SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION <ul><li>DON’T WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>new ways of thinking  </li></ul><ul><li>Telescope, microscope...
CHANGES IN THE UNIVERSE <ul><li>PTOLEMY  (200 AD) created  GEOCENTRIC MODEL or  Earth centered universe </li></ul><ul><li>...
Ptolemy’s view
<ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus   (mid 1500’s Poland )  said universe is  HELIOCENTRIC  -  sun centered.  </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
Copernicus’s View
<ul><li>Johannes Kepler   said  sun at center, but orbits were ellipses, not circles . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Galileo Galilei - w/ telescope  discovered sunspots, moon mtns & planets were solid,  ( not orbs of light)   </li>...
<ul><li>Put on trial by pope </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas against Church  teachings . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Isaac Newton - defined laws of motion, including law of gravity . (1600s) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rene Descartes:  Fr philosopher who said “I think, therefore I am” </li></ul><ul><li>Doubt material world, trust y...
<ul><li>FRANCIS BACON  developed  SCIENTIFIC METHOD:  a procedure for analyzing & collecting evidence.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bacon said use  inductive reasoning  (go from particular idea to general).  </li></ul><ul><li>Use observations, ex...
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
<ul><li>The  Enlightenment  </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHES  were Fr intellectuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason, law, </li></ul...
<ul><li>Said you should apply rational criticism, study  society, look at facts & use scientific  </li></ul><ul><li>method...
<ul><li>John Locke , (big influence)   s aid all humans born w/  TABULA   RASA  or a blank slate.  </li></ul><ul><li>All k...
<ul><li>Baron Montesquieu:   used scientific method to study govt to find natural laws that govern social & political rela...
<ul><li>Said there should be  executive, legislative & judicial branches . </li></ul><ul><li>Also  separation </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>VOLTAIRE - Middle class Parisian writer.  </li></ul><ul><li>Taught religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Believed...
<ul><li>Jean Jacque Rousseau : people create laws to protect property,but become slaves of govt </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote  S...
<ul><li>Don’t Write!!!!!   MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS </li></ul><ul><li>Free people, remember this m...
<ul><li>ECONOMICS -Said if people pursue  own eco self interest, all society benefits.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>ADAM SMITH  (father of capitalism) govt should protect society from invasion & create public works </li></ul><ul><...
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
<ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!!! Colonies set up for profit, took  natural resources & turned them into manufactured goods & sold b...
<ul><li>DON’T WRITE!  Ruled America from 3000 miles away </li></ul><ul><li>England has a  constitutional monarchy   </li><...
<ul><li>Britain needs $$$$ & passes  Stamp Act Tax,  taxing all paper goods </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists angry, but have no...
<ul><li>Revolution starts! </li></ul><ul><li>& Congress meets after start of  </li></ul><ul><li>rev on  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Congress organized govt & est Continental Army led by  George Washington </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thomas Jefferson  writes  Declaration of Independence   </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted  July 4, 1776 </li></ul>
<ul><li>declared equality & rights of the people, reasons for rebellion & independence from GB </li></ul><ul><li>France   ...
<ul><li>War ends w/  Treaty of Paris  in 1783, giving US control of land E of the Mississippi.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Articles of Confederation , 1st constitution, kept each state independent.  </li></ul><ul><li>Very weak govt.  </l...
<ul><li>May 25, 1787, 55 delegates met in Philly for  Constitutional Convention .  </li></ul><ul><li>Articles tossed out &...
<ul><li>New Constitution has executive, legislative & judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of powers  divide power...
<ul><li>James Madison  wrote  Bill of Rights  (10 Amendments) gave basic rights of people (speech, press, religion). </li>...
<ul><li>Enlightened Absolutism:  rulers who used enlightenment ideas,  </li></ul><ul><li>but kept royal </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Prussia: Frederick II or The Great : Voltaire lived w/ him, abolished torture, granted limited free speech, press ...
<ul><li>AUSTRIA: JOSEPH II:  abolished serfdom, no death penalty, equality for all before law, religious toleration.  </li...
<ul><li>RUSSIA: CATHERINE THE GREAT : </li></ul><ul><li>Planned w/ Diderot,  </li></ul><ul><li>set up  enlightenment progr...
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Ch 10

