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Principles of Meat

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Presentation in.H.E Laboratory

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Principles of Meat

  1. 1. MEAT Principle Of Cookery Prepared by : Ma. Teresa A. Lopez BSIE-HE3C
  2. 2. Animal Foods Meat - the edible portion of mammals which contains muscle, fat, bone, connective tissue, and water (includes meat from cattle, swine, and sheep) etc. USUALLY THE MOST EXPENSIVE OF ALL FOOD ITEMS  30-70% of food cost  20-40% of operating cost
  3. 3. TYPES OF MEAT A. Cattle - meat of steers or heifers, Cow that are kept on farm for milk and meat. I. Beef – muscles, meat from cow, cattle over 1 year when slaughtered II. Veal – meat of young cow, cattle 3 to 14 weeks when slaughtered III. Calf - cattle 14 weeks to 1 year when slaughtered IV. Bright cherry red color with external layer of fat.
  4. 4. Veal Special Fed (formula milk - fed):  Removed from the cow within 3 days  Fed a nutritionally balanced soy or milk based diet until 16-18 weeks  White (pork-like)  Sent to market upwards of 450 lbs. Two general types: “Special Fed” (85% of market) “Bob Veal” (15% of market) Bob Veal  Very young calves  No more than three weeks old  Usually no more than 150 lbs.
  5. 5. Lamb versus Mutton  Tenderness, cooking methods, doneness, flavor. Lamb and Mutton• Lamb - the smallest animal used for meat  Animals not more than 14 months of age when slaughtered  Pinkish/red color with fine texture • Mutton - meat from older sheep  Slaughtered over the age of two years  Dark red color with layer of cream-colored exterior fat B.
  6. 6. C. Pork- the meat of swine  Hogs or pigs not more than 1 year of age when slaughtered  Grayish pink/rose color with well-marbled exterior
  7. 7. D. Variety Meats Offal– it is the word used to describe those parts of cattle, pigs and sheep which are cut away (off-falls) from the carcase when it is being prepared for sale. Offal types • inside the carcase – these include liver, kidney, heart, tongue, sweetbreads and tripe. Blood is also a type of offal, and is used in the making of black pudding. • external part of the carcase – these include pig trotters, ox cheeks and oxtail.
  8. 8. • Juiciness • Marbling • “Juiciness” when eating • Tenderness • Muscle fibers separated by fat • Surface Fat • Protects during cooking • Flavor • The “Beefy” flavor is fat soluble Fat is not all bad!
  9. 9. Meats: Inspections and Grading  Authorized by Agricultural Marketing Act  The Wholesome Meat Act  All meat must be inspected  Grading is voluntary  Quality  Yield The Seal of Approval?  The Circular Inspection Stamp  Wholesome and Fit for Human Consumption  The Shield shaped Grading stamp  A Quality Designation  Clearly specified  Meat is from healthy animals and slaughtered under sanitary conditions  Free from contamination and safe to eat at the time of inspection
  10. 10. Meat today Today the consumer is looking for meat that: • can be used in different ways; • is convenient to prepare; • simple to store; • easy to cook; • is low in fat.
  11. 11. •Cubes of meat – sold cut into cubes, ready for making stews, kebabs and casseroles. • Lean minced meat – meat is trimmed of fat and minced. • Thin strips – meat is pre-cut into strips, suitable for for quick cooking methods, e.g. stir-frying. TYPES AND CUTS OF MEAT
  12. 12. •Boneless cuts (beef, pork and lamb) – economical and suitable for quick and easy methods of cooking, e.g. grilling. • Boned and rolled joints of meat – smaller joints to reduce cooking time and making it easier to carve. • Lean and extra lean cuts – trimmed cuts of meat which are lower in fat.
  13. 13. Beef meat cuts
  14. 14. Lamb meat cuts
  15. 15. Pork meat cuts
  16. 16. Principles of Meat Cookery 1. Use High Heat to Develop Flavor Browning creates a tremendous amount of flavor and is a key step when cooking meat.
  17. 17. 3. Match the Cut to the Cooking Method Tough cuts, which generally come from the heavily exercised parts of the animal, such as the shoulder or rump, respond best to slow-cooking methods, such as pot roasting, stewing, or barbecuing. The primary goal of slow cooking is to melt collagen in the connective tissue, thereby transforming a tough piece of meat into a tender one. 2. Use Low Heat to Preserve Moisture For large cuts of meat or poultry, we often advocate a low-and-slow cooking method. We find that this approach allows the center to come up to the desired internal temperature with less risk of overcooking the outer layers.
  18. 18. 4. Don't Forget about Carryover Cooking Since the temperature of meat will continue to rise as it rests, an effect called carryover cooking, meat should be removed from the oven, grill, or pan when it's 5 to 10 degrees below the desired serving temperature. 5. Rest Your Meat The purpose of resting meat is to allow the juices, which are driven to the center during cooking, to redistribute themselves throughout the meat. As a result, meat that has rested will shed much less juice than meat sliced straight after cooking.
  19. 19. Cooking techniques Barbequing Cooking food (normally in an outdoor environment) on a pre-heated trivet or grill, over wood or charcoal embers or gas flame.
  20. 20. Frying Shallow: cooking food, in a small amount of fat, in a shallow pan. Stir: quickly cooking food, with or without fat, over a high heat. Deep: cooking food in a large amount of pre-heated fat
  21. 21. Grilling Quickly cooking or browning food under the radiant heat of an electric element or a gas flame. This is only appropriate for tender cuts of meat, no more than 5cm thick.
  22. 22. Roasting Cooking food using dry, high temperatures in an oven. The dry heat caramelises the surface of the meat.
  23. 23. Casseroling/Braising/ Stewing Slowly cooking tougher cuts of meat, in plenty of liquid with a tight fitting lid. Braised meat sits on a thick bed of vegetables with strong stock. The cut of meat used is normally cubed, diced or steaks.
  24. 24. Thank you & God bless

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