths. Giant projection screens displayed artwork as it was being submitted live to deviantArt, which receives 50,000 new images daily. Leaders of deviantArt had hoped to hold a new summit each year; however, no plans were ever made for a 2006 Summit. DeviantArt World Tour Starting May 13, 2009, deviantArt embarked on a world tour, visiting cities around the world, including Sydney, Singapore, Warsaw, Istanbul, Berlin, Paris, London, New York City, Toronto and Los Angeles. During the world tour, the new "Portfolio" feature of deviantArt was previewed to attendees. Criticism of Deviant Art Copyright and licensing issues There is no automatic review for potential copyright and Creative Common licensing violations when a work is submitted to deviantArt, so such violations can remain unnoticed until reported to administrators by site users. A mechanism for notifying administrators of potential copyright and licensing violations is available. Some members of the community have also been the victims of copyright infringement from vendors using artwork illegally on products and prints.
  33. 33. 33 Front Page of Deviant Art 2.2.3 What is WAYN? WAYN (an acronym for Where Are You Now?) is a social travel network. Its goal is to help people discover where to go and what to do, meet like-minded people and share aspirations and experiences. WAYN is in the top 1500 in Alexa Internet traffic ranking and was founded in 2005 after two of its founders came up with the idea to connect people based on their location while having a few beers in their local pub. It grew from 45,000 to 4.1 million members in one year (to April 2006) and now has nearly 19 million members. Like some other social networking sites, WAYN enables its users to create a profile and upload photos. Users can search for other users and link them to their profiles as friends. Registered users send and receive messages using email, discussion forums, eCards, SMS, and WAYN instant messages. History of WAYN WAYN was founded in 2002 in London by Jérome Touze (Co-CEO), Peter Ward (Co-CEO) and Mike Lines (CTO). WAYN initially grew through word-of-mouth and reached almost 50,000 members by the end of 2004. Following its relaunch in May 2005 it grew exponentially, reaching over 2.5 million members by the end of 2005. On 26 March 2012 the site claimed "over 19.1m members". Criticism of WAYN The site has been criticized for sending invitation emails to the contact lists of newly registered members. There have been quite a few members who have vented their anger through online discussion boards. The many recipients of the emails have been irate too.
  34. 34. 34 Front Page of WAYN 2.2.4 Conclusion Different social networking sites have different function and different user group. Facebook is focus on the people each wanted to know others, Deviant Art is focus on share experience and their artwork and WAYN is concentrate on sharing experience and giving comment on the place the user have visited. Each of them is having different user group. The different of them is only on these website faced group, their function and how they running their daily activity. 2.3 Conclusion On this chapter, the researcher has describe the introduction of literature review, what is social networking sites, the types of social networking sites, social networking site‘s value, what offered by social networking sites, 3 types of social networking sites and their conclusion. This chapter has briefly explained what is social networking sites and the type, value, what does it offer, comparison of three types of social networking sites. After complete this chapter, the next chapter, research methodology may start to proceed.
  35. 35. 35 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION Methodology is referred to the usage of special tools and strategies for data gathering and analysis. This includes questionnaire development, observations, and interviews; data analysis covers statistical analysis, semiotic analysis, discourse analysis, and content analysis. The methodology of this research is adopted from the work place of using questionnaire survey method and analyzing the results using descriptive statistics. Questionnaires have long been used to evaluate user interfaces for a handful of questionnaires specifically designed to assess aspects of usability, the validity or reliability have been established. Data from sample surveys were analyzed. 3.1 QUESTIONNAIRE OBJECTIVES • Questionnaire enables understanding the integrated processes of designing and conducting quantities survey research projects. • To give experience of grappling with problems in the design of survey samples, the construction of data collection instruments and the management of survey projects. • To aware of main sources of error in the survey process and ways of detecting, controlling and minimizing such error. Anonymous questionnaires were randomly administered to a total of 50 users who are using social networking sites. There was survey of student selected from the student of Kolej Asa in Rawang. The questionnaire set was sent out via face-to-face session on July 2013. After randomly selecting student those are user of Social Networking Sites, the questionnaires were distributed personally by visiting student premises. All students were briefed about the purpose of the survey and obtain their consent verbally for taking part in this survey. The results were analyzed statistically. The response was very encouraging as the customers too want to know about how many our students is using social networking sites in their common life. All responses were usable as most items were adequately responded.
