History of Development AL in Australia


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History of Development AL in Australia

  2. 2. i HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIATABLE OF CONTENTContent PageTable of content iTable iiFigure iiCD-content iii1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 12. HISTORY OF COUNTRY 2.1. To World War II ............................................................................... 2–3 2.2. To World War II to 1972 .................................................................. 3–4 2.3. After 1972 ........................................................................................ 5 2.4. 1980’s ............................................................................................... 6–7 2.5. 1990’s ............................................................................................... 8 2.6. 2000’s ............................................................................................... 93. SCHOOLING SYSTEM 3.1. History Education in Australia ...................................................... 10 3.2. Academic Calendar ........................................................................ 10 – 11 3.3. Common Age .................................................................................. 11 – 12 3.4. Pre School ....................................................................................... 13 3.5. School .............................................................................................. 13 – 144. ADULT EDUCATION IN FORMAL EDUCATION 4.1. Qualification .................................................................................... 15 – 19 4.2. System ............................................................................................. 20 - 225. TRENDS AND CHALLENGES 5.1. Educational Trends ........................................................................ 23 – 26 5.2. Challenges ....................................................................................... 26 – 286. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................ 29REFERENCE ……………………………………………………………………………. 30 MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  3. 3. ii HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIATABLESTable 1: Level of Education in Vocational Education and Training Qualification………………………………………… 16Table 2: Level of Qualification Offers in Australia’s University ... 19 27Table 3: Levels of Adult Literacy ……………………………………..FIGUREFigure 1: Structure Diagram of AQF ............................................... 22 MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  4. 4. iii HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIACD-CONTENT 1. Report Adult Learning in Australia 2. Presentation for critical review MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  5. 5. 1 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA1. INTRODUCTION Australia is one of the development countries in the world. With the status of the development country, education progress was rapidly growth in that country. It would be shown that by during the World War II University of Sydney has been established well in Australia on 1850. Since that, awareness of the education has been promoted by the government. When it has the formal education as early in the 19th century the literacy of the citizen were increasing from year to year. The formal education was starting since 3 years old. Then, it did not has any limited ages in continuing the study as long citizen able to cope with the formal education that been provided by the education government. Every level of education has the system that been developed to ensure the process of learning smoothly able been followed by the learner in the Australian country. In the schooling system, it been divided into the two which are Primary and Secondary. Since 3 years old, all children has been followed the formal education that been provided by the government under the Primary school. Meanwhile for the Secondary schools, it started from the Year 7 around 12 till 13 years old. They need to be in the Secondary School system for 5 years before stepping to the Tertiary schools which are college or universities. In maintaining the education system in one country, it needs to face the challenges and overcome the barriers that give the negative impact to the citizen. Trends will be changes from time to time following the development of the education also technologies that been used to give the impact in teaching. With that development, it will have to face 5 level of the adult literacy which each level has the approaches that need to be taken to ensure that all citizens will get the same privileges. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  6. 6. 2 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA2. HISTORY OF COUNTRY 2.1. To World War II The first university established in Australia was the University of Sydney in 1850, followed in 1853 by the University of Melbourne. Prior to federation in 1901 two more universities were established: University of Adelaide (1874), University of Tasmania (1890). At the time of federation, Australias population was 3,788,100 and there were fewer than 2,652 university students. Two other universities were established soon after federation: University of Queensland (1909) and the University of Western Australia (1911). All of these universities were controlled by State governments and were largely modeled on the traditional British university system and adopted both architectural and educational features in line with the (then) strongly influential ‘mother’ country. In his paper Higher Education in Australia: Structure, Policy and Debate Jim Breem observed that in 1914 only 3,300 students (or 0.1% of the Australian population) were enrolled in Universities. In 1920 the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee (AVCC) was formed to represent the interests of these six universities. The ‘non-university’ institutions originally issued only trade/technical certificates, diplomas and professional Bachelor’s degrees. Although universities were differentiated from technical colleges and institutes of technology through their participation in research, Australian universities were initially not established with research as a significant component of their overall activities. For this reason, the Australian Government established the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in 1926 as a backbone for Australian scientific research. The CSIRO still exists today as a legacy, despite the fact that it essentially duplicates the role now undertaken by Australian universities. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  7. 7. 3 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Two university colleges and no new universities were established before World War II. On the eve of the War, Australias population reached seven million. The university participation level was relatively low. Australia had six universities and two university colleges with combined student numbers of 14,236. 10,354 were degree students (including only 81 higher degree students) and almost 4,000 sub-degree or non-award students. 