The protection is the major needed in the workplace for Statisticprotect employee and employers from the infection. HIV/AIDSIndividuals whose inspect withthe HIV/AIDS need the suitable environment and proper facilities to build theirconfidence and level of secure towards surroundings.
A specific type of white blood cell that plays a large role in helpingyour body fight disease.
The virus that causes AIDS. the virus is acquired through sexual activity, sharing of infected needlesand cutting instruments, contaminated blood supplies and mother-to-fetus/infant transmission. The virus remains in the body for 5 to 10 years or more AIDS appear. The virus is detected in the bloodstream through ELISA test.
The late stage of HIV disease. AIDS involves the loss of function of the human immune system as CD4 cells are infected and destroyed, allowing the body to succumb toopportunistic in function that are generally not pathogenic in people with infact immune system.
Infected if you have The virus can entering bodyvaginal, anal or oral sex with through mouth sores or small an infected partner whose tears that sometimes develop blood, semen or vaginal in the rectum or vagina secretions enter your body. during sexual activity.
Virus can be transmittedthrough blood transfusions.
• HIV can be transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood.• Sharing intravenous drug paraphernalia puts individual at high risk of HIV and other infectious diseases such as hepatitis.
If women receiveInfected mothers can treatment for HIV infect their babies infection during during pregnancy or pregnancy, the risk delivery, or through to their babies is breast-feeding. significantly reduced
The social and economic impact of the disease isintensified by the fact that AIDS kills primarily young and middle-aged adults during their peak productive and reproductive years. As concern government, Malaysia has provided various methods in helpingWhile assessing the economic impact the HIV/AIDS’s individuals. of AIDS is very difficult, studies * Provides the program about thesuggest that some of the hardest-hit dangerous of drug. countries may forfeit 2% or more of * Gives fully support to non-GDP growth per year as a result of the government organization (NGO) for epidemic. advocate awareness of drug * Enforce the law to protect individuals.
A company’s Helped control theCompanies involvement in spread of diseaseform one part community has beenof that HIV/AIDS conspicuousenvironment. prevention has leadership, which been found to entails willingness increase its by societal leaders profile and public to speak out on respect. HIV/AIDS prevention care and frankly.
Workers also Unions and other workers’ have a representatives can assurecentral role that HIV/AIDS prevention and to play in care are part of discussionscommunity and negotiations withprevention. companies. employee needs to gain the knowledge, and also avoid in nearing the place that brought them to the drug and HIV infections..
Resident have to Society has provide many different activities that able toperception when make people gatherHIV/AIDS issues and taking care for are raised up. each others. Should avoid “NOT KNOWING” attitude but aware and response towards their environment. Society should Play roles to accept not neglect the and give supportive right of the morale towardsperson had been former drug addicts infected by to heal from the HIV/AIDS. drug and feel accepted within the society.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 - The rights to live, to dignity, to work, to non-discrimination, and to education, are some of the examples thatcould enable a person to make choices that would – in his or her own wa ymake life meaningful and rewarding, physically, mentally, and emotionally. UNAIDS, “The risk of HIV infection and its impact feeds on violations of human rights, including discrimination againstwomen and marginalized groups such as sex workers, people who inject drugs, and menwho have sex with men. HIV also frequently begets human rights violations such as further discrimination and violence.”
Most countries utilized existing public health laws and regulations to address HIV/AIDS. In 2001, the ILO released a Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS in the workplaceRecommendation CONCE RNING HIV and AID S and the world of work, 2010 (No. 200), in particular UNAIDS, to tap intothe immense contribution that the world of work can make to ensuring universalaccess to prevention, treatment, care and support. In 2001 Ministry of Human Resources has develop e a Code of Practice on Prevention and Management of HIV/AIDS at the Workplace to guide employers and employees on ways to promote a non-discriminatory work environment and manage HIV cases in the workplace
Careful Provision of handling and Ensuring that Reporting of any post-exposure disposal of adequate incidents of prophylactics sharps such as supplies are exposure; (PEP packs) for needles or available; clinical and other sharp laboratory staff. objects; Ensuring that Use of protective referral hospitals barriers such as for bloodUse of single-use Hand washing gloves, gowns transfusions have or auto-disable before and after and masks for processes to syringes in accidents/proced direct contact ensure safe clinics; ures; with blood or blood other body fluids; supplies, such as blood banks; and
She brought suit under Title III of the Americans with Dr. Bragdon examined her in Disabilities Act of 1990, This case in which his dental office, but refused which prohibits private the Supreme Court of the Abbott HIV positive when to fill her cavity in his dental providers of public United States held that seeking dental treatment office, although he indicated accommodations (such as a reproduction does qualify as afrom Randon Bragdon (Dentist that he would fill her cavity in private dentist) from major life activity according to in Maine.) only a hospital and that she discriminating against the Americans with would be required to bear otherwise qualified Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). additional hospital expenses. individuals with disabilities on the basis of their disabilities.