  36. 36. 36 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN Questionnaires will be categorized upon general question, business, or personal users regardless of age. Questionnaires from reliable source will be distributed to all students for evaluation. Each category will have a 6-10 questions. There will be 50 students in the research section. There are only one set questionnaires. The five factors of the question are: I. Usefulness – To evaluate the effectiveness. II. Ease of use – To evaluate if customers find it easy to use. III. Satisfaction – To evaluate if the customers are satisfied with the services provided. IV. Customer‘s awareness – To evaluate if the customers are aware of the Social Networking Sites. V. Ease of learning- To evaluate if customers can learn the use of the Social Networking Sites easily. The content of the questionnaire was based on the framework of the appropriate literature in the field of effectiveness of the social networking sites. This was followed by a discussion to analyses meaningful learner results. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement of scale with ―5‖ indicating, ―strongly agree‖, ―4‖ indicating, ―agree‖, ―3‖ indicating, ―disagree‘ ―2‖ indicating, ―Strongly disagree‖ and ―1‖ indicating, ―cannot answer (CA)‖. They believe that in building a social networking sites, five factors were identified for the effectiveness. This five factors are the awareness of the social networking sites, the usability of the social networking sites, is that the social networking sites is easy to use, the function provide to user and the which faced group is the main group user of the social networking sites. While the questionnaire has been used successfully by many companies around the world, and as part of several dissertation projects, the development of the questionnaire is still not over. The norms researcher has developed over the years have been useful in determining when researcher has achieved sufficient usability to enable success in the market.
  37. 37. 37 3.3 SAMPLING DESIGN When conducting research, it is almost always impossible to study the entire population that you are interested in. For example, if you were studying political views among college students in the United States, it would be nearly impossible to survey every single college student across the country. If you were to survey the entire population, it would be extremely timely and costly. As a result, researchers use samples as a way to gather data. A sample is a subset of the population being studied. It represents the larger population and is used to draw inferences about that population. It is a research technique widely used in the social sciences as a way to gather information about a population without having to measure the entire population. There are several different types and ways of choosing a sample from a population, from simple to complex. The sampling design have been used in this project is non-probability sampling technique and stratified sampling. Non-probability Sampling Techniques Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. Stratified Sample A stratified sample is a sampling technique in which the researcher divided the entire target population into different subgroups, or strata, and then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. This type of sampling is used when the researcher wants to highlight specific subgroups within the population. For example, to obtain a stratified sample of university students, the researcher would first organize the population by college class and then select appropriate numbers of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors. This ensures that the researcher has adequate amounts of subjects from each class in the final sample.
  38. 38. 38 3.4 PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is often formalized through a data collection plan which often contains the following activity. I. Pre-collection activity- agree on goals, target data, definitions, methods II. Collection - data collections III. Present Findings - usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or presentation. Prior to any data collection, pre-collection activity is one of the most crucial steps in the process. It is often discovered too late that the value of their interview information is discounted as a consequence of poor sampling of both questions and informants and poor elicitation techniques. After pre-collection activity is fully completed, data collection in the field, whether by interviewing or other methods, can be carried out in a structured, systematic and scientific way. A formal data collection process is necessary as it ensures that data gathered are both defined and accurate and that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied in the findings are valid. The process provides both a baseline from which to measure and in certain cases a target on what to improve. Other main types of collection include census, sample survey, and administrative by-product and each with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A census refers to data collection about everyone or everything in a group or statistical population and has advantages such as accuracy and detail, and disadvantages such as cost and time. A sampling is a data collection method that includes only part of the total population and has advantages such as cost and time, and disadvantages such as accuracy and detail. Administrative by-product data are collected as a by- product of an organization's day-to-day operations and has advantages such as accuracy, time and simplicity, and disadvantages such as no flexibility and lack of control. 3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Instruments are used to gauge some quality or ability of your subjects. The purpose of the instrument is to elicit the data for your study. In language research, an instrument can be a test, a checklist, a set of categories, etc. The type of instrument and data collection procedure that you use will depend heavily on your choices in the four parameters discussed earlier. The research instrument researcher have been used in the project is in-person questionnaire.
