Aug. 23(the cell)


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Aug. 23(the cell)

  1. 1. Biology I Mr. Nettles
  2. 2. Agenda- Tuesday, August 23, 2011 <ul><li>Name that Guy – 15 min </li></ul><ul><li>Warm Up – 5 min </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Lesson – 30 min </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap Up – 5 min </li></ul>
  3. 3. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>I will identify the scientists who contributed to the cell theory. </li></ul><ul><li>I will define the words prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and organelle . </li></ul><ul><li>I will define and describe the primary organelles of eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>I will articulate the function of each organelle. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Name that Guy
  5. 5. Procedure <ul><li>Read a brief paragraph of each scientist and underline key information . </li></ul><ul><li>Form teams of two and discuss each scientist . </li></ul><ul><li>As a team, come up with a one sentence summary of what each scientist contributed to our understanding of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Each team shares their summary of each scientist with the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Play “Name that Guy” (Quiz, Quiz, Trade style) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Warm-Up <ul><li>Define cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Which scientist came up with the name “ cell ” by studying a piece of dead cork? </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the statement: “All cells are produced by _____________.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. What you need to know about ALL Cells <ul><li>Tend to be microscopic </li></ul><ul><li>Have a few key structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are enclosed by a membrane . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are filled with cytoplasm . </li></ul></ul>Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane cytoplasm
  8. 8. <ul><li>Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane-bond organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eu” means “true” </li></ul></ul>Eukaryotic Cell nucleus cell membrane organelles
  9. 9. Eukaryotic Cell
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pro” means “no” </li></ul></ul></ul>Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic nucleus cell membrane organelles cytoplasm
  11. 11. What are organelles ? <ul><li>Definition: Organelles are specialized structures that perform important cellular functions within eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>You have a body that has organs that do specific things so your whole body will work. An organelle is like an organ for the cell. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Organelles found in ALL eukaryotic cells : <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul>
  13. 13. **A little bit of help** <ul><li>For each organelle (cell organ) I will give you its DEFINITION and its FUNCTION . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The DEFINITION is a short description of what it looks like, where it is found, and how we can recognize it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of an iPOD: a small technological device that comes in a variety of colors and contains songs that you can play. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The FUNCTION is what it does…it’s purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function of an iPOD: an iPOD is used to play music and is often used when someone is studying, exercising or other times. It is small so it can be carried around. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Nucleus <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large organelle in the center of the cell that controls everything that happens in the cell… the “brain” of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores all genetic material (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in duplication of DNA during cellular division (MITOSIS) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Nucleus
  16. 16. Nucleolus <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small, dense structure in the nucleus that creates rRNA. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA is very important in making ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are involved in making proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nucleolus
  18. 18. Cytoplasm <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All material in the cell except for the nucleus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A gooey fluid that fills the cell and acts as support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made mostly of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It supports the cell…kind of like bubble wrap or packing peanuts support and protect a package. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cytoplasm
  20. 20. Cellular membrane <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thin, flexible layer that surrounds the cell’s cytoplasm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls what goes into and out of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cellular membrane
  22. 22. Ribosome <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small, dense organelle made mostly from rRNA (ribosomal RNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes proteins </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Ribosome
  24. 24. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A system of folded tube-like structures attached to the nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folds proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transports proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
  26. 26. Golgi Apparatus: <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of folded tube-like structures NOT attached to the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>packages things that are made in the cell to be transported to another organelle or outside of the cell (i.e. enzymes, proteins, hormones) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Golgi Apparatus
  28. 28. Mitochondria <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A membrane-enclosed organelle with cristae (folds) inside. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the ATP (chemical energy ) that most of the cell uses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Powerhouse of the cell” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Mitochondria
  30. 30. Lysosomes <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small organelles within the cytoplasm that are filled with enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>food into small particles that can be used by the rest of the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organelles that are no longer needed and other waste in the cell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Wrap-Up <ul><li>What is known as the “powerhouse of the cell” and creates the cell’s chemical energy? </li></ul><ul><li>Define prokaryotic. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose or function of cytoplasm? </li></ul>