Sidney Abbott, after disclosing on a form that she wasasymptomatic HIV positive, was refused service from her dentist, Randon Bragdon, to fill a cavity. Abbott argued that HIV created aBragdon submitted that he would agree to fill the cavity if he could perform the “substantial limitation” to lifework in a hospital setting, but that Abbott would have to pay for the expense of activities, specifically, reproductive being admitted and using the facility. ability. Bragdon, the defendant, retorted that HIV posed a “direct threat” to his The case was appealed through the health and safety, but that he wasAbbott sued Bragdon on grounds of court system and eventually was willing to work on Abbott should hediscrimination, citing the Americans agreed to be heard by the Supreme be able to take “extra precautions” in with Disabilities Act of 1990. Court. a hospital setting. Federal trial courts, as well as appellate courts ruled in favor of Abbott.
• The major issues that were heard and decided upon by the Supreme Court included: whether HIV is a disability and reproduction a major life activity under the ADA. Accordingly, can a physician refuse or alter care of a patient with HIV without violating Issues portions of the ADA? • The court ruled that reproduction does qualify as a major life activity under the ADA, and that even asymptomatic HIV would qualify Abbott to claim protection from the act. The Court held that the ADA does not force care-givers to treat those who pose a direct threat and that health care professionals cannot be granted deference to their views whenDecision serving as a defendant in discrimination cases. The decision does not grant blanket protection under the ADA to all persons with HIV. • The Court utilized the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which aimed to eliminate discrimination towards people with disabilities in the workplace, public areas and by government entities. • In order to receive protection from the ADA, Abbott was required to show that she had anReason impairment, and that it substantially limited a major life activity, on which the Court sided with her claim.
Flowers worked primarily as a medical assistant for Dr. James OsterbergerFlowers was employed by Defendant-Appellant Southern Regional Physician Services, Inc. (“Southern Regional”)from September 1, 1993 to November 13, 1995.Flowers was terminated from Southern Regional in November 1995.In early March 1995, Margaret Hallmark, Flowerss immediate supervisor, discovered that Flowers was infectedwith the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (“HIV”).Flowers claimed both that she was terminated because of her disability and also that she was subjected to“harassing conduct” designed to “force [her] from her position or cast her in a false 12101-12213 (1995).After receiving the requisite Right to Sue Letter from the EEOC, Flowers filed suit in federal court asserting aviolation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”), 42 U.S.C. §§ On October 6, 1996, Flowers filed a chargeof discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”), alleging that Southern Regionalhad engaged in unlawful discrimination because of Flowerss status as a disabled person.
The plaintiffs employers became cold and distant toward the plaintiff; Flowers was subjected to The plaintiff was required disability-based to take an unprecedented harassment that created a number of drug test hostile work environment. The plaintiff was written Flowerss disability was up and disciplined an ISSUESnot a motivating factor in unprecedented number of southern regionals times and brought intodecision to terminate her meetings under false employment, pretenses, in which she was verbally abused
Decision The court held that there was no evidence of injury such that theplaintiff could recover more than nominal damages. However, thecourt stated that its holding was specific to the plaintiff’s inability to demonstrate that she had suffered any injury. In doing so, it maintained that damages could be appropriate in a similarcase, stating “daily harassment towards an HIV-positive individual such as [the plaintiff] may not only affect that individual emotionally, but may also cause a decline in the health of that individual, resulting in particularized physical consequence.”
Bashah binti mustaffa Teacher of the quran Found infected with HIV due to undergo a blood transfusion from hospital jitra. Lose income. Claimed damages amounting to RM3.25 million The court ordered the jitra hospital pay damages of RM450,000.00 to her.Granted general damages , (costs, benefits and pain, trauma and suffering to borne bashah)
The lack of dissemination of information Precautions Research to reduce stigma and discrimination against HIV patients.The “prostar” which aims to increase knowledge of young people about hiv. Action Established reproductive health Special program for young services and youth-friendly school leavers and young sexual based on confidentiality workers and peer education and trust
HIV/AIDS is the one of the majordisease that need the protection and Statistic was shown that male secure environment for the getting the higher percentage death employee and employers at the cause of the HIV/AIDS. workplace. Individuals who have HIV/AIDS and working as. All parties involved should Employee in any cooperate with one another to organization MUST know the enable individuals who rights that can protect have HIV good daily life and protect itself during operation of the themselves from the disease. service. Guidance from the international Labour Organization (ILO) regarding managing and protecting the workplace could be under consideration to maintain harmonize and safety while doing the jobs.