Dna structure and function (notes)


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Dna structure and function (notes)

  1. 1. DNA Structure and Function Biology I Mr. Nettles
  2. 2. Today’s Agenda – Wed. Oct. 9, 2011 <ul><li>Warm-up </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-Lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization and Homework Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Enzymes are converted into products by the reactions they catalyze. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>One enzyme can catalyze many different reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme is used once and then destroyed by the cell. </li></ul>Which best describes how enzymes function in the body? Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  4. 4. <ul><li>move substances across the cell membrane without the use of ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>move from low concentration to high concentration by diffusion. </li></ul><ul><li>move small molecules through the cell membrane by osmosis. </li></ul><ul><li>move substances from a low concentration to high concentration through the use of energy. </li></ul>In active transport, carrier proteins Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  5. 5. <ul><li>absorb excess energy </li></ul><ul><li>release unused energy </li></ul><ul><li>increase the reaction rate </li></ul><ul><li>regulate product reactivity </li></ul>Which best describes the role of enzymes in a chemical reaction? Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  6. 6. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>I will identify the structure of DNA. (How it looks) </li></ul><ul><li>I will articulate the function of DNA. (What it does) </li></ul><ul><li>I will explore DNA replication. (How it is made) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is DNA? <ul><li>DNA is a large molecule that directs the making of proteins in the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The proteins made control all the activities and processes in the cell. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Where is DNA located? <ul><li>DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How does DNA look? <ul><li>DNA forms a double helix. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It looks like a twisted braid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA is a nucleic acid, so it’s made up of nucleotides . </li></ul>
  10. 10. How is DNA made? <ul><li>DNA is made through a process called DNA replication. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA copies itself during S phase of the cell cycle . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Steps of DNA Replication <ul><li>The two strands of DNA separate or “unzip ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Each “old strand” creates a “new strand” by base pairing . </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme, DNA polymerase , checks for errors and repairs the new DNA molecule </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nucleotides and Base Pairing <ul><li>Nucleotides are made up of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a five – carbon sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA nucleotides can have one of four different nitrogenous bases : Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous Base Pairing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pairs with T ( A pples grow on T rees). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C pairs with G ( C ars need G as). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Video about Genetic Engineering