Ch13ecology

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Ch13ecology

  1. 1. Ch 13 Human Population
  2. 2. <ul><li>Thomas More- Utopia </li></ul>13.1 History of the Human Population Population is kept constant Equal food distribution Crops are controlled <ul><li>1798- Thomas Malthus- popualtion growth is </li></ul><ul><li>geometric; food supply </li></ul><ul><li>is not- pop. Outgrows </li></ul><ul><li>resources- leads to famine </li></ul><ul><li>war, human suffering </li></ul><ul><li>suggested late marriage, </li></ul><ul><li>small families </li></ul>
  3. 3. Increases in Growth Rate <ul><li>Humans evolved~ 100,000 years ago- population controlled by </li></ul><ul><li>starvation, predation disease- old age 35; high infancy </li></ul><ul><li>mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate started to increase ~ 10,000 years ago w/ increase </li></ul><ul><li>in agriculture- agricultural revolution </li></ul><ul><li>with a steady food supply farming communities devloped, </li></ul><ul><li>higher standard of living; world pop- 5-10 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Growth continued with industrial revolution - last 300 years </li></ul><ul><li>greater food supply, shorter work day, better living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>and distribution of food through technology </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care- w/ germ theory advances in health care has </li></ul><ul><li>increased life expectancy and lowered infant mortality rates </li></ul><ul><li>germ theory- microorganisms responsible for many diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines, antibiotics and other medical advances prolong life </li></ul>
  4. 4. Which theory lead to decrease in the death rate? <ul><li>A) evolution </li></ul><ul><li>B) Thomas Malthus' theory </li></ul><ul><li>C) germ </li></ul><ul><li>D) atomic </li></ul>
  5. 5. Which change occurred during the agricultural revolution? <ul><li>A) mass production of goods </li></ul><ul><li>B) reduction of the work day </li></ul><ul><li>C) increased life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>D) improved health care </li></ul>
  6. 6. Which would not cause a decrease in the human population? <ul><li>A) war </li></ul><ul><li>B) famine </li></ul><ul><li>C) germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>D) Black Plague </li></ul>
  7. 7. Declines in Growth Rates <ul><li>In mid 14 th c - major decline in growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Bubonic plague- </li></ul><ul><li>Black Death: 25% of Europe& Asia pop died; 50% England- also otbreaks of chlorea, typhus, malaria, yellow fever,small pox </li></ul>Famine: 1840’s Irish potato famine; 1876-79 China famine War: not only directly reduces Pop. But also causes famine, Disease and env. Destruction 21.5 million WWI; 35-60 million- WWII
  8. 9. 13.2 Growth & Changing Needs <ul><li>Many people believe until we get to zero population growth </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t really solve the rest of the world’s problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring Growth Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate- (minus)Death rate ( rates are per 1,000 people) </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling time is how long it will take a current population </li></ul><ul><li>to double, at the present growth rate. (Mexico City- 10 yrs.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are studying a specific pop. You must also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take into </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Account emigration ( leaving) and immigration (entering ). </li></ul>
  9. 10. Demography It is important to know how many people There are, but also what type of people Make up the population. <ul><li>the science of changing vital statistics in a human pop. is called </li></ul><ul><li>demography i.e sex, age, education, race, economic status etc. </li></ul><ul><li>By studying these things we can plan for the future- compare the </li></ul><ul><li>graphs on page 205. Which country is going to have to invest </li></ul><ul><li>in increased infrastructure and social institutions, assuming the </li></ul><ul><li>death rate does not increase? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Changing Needs What affects the needs of a society <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of Living </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialized nations energy needs </li></ul><ul><li>have risen at a far greater rate than their </li></ul><ul><li>population </li></ul><ul><li>Undeveloped nations are expected to </li></ul><ul><li>increase their populations the most. </li></ul>
  11. 12. 13.3 Challenges of Overpopulation <ul><li>Greater demand on space </li></ul><ul><li>Greater demand on resources </li></ul><ul><li>Less land available for other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Life is interconnected- a problem in China </li></ul><ul><li>can affect the rest of the world (pollution, </li></ul><ul><li>volcanic eruption, overpop.) </li></ul><ul><li>Health- related to pop. size; > pop >disease, hygiene famine, medical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Increased effect of damage to env. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Planet Earth- Into the Wilderness: Human Population and Strained Resources
  13. 14. Controlling Population Size <ul><li>This is not as easy as it sounds </li></ul><ul><li>unethical? </li></ul><ul><li>children are source of pride, work, </li></ul><ul><li>religious/cultural opposition </li></ul><ul><li>what happens when you do?- fewer young people- more old people </li></ul>
  14. 15. Is overpopulation so bad? Some say- no Increased technology allows us to solve food production, health concerns and env, issues Some say- Yes The Earth has a finite carrying capacity and we cannot exceed it

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