2.2. To World War II to 1972 In 1942, the Universities Commission was created to regulate university enrolments and the implementation of the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme (CRTS). After the war, in recognition of the increased demand for teachers for the "baby boom" generation and the importance of higher education in national economic growth, the Commonwealth Government took an increased role in the financing of higher education from the States. In 1946 the Australian National University was created by an Act of Federal Parliament as a national research only institution (research and postgraduate research training for national purposes). By 1948 there were 32,000 students enrolled, under the impetus of CRTS. And in 1949 the University of New South Wales was established. During the 1950s enrollments increased by 30,000 and participation rates doubled. In 1950 the Mills Committee Inquiry into university finances, focusing on short-term rather than long-term issues, resulted in the State Grants (Universities) Act 1951 being enacted (retrospective to 1 July 1950). It was a short-term scheme under which the Commonwealth contributed one quarter of the recurrent costs of "State" universities. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  8. 8. 4 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA In 1954 the University of New England was established. In that year, Prime Minister the Robert Menzies established the Committee on Australian Universities. The Murray Committee Inquiry of 1957 found that financial stringency was the root cause of the shortcomings across universities: short staffing, poor infrastructure, high failure rates, weak honors and postgraduate schools. It also accepted the financial recommendations in full which led to increased funds to the sector and establishment of Australian Universities Commission (AUC) and that the Commonwealth Government should accepted greater responsibility for the States’ universities. In 1958 Monash University was established. States Grants (Universities) Act 1958 allocated funding to States for capital and recurrent expenditure in universities for the triennial 1958 to 1960. In 1959 the Australian Universities Commission Act 1959 established the AUC as a statutory body to advise the Commonwealth Government on university matters. Between 1958 and 1960 there was more than a 13% annual increase in university enrollments. By 1960 there were 53,000 students in ten universities. There was a spate of universities established in the 1960s and 70s: Macquarie University (1964), La Trobe University (1964), the University of Newcastle (1965), Flinders University (1966), James Cook University (1970), Griffith University (1971), Deakin University (1974), Murdoch University (1975), University of Wollongong (1975). By 1960, the number of students enrolled in Australian Universities had reached 53,000. By 1975 there were 148,000 students in 19 universities. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  9. 9. 5 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 2.3. After 1972 Until 1973 university tuition was funded either through Commonwealth scholarships which were based on merit or through fees. Tertiary education in Australia was structured into three sectors which are universities, Institutes of Technology (a hybrid between a university and a technical college) and Technical Colleges. During the early 1970s, there was a significant push to make tertiary education in Australia more accessible to working and middle class Australians. In 1973, the Whitlam Labor Government abolished university fees. This decision did not greatly change the socio-economic backgrounds of students attending universities because only 20 to 25 percent of students paid fees as most had Commonwealth scholarships. Another reason for the lack of change was because low high school retention rates had resulted in many young people from disadvantaged backgrounds not completing secondary education and therefore never having the opportunity to choose to attend university. Nevertheless there was an increase in the university participation rate. In 1974 the Commonwealth assumed full responsibility for funding higher education (universities and CAEs) and established the Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) which had an advisory role and responsibility for allocating government funding among universities. But in 1975, in the context of federal political crisis and economic recession, triennial funding of universities was suspended. Demand remained with growth directed to CAEs and State-controlled TAFE colleges. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  10. 10. 6 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 2.4. 1980’s By the mid 1980s, however, it became the consensus of both major parties that the concept of ‘free’ tertiary education in Australia was untenable due to the increasing participation rate. Ironically, a subsequent Labor Government (the Bob Hawke/Paul Keating Government) was responsible for gradually re-introducing fees for University study. In a relatively innovative move, however, the method by which fees were re- introduced proved to be a system accepted by both Federal political parties and consequently is still in place today. The system is known as the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) and enables students to defer payment of fees until after they commence professional employment, and after their income exceeds a threshold level – at that point, the fees are automatically deducted through income tax. Students also have the option of paying up-front for their education and receiving a discount commensurate with the interest rate saving associated with non- deferral. By the late 1980s, the Australian tertiary education system was still a three-tier system, composed of: • Traditional universities (largely the original group plus a few 20th Century additions, such as Monash University) • A collection of institutes of technology (such as the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)) • A collection of colleges of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). However, by this point, the roles of the universities, institutes of technology and the CSIRO had also become blurred. Institutes of technology had moved from their traditional role of undergraduate teaching and industry-consulting towards conducting pure and applied MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  11. 11. 7 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA research – they also had the ability to award degrees through to Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) level. For a number of reasons, including clarifying the role of institutes of technology, the Federal Minister for Education of the time (John Dawkins) created the unified national system, which compressed the former three- tier tertiary education system into a two-tier system. This required a number of amalgamations and mergers between smaller tertiary institutions, and the option for institutes of technology to become universities. As a result of these reforms, institutes of technology disappeared and were replaced by a collection of new universities. By the early 1990s, the two-tier tertiary education was in place in Australia – university education and Technical and Further Education (TAFE). By the early years of the new millennium, even TAFE colleges were permitted to offer degrees up to Bachelor’s level. The 1980s also saw the establishment of Australias first private university, Bond University. Founded by businessman Alan Bond, the Gold Coast institution was granted its university status by the Queensland government in 1987. Bond University now awards diplomas, certificates, bachelors degrees, masters and doctorates across most disciplines. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  12. 