  39. 39. 39 3.6 Data Analysis Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facts and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Data analysis is a process, within which several phases can be distinguished: I. Data Cleaning II. Initial Data Analysis III. Main Data Analysis In the process of data analysis, the tools researcher used is Microsoft Excel. 3.7 Conclusion On this chapter, the introduction of research methodology, questionnaire objective, research design, sampling design, process of data collection, research instruments and types of analysis. The technique used in this chapter is non-probability sampling technique and stratified sampling technique. The method used in this chapter to calculate the data analysis is Microsoft Excel. The research instruments used in the research is in-person questionnaire. There are three step of process of data collection, they are pre-collection activity, collection and present findings. After complete this chapter, the researcher may continue conduct and process the next chapter and started to collect data for the data analysis process due to the research methodology have completed.
  40. 40. 40 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION Data analysis is a body of methods that help to describe facts, detect patterns, develop explanations, and test hypotheses. It is used in all of the sciences. It is used in business, in administration, and in policy. The numerical results provided by a data analysis are usually simple: It finds the number that describes a typical value and it finds differences among numbers. Data analysis finds averages, like the average income or the average temperature, and it find differences like the difference in income from group to group or the differences in average temperature from year to year. Fundamentally, the numerical answers provided by data analysis are that simple. 4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS All result obtained have been listed down according to result obtained from questionnaire have been given out regarding the gender, age group, race, level of education and marital status of student in Kolej Asa based on the survey of convenience and benefit of social networking sites in 2013 year. 4.2.1 GENDER Figure 4.1 Result of Respondent: Gender 10 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Male Female Gender
  41. 41. 41 4.2.2 RACE Figure 4.2 Result of Respondent: Race 4.2.3 AGE GROUP Figure 4.3 Result of Respondent: Age Group 1 25 20 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Malay Indian Chinese Others Race 33 14 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 17-20 21-23 24-27 28 and more Age Group
  42. 42. 42 4.2.4 LEVEL OF EDUCATION Figure 4.4 Result of Respondent: Level of Education 4.2.5 MARITAL STATUS Figure 4.5 Result of Respondent: Marital Status 12 24 4 3 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 DIM DIA COBM LCCI Others Level Of Education 49 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Single Married Separated Marital Status
  43. 43. 43 4.3 RESPONDENT’S MCQ SECTION’S RESULT 1) Figure 4.6 Result of Respondent: MCQ Q1 2) Figure 4.7 Result of Respondent: MCQ Q2 9 17 24 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 No Yes, But Only The Name Yes, Cleary Understand How frequency did you use Social Networking Sites? 20 11 7 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 Within Social Within Schoolmates Within Skills All What Type of Social Networking Sites respondents are using?
  44. 44. 44 3) Figure 4.8 Result of Respondent: MCQ Q3 4) Figure 4.9 Result of Respondent: MCQ Q4 19 7 9 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 2 3 4 or More How many Social Networking Sites respondents are using? 25 7 1 17 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Everyday Once a Week Once a Month Free Time How frequency did you use Social Networking Sites?
  45. 45. 45 5) Figure 4.10 Result of Respondent: MCQ Q5 15 5 6 10 4 6 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Friend Introduced Meets New Friend Enlarge Social Network Learning New Skills Chatting with others you don't know Doesn't know Others What is the reason respondents using Social Networking Sites?
