Principle Of Cookery
Prepared by : Ma. Teresa A. Lopez BSIE-HE3C
Meat - the edible portion of mammals which contains muscle, fat, bone, connective
tissue, and water (includes meat from cattle, swine, and sheep) etc.
USUALLY THE MOST EXPENSIVE OF ALL FOOD ITEMS
30-70% of food cost
20-40% of operating cost
TYPES OF MEAT
A. Cattle - meat of steers or heifers, Cow that are kept on farm for milk and
I. Beef – muscles, meat from cow, cattle over 1 year when slaughtered
II. Veal – meat of young cow, cattle 3 to 14 weeks when slaughtered
III. Calf - cattle 14 weeks to 1 year when slaughtered
IV. Bright cherry red color with external layer of fat.
Special Fed (formula milk -
Removed from the cow
within 3 days
Fed a nutritionally
balanced soy or milk based
diet until 16-18 weeks
Sent to market upwards of
Two general types:
“Special Fed” (85% of market)
“Bob Veal” (15% of market)
Very young calves
No more than three
Usually no more
than 150 lbs.
Lamb versus Mutton
Tenderness, cooking methods, doneness, flavor.
Mutton• Lamb - the smallest animal used for meat
Animals not more than 14 months of age when slaughtered
Pinkish/red color with fine texture
• Mutton - meat from older sheep
Slaughtered over the age of two years
Dark red color with layer of cream-colored exterior fat
C. Pork- the meat of swine
Hogs or pigs not more than 1 year of age when slaughtered
Grayish pink/rose color with well-marbled exterior
D. Variety Meats
Offal– it is the word used to describe those parts of
cattle, pigs and sheep which are cut away (off-falls)
from the carcase when it is being prepared for sale.
• inside the carcase – these include liver, kidney,
heart, tongue, sweetbreads and tripe. Blood is also a
type of offal, and is used in the making of black
• external part of the carcase – these include pig
trotters, ox cheeks and oxtail.
• “Juiciness” when eating
• Muscle fibers separated by fat
• Surface Fat
• Protects during cooking
• The “Beefy” flavor is fat soluble
Fat is not all bad!
Meats: Inspections and
Authorized by Agricultural Marketing Act
The Wholesome Meat Act
All meat must be inspected
Grading is voluntary
The Seal of Approval?
The Circular Inspection Stamp
Wholesome and Fit for Human
The Shield shaped Grading stamp
A Quality Designation
Meat is from healthy animals and slaughtered
under sanitary conditions
Free from contamination and safe to eat at the
time of inspection
Today the consumer is looking for meat that:
• can be used in different ways;
• is convenient to prepare;
• simple to store;
• easy to cook;
• is low in fat.
•Cubes of meat – sold cut into cubes, ready for
making stews, kebabs and casseroles.
• Lean minced meat – meat is trimmed of fat
• Thin strips – meat is pre-cut into strips, suitable for
for quick cooking methods, e.g. stir-frying.
TYPES AND CUTS OF MEAT
•Boneless cuts (beef, pork and lamb) – economical
and suitable for quick and easy methods of cooking, e.g.
• Boned and rolled joints of meat –
smaller joints to reduce cooking time and making it easier
• Lean and extra lean cuts – trimmed cuts
of meat which are lower in fat.
Principles of Meat Cookery
1. Use High Heat to Develop Flavor
Browning creates a tremendous amount of
flavor and is a key step when cooking meat.
3. Match the Cut to the Cooking Method
Tough cuts, which generally come from the heavily exercised parts of the animal, such as the shoulder or
rump, respond best to slow-cooking methods, such as pot roasting, stewing, or barbecuing. The primary
goal of slow cooking is to melt collagen in the connective tissue, thereby transforming a tough piece of
meat into a tender one.
2. Use Low Heat to Preserve Moisture
For large cuts of meat or poultry, we often advocate a low-and-slow cooking method. We find that
this approach allows the center to come up to the desired internal temperature with less risk of
overcooking the outer layers.
4. Don't Forget about Carryover Cooking
Since the temperature of meat will continue to rise as it rests, an effect called carryover
cooking, meat should be removed from the oven, grill, or pan when it's 5 to 10 degrees below
the desired serving temperature.
5. Rest Your Meat
The purpose of resting meat is to allow the juices, which are driven to the center during
cooking, to redistribute themselves throughout the meat. As a result, meat that has rested
will shed much less juice than meat sliced straight after cooking.
Cooking food (normally in an outdoor environment) on a pre-heated trivet or grill, over wood or charcoal
embers or gas flame.
Shallow: cooking food, in a small amount of fat, in a shallow pan.
Stir: quickly cooking food, with or without fat, over a high heat.
Deep: cooking food in a large amount of pre-heated fat
Quickly cooking or browning food under the radiant heat of an electric element or a gas flame. This is only
appropriate for tender cuts of meat, no more than 5cm thick.
Cooking food using dry, high temperatures in an oven. The dry heat caramelises the surface of the meat.
Slowly cooking tougher cuts of meat, in plenty of liquid with a tight fitting lid. Braised meat sits on a thick
bed of vegetables with strong stock. The cut of meat used is normally cubed, diced or steaks.