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Ch 10

  1. 1. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  2. 2. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION <ul><li>DON’T WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>new ways of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Telescope, microscope invented </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press spread </li></ul><ul><li>ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Math studied </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHANGES IN THE UNIVERSE <ul><li>PTOLEMY (200 AD) created GEOCENTRIC MODEL or Earth centered universe </li></ul><ul><li>Earth surrounded by crystal rotating spheres w/ heavenly bodies stuck in them. ( 10 th was Prime mover w/ God & stars beyond 10th sphere) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ptolemy’s view
  5. 5. <ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus (mid 1500’s Poland ) said universe is HELIOCENTRIC - sun centered. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun center of universe & planets revolve around sun </li></ul><ul><li>Moon revolves around earth, earth rotates on axis & revolves around sun each year </li></ul>
  6. 6. Copernicus’s View
  7. 7. <ul><li>Johannes Kepler said sun at center, but orbits were ellipses, not circles . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Galileo Galilei - w/ telescope discovered sunspots, moon mtns & planets were solid, ( not orbs of light) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Put on trial by pope </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas against Church teachings . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Isaac Newton - defined laws of motion, including law of gravity . (1600s) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Rene Descartes: Fr philosopher who said “I think, therefore I am” </li></ul><ul><li>Doubt material world, trust your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Use reason </li></ul><ul><li>Mind & matter are separate. </li></ul><ul><li>Father of </li></ul><ul><li>rationalism . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>FRANCIS BACON developed SCIENTIFIC METHOD: a procedure for analyzing & collecting evidence. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Bacon said use inductive reasoning (go from particular idea to general). </li></ul><ul><li>Use observations, experiments to </li></ul><ul><li>prove a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>to lead to correct principles . </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHES were Fr intellectuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason, law, </li></ul><ul><li>hope, progress, </li></ul><ul><li>themes of </li></ul><ul><li>enlightenment </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Said you should apply rational criticism, study society, look at facts & use scientific </li></ul><ul><li>method to </li></ul><ul><li>make society </li></ul><ul><li>better . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>John Locke , (big influence) s aid all humans born w/ TABULA RASA or a blank slate. </li></ul><ul><li>All knowledge comes from experience . </li></ul><ul><li>All people have natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>Change environment, </li></ul><ul><li>people change, so </li></ul><ul><li>new society is created </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Baron Montesquieu: used scientific method to study govt to find natural laws that govern social & political relationships . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Said there should be executive, legislative & judicial branches . </li></ul><ul><li>Also separation </li></ul><ul><li>of powers & </li></ul><ul><li>checks </li></ul><ul><li>& balances . </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>VOLTAIRE - Middle class Parisian writer. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in freedom of thought </li></ul><ul><li>“ All men are brothers” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do not agree with what you </li></ul><ul><li>have to say, but I'll </li></ul><ul><li>defend to the death </li></ul><ul><li>your right to say it” </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Jean Jacque Rousseau : people create laws to protect property,but become slaves of govt </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Social Contract 1762: said entire society agrees to be governed </li></ul><ul><li>by general will, </li></ul><ul><li>but lose </li></ul><ul><li>individual liberty . </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Don’t Write!!!!! MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS </li></ul><ul><li>Free people, remember this maxim: we may acquire liberty, but it is never recovered if it is once lost </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>ECONOMICS -Said if people pursue own eco self interest, all society benefits. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>ADAM SMITH (father of capitalism) govt should protect society from invasion & create public works </li></ul><ul><li>Govt should not interfere by imposing regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Called LAISSEZ-FAIRE - let them alone </li></ul>
  25. 25. AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  26. 26. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!!! Colonies set up for profit, took natural resources & turned them into manufactured goods & sold back to colonies & nations. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE! Ruled America from 3000 miles away </li></ul><ul><li>England has a constitutional monarchy </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Britain needs $$$$ & passes Stamp Act Tax, taxing all paper goods </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists angry, but have no say in govt </li></ul><ul><li>1st Continental Congress meets to plan action </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Revolution starts! </li></ul><ul><li>& Congress meets after start of </li></ul><ul><li>rev on </li></ul><ul><li>4/16/1776 </li></ul><ul><li>(Concord/Lexington ) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Congress organized govt & est Continental Army led by George Washington </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted July 4, 1776 </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>declared equality & rights of the people, reasons for rebellion & independence from GB </li></ul><ul><li>France 1 st to recognize US </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>War ends w/ Treaty of Paris in 1783, giving US control of land E of the Mississippi. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Articles of Confederation , 1st constitution, kept each state independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Very weak govt. </li></ul><ul><li>(no power to tax, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting called to </li></ul><ul><li>fix Articles. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>May 25, 1787, 55 delegates met in Philly for Constitutional Convention . </li></ul><ul><li>Articles tossed out & framers write new constitution . </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>New Constitution has executive, legislative & judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of powers divide power btw branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Checks & balances allows each branch to check & balance each other (Montesquieu) </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>James Madison wrote Bill of Rights (10 Amendments) gave basic rights of people (speech, press, religion). </li></ul><ul><li>States would not </li></ul><ul><li>ratify Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>w/o it. </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as proof of Enlightenment </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Enlightened Absolutism: rulers who used enlightenment ideas, </li></ul><ul><li>but kept royal </li></ul><ul><li>power. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Prussia: Frederick II or The Great : Voltaire lived w/ him, abolished torture, granted limited free speech, press & religious toleration. </li></ul><ul><li>Kept serfdom </li></ul>                                     
  40. 40. <ul><li>AUSTRIA: JOSEPH II: abolished serfdom, no death penalty, equality for all before law, religious toleration. </li></ul><ul><li>Failed. Upset many. Nobles, serfs </li></ul><ul><li>unhappy </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>RUSSIA: CATHERINE THE GREAT : </li></ul><ul><li>Planned w/ Diderot, </li></ul><ul><li>set up enlightenment program, did not follow thru </li></ul><ul><li>Favored nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded serfdom </li></ul>

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