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MUSCULAR
SYSTEM
MT H O B I S I
S HABANGU
INTRODUCTION
• The muscular system is composed of specialized
cells called muscle fibers.

• These fibers are different le...
TYPES OF MUSCLE
TISSUE
Muscle Tissue

Skeletal
Voluntary
Satiated cells

Smooth
Involuntary
Blood vessels,
Urinary bladder...
TYPES OF MUSCLE
TISSUES CONT…
• Skeletal muscle

• Smooth Muscle

• Cardiac Muscle
Skeletal
Muscle
•

How many different
muscles can there
be?

•

~660
CHARACTERISTICS OF
MUSCLES of muscles to
• Contractility – the ability
shorten

•

Elasticity – the ability of muscles to ...
CLASSIFICATION OF
MUSCLES
FUNCTIONALLY

• Voluntary – can be moved at
will

STRUCTURALLY

• Striated – have stripes across...
CATEGORIES OF SKELETAL
MUSCLE ACTIONS
ACTIONS

CATEGORIES

• Extensor
• Flexor
• Abductor
• Adductor
• Levator
• Depressor...
NAMING SKELETAL
MUSCLES
Trapezius

• Shape:
• deltoid (triangle)

Deltoid

• trapezius (trapezoid, 2
parallel sides)

• se...
MUSCLES NAMED BY SIZE
• Maximus (largest)
• minims (smallest)
• Longus (longest)
• Brevis (short)
• Major (large)
• Minor ...
MUSCLES NAMED FOR
NUMBER OF ORIGINS
• Biceps (2)
Biceps brachii

• Triceps (3)
• Quadriceps (4)
MUSCLES NAMED FOR ACTION
• Flexor carpi radialis

(extensor carpi radialis)
– flexes wrist

• Abductor pollicis brevis
(ad...
COVERINGS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
• Epimysium
• Connective tissue that covers the entire
muscle

• Lies deep to fascia
• Perimy...
SARCOMERE
Now let us take a look at Sarcomere:

• A sarcomere is the functional unit of
skeletal muscle

•

A sarcomere is...
Picture of a Sarcomere
Type I slow
fibers of
skeletal
muscle

Type II fast
fibers of
skeletal
muscle

Slow tonic
specially designed
for postural
...
THERE ARE ABOUT 60 MUSCLES IN
THE FACE.
Smiling is easier than
frowning.
It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown...
MACROSTRUCTURE

Skeletal muscle
c.s. 40x

It is the number of muscle
fibers packed into a given
muscle cross-sectional are...
MICROSTRUCTURE
• basic functional unit of
muscle

• Striated (light & dark
bands)

• Contains ACTIN & MYOSIN
filaments tha...
REFERENCES

Dimapilis, H. 2014. Muscular System. www.slideshare.net/hansdimapilis/muscular-systemidsn
05/03/2014

Accessed...
The muscular system
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The muscular system

