Academic Literacy for MPharmacy Coherence and cohesion Week 5 2011
Paths to enhancement <ul><li>Many of the medications used to treat psychiatric and neurological conditions also improve th...
Paths to enhancement suggested answer) <ul><li>A newer drug, modafinil  (Provigil), has also shown enhancement potential. ...
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Week 5 2011 coherence_essay outline

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Week 5 2011 coherence_essay outline

  1. 1. Academic Literacy for MPharmacy Coherence and cohesion Week 5 2011
  2. 2. Paths to enhancement <ul><li>Many of the medications used to treat psychiatric and neurological conditions also improve the performance of the healthy. The drugs most commonly used for cognitive enhancement at present are stimulants , namely Ritalin (methyphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts), and are prescribed mainly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because of their effects on the catecholamine system, these drugs increase executive functions in patients and most healthy normal people, improving their abilities to focus their attention, manipulate information in working memory and flexibly control their responses 3 . As a result , these drugs are widely used therapeutically. With rates of ADHD in the range of 4–7% among US college students using DSM criteria 4 , and stimulant medication the standard therapy, there are plenty of these drugs on campus to divert to enhancement use (Greely et al, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Paths to enhancement suggested answer) <ul><li>A newer drug, modafinil (Provigil), has also shown enhancement potential. Modafinil is approved for the treatment of fatigue caused by narcolepsy, sleep apnoea and shift-work sleep disorder. It is currently prescribed off label for a wide range of neuropsychiatric and other medical conditions involving fatigue 5 as well as for healthy people who need to stay alert and awake when sleep deprived, such as physicians on night call 6 . In addition , laboratory studies have shown that modafinil enhances aspects of executive function in rested healthy adults, particularly inhibitory control 7 . Unlike Adderall and Ritalin , however, modafinil prescriptions are not common, and the drug is consequently rare on the college black market. But anecdotal evidence and a readers' survey both suggest that adults sometimes obtain modafinil from their physicians or online for enhancement purposes 2 ( Greely et al, 2008). </li></ul>

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