  46. 46. 46 4.4 RESPONDENT’S SECTION C’S RESULT No Question 1 2 3 4 5 1 Is that the Social Networking Sites is convenience to use? 2 4 7 24 13 2 Is that any benefit when using Social Networking Sites? 2 4 11 24 9 3 Is that Social Networking Sites is secured? Is it Safety? 1 9 17 16 7 4 Is that Social Networking Sites is useful? 1 5 8 21 15 5 Is that Social Networking Sites is easy to use? 1 4 9 24 12 6 Do you have any problem while using Social Networking Sites? 4 9 14 18 5 7 Do you enlarge you social network while using Social Networking Sites? 6 4 13 17 10 8 Do you meet new friend while you are using Social Networking Sites? 5 6 9 20 10 9 Do you learn new skills while using Social Networking Sites? 1 2 15 20 12 10 Is that the Social Networking Sites and its function meets your needs? 1 7 13 17 12 Table 5.1 Table of Result in Section C of the Questionnaire
  47. 47. 47 4.5 ANALYSIS OF RESULT 4.5.1 SECTION A In this project, the researcher has done a survey on the convenience and benefit of social networking sites in Kolej Asa students in Rawang. Based on the result, the researcher found general status of student in Kolej Asa is on following (Based on respondent of the questionnaire): I. The major student‘s gender in Kolej Asa is female. (80%) II. The major student‘s race in Kolej Asa is Indian. (50%) III. The major student‘s age group in Kolej Asa is 17-20. (66%) IV. The major student‘s level of education is diploma in accountancy, (DIA). (48%) V. The major student‘s marital status in Kolej Asa is single. (98%) 4.5.2 SECTION B From the Section B, multiply choice question section, researcher found that: From the first question in questionnaire, researcher found that there are 24 student clearly know that what is social networking sites and what it‘s about, 17 student only know about the name of social networking sites and doesn‘t what it‘s about and 9 student doesn‘t know what is social networking sites. Based on the result, the researcher found that: I. Most of the student (48%) before started to use something new, they will see the manual or search the item information from internet, book or others person. They will try to figure the item before they started to use the item, these students will warn on something new and have a heart of vigilance. II. Some student (34%) will only see a very little information about the item and started to use it, these students have only a little warn on something new. III. Very less amount of student (18%) will not see any manual or search for information from anywhere about the item, they will use it immediately when they bought or saw the item, these students doesn‘t have any warn on something new and they doesn‘t have a vigilance heart.
  48. 48. 48 From the second question in questionnaire, the researcher found that there are 20 students use social networking sites among social, 11 students using social networking sites among classmate, 7 students using social networking site among skills and 12 students is using social networking sites on previous selection. Based on the result, researcher found that: I. Most of the student (40%) using social networking sites are to meets new friend, chatting with others, and others reason. II. Some student (22%) using social networking sites are to chatting with their friend, sharing information and news within friend, and further more. III. Very less amount of student (14%) is using social networking sites to learning new skills from social networking sites, the skills might be drawing, engineering, computer repair, software development and others. IV. Some student (24%) is using social networking sites is to meets new friend, chatting with other or friend, sharing information and news with others, learning new skills from social networking site and others. From the third question in questionnaire, the researcher found that there are 19 student using 1 social networking sites, 7 student is using 2 social networking sites, 9 students is using 3 social networking sites and 15 student is using 4 and more social networking sites. Based on the result, researcher found that: I. Most of the student (38%) is using 1 social networking site in their common life; they have at least two or more social network in their common life. II. Very less amount of student (14%) is using 2 social networking sites in their common life; they have at least three or more social network in their common life. III. Quite fewer students (18%) are using 3 social networking sites in their common life; they have at least four or more social network in their common life. IV. Quite a lot student (30%) is using 4 and more social networking sites in their common life; they have at least 5 or more social network in their common life. *Social network is a network that connects one people with others people, with the social network, one human can meets the others human by another human. Example, Carly had a friend called Mary; Mary introduced a new friend to Carly, she called Elizabeth. Different people will have different social network. A businessman will have a business social network. A human like to go to travel will have a travel social network.
  49. 49. 49 From the fourth question in questionnaire, the researcher found that there are 25 student using social networking sites daily, 7 student using social networking sites weekly, 1 student using social networking sites monthly and 17 student using social networking sites when have free time. Based on the result, researcher found that: I. Most of the student (50%) is using social networking sites once a day. II. Quite fewer students (14%) are using social networking sites once a week. III. Very less amount of student (2%) is using social networking sites once a month. IV. Quite a lot student (34%) is using social networking sites when they have free time. From the fifth question in questionnaire, the researcher found that there are 15 student started to use social networking sites is because friend introduced, 5 student want to meets new friend, 6 student want to enlarge their social network, 10 student want to learn new skills, 4 student want to chat with others, 6 student doesn‘t know the reason and 4 student have others reason. Based on the result, researcher found that: I. Most of the student (30%) used social networking sites due to friend introduced. II. Quite fewer students (10%) used social networking sites due to want to meets new friend. III. Some student (12%) used social networking sites due to want to enlarge social network. IV. Quite a lot student (20%) used social networking sites due to want to learn new skills. V. Very less amount of student (8%) used social networking sites due to want to chat with others. VI. Some student (12%) doesn‘t know why they used social networking sites. VII. Very less amount of student (8%) used social networking sites due to others reason.