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The muscular system

  1. 1. MUSCULAR SYSTEM MT H O B I S I S HABANGU
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • The muscular system is composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers. • These fibers are different lengths and shapes and form to become muscles. • Muscles make up about 42% of a person’s total body weight. • Muscle fibers are held together by connective tissue , enclosed in “fascia”. • Muscles must have proper oxygen and nutrition to function properly.
  3. 3. TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE Muscle Tissue Skeletal Voluntary Satiated cells Smooth Involuntary Blood vessels, Urinary bladder, Digestive system Cardiac Muscle Tissue Found in the Heart Striated and Involuntary
  4. 4. TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUES CONT… • Skeletal muscle • Smooth Muscle • Cardiac Muscle
  5. 5. Skeletal Muscle • How many different muscles can there be? • ~660
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES of muscles to • Contractility – the ability shorten • Elasticity – the ability of muscles to go back to its original shape • Excitability – the ability of muscles to respond to stimuli • Extensibility – the ability of muscle to lengthen • Sphincter – muscles that constrict openings
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSCLES FUNCTIONALLY • Voluntary – can be moved at will STRUCTURALLY • Striated – have stripes across the fibers • Smooth – no striations • Involuntary – can’t be moved intentionally
  8. 8. CATEGORIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE ACTIONS ACTIONS CATEGORIES • Extensor • Flexor • Abductor • Adductor • Levator • Depressor • Rotator • Sphincter • • • Increases the angle at a joint • • • • • Moves limb toward midline of body Decreases the angle at a joint Moves limb away from midline of body Moves insertion upward Moves insertion downward Rotates a bone along its axis Constricts an opening
  9. 9. NAMING SKELETAL MUSCLES Trapezius • Shape: • deltoid (triangle) Deltoid • trapezius (trapezoid, 2 parallel sides) • serratus (saw-toothed) • rhomboideus (rhomboid, 4 parallel sides) • orbicularis and sphincters (circular) Serratus anterior Rhomboideus major
  10. 10. MUSCLES NAMED BY SIZE • Maximus (largest) • minims (smallest) • Longus (longest) • Brevis (short) • Major (large) • Minor (small) Psoas minor Psoas major
  11. 11. MUSCLES NAMED FOR NUMBER OF ORIGINS • Biceps (2) Biceps brachii • Triceps (3) • Quadriceps (4)
  12. 12. MUSCLES NAMED FOR ACTION • Flexor carpi radialis (extensor carpi radialis) – flexes wrist • Abductor pollicis brevis (adductor pollicis) – flexes thumb • Abductor magnus – abducts thigh • Extensor digitorum – extends fingers Adductor magnus
  13. 13. COVERINGS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE • Epimysium • Connective tissue that covers the entire muscle • Lies deep to fascia • Perimysium • Surrounds organized bundles of muscle fibers, called fascicles • Endomysium • Connective tissue that covers individual muscle fibers (cells)
  14. 14. SARCOMERE Now let us take a look at Sarcomere: • A sarcomere is the functional unit of skeletal muscle • A sarcomere is the area between adjacent Z-lines. • During a muscle contraction the z-lines move together and the sarcomere shortens.
  15. 15. Picture of a Sarcomere
  16. 16. Type I slow fibers of skeletal muscle Type II fast fibers of skeletal muscle Slow tonic specially designed for postural muscles, red in colour due to high concentration of myoglobin and rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes Fast tonic Varient of Type II contractions needed for body movement, pale colour rich in glycogen and phosphorylases Highly resistance to fatigue due to well-developed in aerobic respiration Easily fatigue Intermedia te fibers of skeletal muscle Resistant to fatigue The types of Fibers
  17. 17. THERE ARE ABOUT 60 MUSCLES IN THE FACE. Smiling is easier than frowning. It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. Smile and make someone happy.
  18. 18. MACROSTRUCTURE Skeletal muscle c.s. 40x It is the number of muscle fibers packed into a given muscle cross-sectional area that determine overall force-generating capacity
  19. 19. MICROSTRUCTURE • basic functional unit of muscle • Striated (light & dark bands) • Contains ACTIN & MYOSIN filaments that are responsible for contraction
  20. 20. REFERENCES Dimapilis, H. 2014. Muscular System. www.slideshare.net/hansdimapilis/muscular-systemidsn 05/03/2014 Accessed Agamez, M. 2011. An overview comparing the three different types of muscular tissue. http://www.slideshare.net/monica_agamez/muscular-system. Accessed on the 05/03/2014 Marydelaney, L. 2009, Muscular System. http://www.slideshare.net/marydelaney/chapter-22-muscular-system. Accessed 05/03/2014 By Itsebo, 2011. The muscular-system. http://www.slideshare.net/itsebo/the-muscularsystempowerpoint-drbantiles Accessed 05/03/2014 • Cerny, L. 2009. Applied Excecise Physiology, Muscular Skeletal. http://www.slideshare.net/pcerny/muscularsystem Accessed 05/03/2014

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