The M&S Overview will cover these three topics ……..
There are many types of models used in design, engineering, and manufacturing. They are not always clearly differentiated. This table orders model category by its level of fidelity or the ability of a model to represent the behavior of its corresponding real world system. At the lowest level we have Physical Models that are either scale or full size geometric representations made out of materials such as clay, wood, or cardboard. These models provide good perspective of the final product, but they cannot demonstrate the product in operation. Thus they are static. Conceptual Models are also static. However they are a well proven mental tool for designers and strategists to think about how a product or system will behave in operation or in a mission scenario. This includes tradition war gaming and engineering models such as functional maps and conceptual models, which are graphical schematics of the modeling philosophy. These models are essentially mental models. They only exist in the minds of the users. This next level is highlighted, because mathematical models are the main thrust of our discussion. These models through software can represent both the actual system and its dynamic behavior and performance. These include engineering models that are based on physical principles or algebraic correlations, discrete models used for logistical problems in production and procurement, and statistical models used for Monte Carlo and DOE analysis. The level with the highest fidelity are the working models. The slides to follow will show the relationship with mathematical models. Here at NGSS these include prototype ship tank tests, EDMs, and Sea Trials. This table does not cover all modeling types and there are exceptions and gray zones between these categories. But largely this is overall an accurate representation of modeling types.
This M&S Architecture makes two very important points. The first is that the primary and driving reason to do any M&S analysis is to “Support The Decision Maker”. The second are the five key areas that are commonly discussed as “being M&S”. All are important, but it is misleading to discuss them in isolation. Traditionally engineers developed their models from software code. At NGSS we do very little proprietary development. Defense contractors doing mission system design and operational analysis will write custom code, because there are no COTS M&S toolkits that provide required modeling capability building blocks. At NGSS most of our M&S development uses commercial or Navy products, such as NASTRAN, ASAP, or CTH. Models can be developed either from Tools or Software. Virtual software models are what solve actual program engineering problems and are of primary interest to the customer, not the software design or the utilized toolsets. The difference between Simulations and Models are that simulations represent the external environment that a model representing a ship must operate within. The model represents the ship system or systems. The next slide elaborates further on Simulations. NAsa STRuctural Analysis, Advanced Survivability Assessment Program, Explosive Deformation
The DOD views simulation as a process of maturing design. Initial models are all done in software or hardware. Simulated people are operating simulated systems. As the virtual design becomes more sophisticated, real people operate simulated systems. In the final stage, real people are operating real working systems. Ideally the simulation scenario will remain the same as models and actual system hardware mature through the design process. As I mentioned on previous slides, simulations model the external environment that the model must respond to. For naval scenarios the simulations will include aspects such as communications, enemy combatants, sea conditions, and weather.
There are many benefits to M&S throughout the product lifecycle. Value can be found doing early assessments of product concepts, design feasibility studies, operational and mission analysis, and manufacturability.
Modeling and Simulation Overview
Modeling and Simulation Overview Mike Traum Northrop Grumman Ship Systems 27 April 2007
M&S As A Lifecycle System <ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Enabler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Engineering Value </li></ul>
World Class Systems Engineering - the 5-layer Model by Prof. Derek K Hitchins http://www.hitchins.net/5layer.html
A Quick Overview of Modeling & Simulation (M&S) <ul><li>Model Types </li></ul><ul><li>M&S Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>DOD Simulation Maturity </li></ul>
Model Types Static Mock-Ups Clay, Wood, or Cardboard Scale Models Physical Static Mental War Gaming (Traditional) Functional Maps Conceptual Dynamic Algorithmic Physics-Based Algebraic (Correlations) Discrete (Logistical) Statistical (Monte Carlo) Mathematical Dynamic Functioning Systems Sea Trials Prototypes, Engineering Design Models Working Simulation Ability Methodology Types
M&S Architecture Analysis Simulations Models <ul><li>Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul><ul><li>Algebraic </li></ul>M&S Tools Software Development Engineering Problems Program Decisions External Environment Representation of Real Systems Modeling Capabilities “Support The Decision Maker”
DOD Simulation Maturity Constructive Virtual Live Simulated People Operating Simulated Systems Real People Operating Simulated Systems Real People Operating Real Systems Communications Enemy Combatants Sea Conditions Weather “ External Environment”
What Are The Benefits Of M&S? <ul><li>Develop product knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Idea generation </li></ul><ul><li>Concept testing </li></ul><ul><li>Product requirements verification/validation </li></ul><ul><li>Design feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate manufacturing complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Generate operational requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Materiel Alternatives (AMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate engineering integration </li></ul>
DOD Framework For M&S Activities JCIDS * CONCEPT REFINEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT & DEMONSTRATION DOD Framework Phases: <ul><li>Mission Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>AMA </li></ul><ul><li>System Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>AoA </li></ul><ul><li>Parameter Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Engineering Models </li></ul><ul><li>Design Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Specification Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation/ Virtual Prototypes </li></ul>Representative M&S Activities: * JCIDS: Joint Capability Integration and Development System
Support V&V and Accreditation Reporting & Accreditation Decision Operational Support Maintenance Disposal Core M&S Process M&S Need Requirements Development & Management Technical Solution Analysis Accreditation and V&V Planning Conceptual Model Validation Design Verification Implementation Verification Results Validation Intended Use Functionality, Fidelity, Credibility Design, Construct, Verify Execute, Evaluate, Validate VV&A Process Data V&V
What Are The Value-Added Activities? <ul><li>Modeling and Simulation Support Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Products </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>M&S Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Verification, Validation, and Accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Support Decision Maker </li></ul>
Open Discussion <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Polite Criticisms </li></ul>