12.1 A portrait of the Earth 12.3 Sustainable Development 12.2 Human Societies
A Portrait of the Earth There are 2 ways to view the Earth (actually there are many ways, but your book discusses two) 1. as systems and connections 2. as matter and energy
Systems & Matter & Energy Connections Abiotic factors influence and can determine biotic factors i.e. Plate tectonics- Create landscape-affects oceans—climate---ecosystems i.e. ocean circulation- determines climate, which determines biome Systems are connected by the abiotic and biotic interactions- every living and nonliving thing is part of these systems Amount of matter on Earth is constant- it is a closed system Amount of energy is not- it is an open system ( constantly comes from the sun) Earth is made of matter that gets rearranged, organized by energy flowing through the matter. Energy can get reradiated, by heat back out to space
How do people view the Earth? Gaia (James Lovelock, 1972) This sees the Earth as An “organism” with many different parts that have to constantly work together to maintain a healthy “being”- one part affects every other part. This is the similar to the “Mother Earth” view, commonly held by many traditional cultures Industrial society This takes the view that Earth must be controlled and consumed for people’s good. The earth’s resources and systems must be managed and consumed We are separate from the Systems that run the rest of the biosphere.
The Gaia hypothesis is controversial, but has influenced how scientists view the world- large scale connections among the different systems are studied, and man is not necessarily considered to be exempt from the Cycles, forces and systems of nature.
Study Diagram on pg.188 Why is there a photo of a totem pole on pg 189? In the 1600’s John Locke said people must be “emancipated from the bonds of nature” What did he mean by this, and what viewpoint is he taking?
Homo sapiens ( humans ) have evolved over the past 35,000 years ( Cro-Magnons) and in the process have developed different strategies for survival. The 3 basic ones were pictured on the previous slide. Hunter- gatherer is a society where people gather food, hunt, and are Nomadic there is no attempt to control the environment- crops are not planted population density is low allows time for environment to recover it can sustain itself unless there is disturbance from the outside Hunter-Gatherers have no major impact on the environment
Agricultural Societies A society in which crops are grown, animals are raised, and people have specialized roles started ~ 10,000 yrs ago (Middle East, Africa, SE Asia people stopped roaming, settled Work was divided among society members Plow was a major invention- large amounts of food could be produced ( meat too):population increased so some people could do other jobs- crafts, traders, doctors,etc. Cities could form-
If Agricultural societies can live within the limits of the environment, they can be sustainable (allowing for crop rotation, no overgrazing etc.) However , early and sometimes present agricultural practices often harm the environment- overgrazing, deforestation, depletion of soil nutrients caused loss of vegetation changes in rainfall and Desertfication.
Industrial Societies A society in which the production of food and other products is performed by machines, demanding large amounts of energy and other resources late 1700’s machines (rather than people) started to produce more goods coal-fired steam engines Agriculture used machines- even more food
few er people produce more food, goods - science increases crop yields, people live longer –better medical care(population grows very quickly) Industrial societies cause great changes in the environment, but also Can also h elp solve environmental problems Industrial societies consume lots of energy, resources, and creates lots of pollution
Study Map of early civilizations on pg 191 Why did the Babylonian Empire fall- which viewpoint of the Earth does this support? Table 12.1
12.3 Sustainable Development RESOURCE- something that lies ready to use; examples coal, oil, people, books, wood Ethic- set id standards or rules that serves as guidelines for right and wrong 2 viewpoints of the Earth have 2 ethics that go along with them: Frontier ethic and the Sustainable Development ethic
Frontier Ethic Associated with the industrial view Human society is separate from nature Based on 3 assumptions: 1. resources are unlimited and meant for human consumption 2. humans are not subject to natural laws 3. Human success is measured in terms of how well the environment can be controlled These assumptions are outdated- resources are not unlimited, humans are subject to natural laws and success can be measured according to how harmoniously man lives with his surroundings
Sustainable Development Ethic An ethic that says current human needs can be met without limiting the ability of future generations to meet their needs Based on the assumptions: 1. resources are limited and not meant for human consumption 2. Humans are part of nature and subject to the laws of nature 3. Human success is measured by living in harmony with the natural world
Sustainable development relies on recycling, reducing demand, conservation and the wise use of resources Renewable resources- can be regenrated quickly ( animals, wood, most plant products) Nonrenewable resource- cannot be regenerated quickly- gas, oil,coal
Study Why is a frontier ethic not likely to survive for long? Do the “DO IT” assignment- pg 194, in addition list 5 observations that show a sustainable development ethic, and write a short description of this ethic and how it appears in your life.- This is your writing assignment for this semester. I will look especially at word choice, and organization of the 2 paragraphs ( not the lists)