Ch14 ecology


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Ch14 ecology

  1. 1. Ch 14 Human Nutrition
  2. 2. 14.1 There are 2 main types of food groups Macronutrients Micronutrients Macro- fats, carbohydrates, lipids for energy Micro- vitamins & minerals small amounts- biochemical processes often these are “cooked “ out of foods- so don’t overcook your fruits & vegetables! Macronutrients- energy output is measured in Kilocalories (kcal or Cal)- a calorie is the amount of Heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 C
  3. 3. Which of the following is a macronutrient? <ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Vit. B-12 </li></ul>
  4. 4. True or False <ul><li>A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 10 grams of water 1 C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A food calorie is <ul><li>100 calories </li></ul><ul><li>1000 calories </li></ul><ul><li>1kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Both b and c </li></ul>
  6. 6. Humans are ominvores ( eat plants & animals) Food is used for life processes-growth, movement, repair of tissue, heat etc.
  7. 7. People need 2000-2800 kcal/day <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>- made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars ( simple) and starches (complex) </li></ul><ul><li>Used for energy source </li></ul><ul><li>4Kcal/gram </li></ul>
  8. 8. Which of the following is a carbohydrate? <ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>Vit A </li></ul><ul><li>Olive oil </li></ul><ul><li>meat </li></ul>
  9. 9. Carbohydrates have <ul><li>4 kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>9 kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>5kcal/g </li></ul>
  10. 10. Protein <ul><li>Large compound made of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Provides construction materials for body-blood, muscle, skin, enzymes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>N is in proteins ( C,H,O also) </li></ul><ul><li>4kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 20 amino acids; 12 can be made by body; 8 need to come from food ( 8 essential amino acids) </li></ul><ul><li>Meats, eggs, dairy, some plants-legumes (peas, peanuts), beans </li></ul>
  11. 11. What element is found in proteins, but not carbohydrates? <ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul>
  12. 12. True or False <ul><li>Proteins are used for energy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Proteins have _____ of energy. <ul><li>4 kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>5kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>9kcal/g </li></ul>
  14. 14. How many amino acids are there? <ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>20 </li></ul><ul><li>12 </li></ul><ul><li>24 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fats <ul><li>Lipids- 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids- cell membrane ( contains P) </li></ul><ul><li>Solid lipids- fats ( butter, lard); liquid liquids- oils </li></ul><ul><li>9kcal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated- maximum number of H ( single bonds); most animal fats are saturated </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated- one or more double bonds ( not saturated with H) </li></ul><ul><li>Diets high in saturated fats can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure </li></ul>
  16. 16. Saturated fats <ul><li>Are healthier than unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Have a double or triple bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Have as many H atoms as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Are found most commonly in oils </li></ul>
  17. 17. True or False <ul><li>Solid fats are called lipids. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How many kcal/g are found in a fat molecule? <ul><li>A)4 </li></ul><ul><li>b) 8 </li></ul><ul><li>c) 9 </li></ul><ul><li>d) 2 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Vitamins & Minerals <ul><li>Micronutrients- play important roles in biochemical reactions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>All can be obtained from plants </li></ul><ul><li>(although animals have some also) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Nutritional Deficiency <ul><li>People who receive less than 90% of their nutritional needs are undernourished; those that receive less than 80%- severely undernourished </li></ul><ul><li>13 million die each year of hunger </li></ul><ul><li>(1 every 2.5sec ) </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition - lack of a specific nutrient in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Scurvy ( Vit C), rickets (Vit D), beriberi ( Vit B1) </li></ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor- lack of protein </li></ul>