  50. 50. 50 4.5.3 SECTION C From the Section C, researcher found that: i. In question one, ―Is that social networking site is convenience to use?‖ most of the student (48%) agree with it, quite a lot student (26%) strongly agree it, some student (14%) disagree with it, quite fewer students (8%) strongly disagree and very less amount of student (4%) cannot answer the question. ii. In question two, ―Is that any benefit when using social networking site?‖ most of the student (48%) agree with it, quite a lot student (22%) disagree with it, some student (18%) strongly agree with it, quite fewer students (8%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (4%) cannot answer the question. iii. In question three, ―Is that social networking sites is secured? Is it safety?‖ most of the student (34%) disagree with it, quite a lot student (32%) agree with it, some student (18%) strongly disagree with it, quite fewer students (14%) strongly agree with it and very less amount of student (2%) cannot answer the question. iv. In question four, ―Is that social networking site is useful?‖ most of the student (42%) agree with it, quite a lot student (30%) strongly agree with it, some student (16%) disagree with it, quite fewer students (10%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (2%) cannot answer the question. v. In question five, ―In that social networking site is easy to use?‖ most of the student (48%) agree with it, quite a lot student (24%) strongly agree with it, some student (18%) disagree with it, quite fewer students (8%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (2%) cannot answer the question. vi. In question six, ―Do you have any problem while using social networking site?‖ most of the student (36%) agree with it, quite a lot student (28%) disagree with it, some student (18%) strongly disagree with it, quite fewer students (10%) strongly agree with it and very less amount of student (8%) cannot answer the question. vii. In question seven, ―Do you enlarge your social network while using social networking site?‖ most of the student (34%) agree with it, quite a lot student (26%) disagree with it, some student (20%) strongly agree with it, quite fewer students (12%) cannot answer the question and very less amount of student (8%) strongly disagree with it.
  51. 51. 51 viii. In question eight, ―Do you meets new friend while you are using social networking site?‖ most of the student (40%) agree with it, quite a lot student (20%) strongly agree with it, some student (18%) disagree with it, quite fewer students (12%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (10%) cannot answer the question. ix. In question nine, ―Do you learn new skills while using social networking site?‖ most of the student (40%) agree with it, quite a lot student (30%) disagree with it, some student (24%) strongly agree with it, quite fewer students (4%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (2%) cannot answer the question. x. In question ten, ―Is that social networking site and its function meets your needs?‖ most of the student (34%) agree with it, quite a lot student (26%) disagree with it, some student (24%) strongly agree with it, quite fewer students (14%) strongly disagree with it and very less amount of student (2%) cannot answer the question. 4.6 CONCLUSION On this chapter, the researcher has listed down the introduction of the chapter, the demographic profile of the respondents, respondents MCQ section‘s result, respondents section c‘s result and the analysis of result. After completing this chapter, the project can be continued conducted and proceed to the conclusion and recommendation section due to the data analysis of the project is already identified and described.
  52. 52. 52 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher is going to explain about the conclusion of the research progress, the recommendation of the research and the conclusion of this project. 5.2 CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH In the progress of the research, the researcher has made following conclusion: There will be quiet difficult to give and collect the questionnaire while the student is preparing for their examination. The calculation of the result of the questionnaire very easily to count wrong, the researcher have to recalculate many time to ensure the result is correct. Due to the language problem of the researcher, some sentence and word use by the researcher might be wrong or not suitable.
  53. 53. 53 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS The recommendation that the researcher can give to the people whom is going to use this project on their research. i. The builder of social networking sites can use this as a guide for them to build social networking sites. ii. Family can use this project as a guide to limit the time of their children use the social networking sites and teach them to use the social networking on the right way. iii. Organization may use this project as a guide to lead them to earn profit through social networking sites, enlarge their business area and advertise their business through internet. iv. College, school and university can use this project as a guide to give information and a way to teach student through social networking sites. v. Students can use this project as a guide to use social networking sites as a way to learning, study and getting information that they need from internet. vi. Business person or business people can use this project as a guide to let them to learn how to trade in a social networking sites and how to advertise their business through internet. vii. Skill learner or people wanted to learn skills can use this project as a guide to suffer around internet to find social networking sites for them to learn new skills. viii. User of social networking sites may use this project as a guide to learn how to correctly to use social networking sites. ix. Government can use this project as a guide to get knows what the social or user of social networking sites wants and try to fulfill their needs. x. Profit finder/ earner can use this project as a guide for them to find profit through social networking sites.