Week 4 referencing

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In-text referencing, Harvard style

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Week 4 referencing

  1. 1. Week 4MPharmacy Referencing
  2. 2. Incorporating evidence intoacademic workA• personal opinionB• evidence from research, with dates and figures• includes the name of the author writing about the research (Brooks) and the year in which the book or article was published (2008).• this information allows you to find full bibliographical details in the list of references at the end of the book or article
  3. 3. In-text referencesA. [According to the Pharmacy Practice R&D Task Force report (2000)], pharmacy is one of the most complex but least analysed healthcare services.
  4. 4. In-text referencesB. [Eddy (2000) as cited by Wiffen (2001)], when writing primarily about health reforms in the US, describes three battles that are currently taking place. He argues that the three main goals of healthcare reform are access, quality and cost, but that cost, particularly the rate of increase of cost, is the driving force.
  5. 5. In-text referencesC. [Danzon and Chao (2000)] believe that the impact of weighting factors, such as the quantity of drug used, is ‘an important finding. It highlights the difficulty of making meaningful comparisons of pharmaceutical prices: patterns of medicine use vary so much from country to country.’ They add that previous analyses that failed to account for the quantity of drug gave undue weight to high-priced products.
  6. 6. In-text referencesD. If companies had listened in the 1960s and 1970s to market researchers, many of the blockbusters that drive current success would never have made it to market, including the PPIs, beta-blockers and cyclosporine[(Greener, 2001)].
  7. 7. Analysing in-text referencesA.• This could be either a summary or a paraphrase.• It is author prominent, which means the source of the evidence i. e. name of the writer/report, is stated as part of the sentence.• The reporting verb, which links the source and the evidence, is ‘according to’.
  8. 8. Analysing in-text referencesB.• This is probably a summary.• It is author prominent , which means the source of the evidence i. e. name of the writer/report, is stated as part of the sentence.• It is a quote from secondary sources . The source you are looking at is Wiffen. In this book/article, Wiffen writes about what Eddy says.• The reporting verbs, which link the source and the evidence, are ‘describes’ and ‘argues’.
  9. 9. Analysing in-text referencesC.• This contains both a direct quotation and a paraphrase. NB. How valid is this quotation? Could it have been easily paraphrased?• It is author prominent, which means the source of the evidence i. e. name of the writer/report, is stated as part of the sentence.• The reporting verbs, which link the source and the evidence, are ‘believe’ and ‘add’. 
  10. 10. Analysing in-text referencesD.• This could be either a summary or a paraphrase.• It is information prominent , which means the source of the evidence i. e. name of the writer/report, appears at the end of the sentence, in brackets.• There is no need for a reporting verb. 

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