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  1. 1. 14.3 Modern Farming Techniques
  2. 2. Historically… <ul><li>Very labor intensive-done by humans and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grew a variety of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Rotated the crops; occassionally a field would lie fallow ( not be used) to restore fertility of the soil </li></ul>
  3. 3. Industrialized Agriculture <ul><li>Mid 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Farm machinery used- powered by fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Highly efficient and productive </li></ul><ul><li>Each farmer can feed 78 people ( 1850- it was 5 people) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires large amounts of energy, pesticides, fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Large industrialized farms- run by corporations-agribusiness </li></ul><ul><li>Agribusiness can include growing, packaging and transport of food </li></ul>
  4. 4. Problems… <ul><li>Extensive use of pesticides has led to an increase in resistant strains of insects, and other pests ( 1992- CA white flies) </li></ul><ul><li>Monoculture farming- growing just one crop- hard on soil, all crops are identical and susceptible to same disease- crop can be wiped out if disease occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Newer variety of grains are high yielding but not necessarily adapted to local climates </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional varieties are now being studied again to serve as alternatives- quinoa was a staple of the Inca diet, high in protein, can be grown in mountains- being studied as a way to improve the diet of people in poor mountainous regions of the Himalayas, Southeast Asia, and Africa </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dateline 1972 <ul><li>Farm Crisis in U.S.- read pg 233 </li></ul>