12. 8 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 2.5. 1990’s For the most part, up until the 1990s, the traditional Australian universities had focused upon pure/fundamental/basic research rather than industry/applied research – a proportion of which had been well supported by the CSIRO which had been set up for this function. Australians had performed well internationally in pure research, having scored almost a dozen Nobel Prizes as a result of their participation in pure research. In the 1990s, the Hawke/Keating Federal Government sought to redress the shortcoming in applied research by creating a cultural shift in the national research profile. This was achieved by introducing university scholarships and research grants for postgraduate research in collaboration with industry, and by introducing a national system of Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). These new centres were focused on a narrow band of research themes (e.g., photonics, cast metals, etc.) and were intended to foster cooperation between universities and industry. A typical CRC would be composed of a number of industry partners, university partners and CSIRO. Each CRC would be funded by the Federal Government for an initial period of several years. The total budget of a CRC, composed of the Federal Government monies combined with industry and university funds, was used to fund industry-driven projects with a high potential for commercialization. It was perceived that this would lead to CRCs becoming self-sustaining (self funding) entities in the long-term, although this has not eventuated. Most Australian universities have some involvement as partners in CRCs, and CSIRO is also significantly represented across the spectrum of these centres. This has led to a further blurring of the role of CSIRO and how it fits in with research in Australian universities. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  13. 13. 9 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 2.6. 2000’s The transition from a three-tier tertiary education system to a two-tier system was not altogether successful. By 2006, it became apparent that the long term problem for the unified national system was that newer universities could not build up critical mass in their nominated research areas at the same time, their increase in research level deprived traditional universities of high calibre research-oriented academics. These issues were highlighted in the Melbourne Institute Discipline Ratings for Australian Universities published in 2006 (discussed below). The money that was available was spread across all universities and even the traditional universities had a diminished capacity to maintain critical mass. The Melbourne Institute figures, based upon Government (DEST) data and publications citations from Thomson Scientific revealed that many of the newer universities were scoring "zeros" (on a scale of 0 - 100) in their chosen research fields . MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  14. 14. 10 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA3. SCHOOLING SYSTEM 3.1. History Education in Australia Schools have existed in Australia for more than 200 years, beginning in North South Wales and expanding across the country as other settlements started. Public School systems did not begin until considerably later than this, beginning with primary level schools, then expanding into the secondary area beginning in the 1880s. Universities first arose in the middle of the 19th century, with early childhood education in the form of kindergartens and preschools lagging well behind all other sectors. Each state or territory government provides funding and regulates the public and private schools within its governing area. The federal government helps fund the public universities, but is not involved in setting curriculum. Generally, education in Australia follows the three-tier model which includes primary education (primary schools), followed by secondary education (secondary schools/high schools) and tertiary education (universities and/or TAFE Colleges). 3.2. Academic Calendar Australia is in the South Hemisphere; therefore the academic year coincides with calendar year, starting in the end of January and finishing in December. The summer vacations are the biggest school holidays period of 6 or 7 weeks, and during the school year there are also small breaks usually of about 10-14 days between “terms” which means 2 terms per semester. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  15. 15. 11 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Not all states go all holidays at the same time, for example the vacations of Queensland generally begins 1 week before New South Wales which begins 1 week before the State of Victoria. This difference is most likely in place so to maximize holiday and tourist places, which would then extend for further. The timetable for school vacations are in general in April, July and September. The beginnings of the Holidays in public schools also differ by around 1 week from private schools. Schooling in Australia starts with a kindergarten or preparatory year followed by 12 years of primary and secondary school. In the final year of secondary school is Year 12. The school year is divided into four terms and runs from late January or early February until December. There is a short holiday between terms and a long summer holiday in December and January. Students attend school from Monday to Friday each week. School hours vary slightly across Australia but are generally from 9.00 am to 3.30 pm each school day. 3.3. Common Age In Australia students may be slightly younger or older than stated below, due to variation between states and territories. The name for the first year of Primary school varies considerably between states and territories, for example what is known as Kindergarten in Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales may mean the year proceeding the first year of primary school or preschool in other states and territories. Some states vary in whether Year 7 is part of the Primary or Secondary years, as well as the existence of a middle school system. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  16. 16. 12 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Beginning in 2008, the Northern Territory introduced middle schools for Years 7–9 and High School for Years 10–12. Primary Kindergarten start from 3–4 year olds Pre-school / Kindergarten / Prep start from 4–5 year olds Under the National Curriculum this year-level will be renamed: Kindergarten. Kindergarten / Preparatory / Pre-Primary / Reception / Transition start from 5–6 year olds. Under the National Curriculum this year-level will be renamed: Foundation Year Year 1: 6–7 year olds Year 2: 7–8 year olds Year 3: 8–9 year olds Year 4: 9–10 year olds Year 5: 10–11 year olds Year 6: 11–12 year olds Year 7: 12–13 year olds (Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia) Secondary Year 7: 12–13 year olds Year 8: 13–14 year olds Year 9: 14–15 year olds Year 10: 15–16 year olds (High School Northern Territory) Year 11: 16–17 year olds ("College" Australian Capital Territory) Year 12: 17–19 year olds MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  17. 17. 13 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 3.4. Pre School Pre-school also known as Kindergarten in some states and territories in Australia is relatively unregulated, and is not compulsory. The first exposure many Australian children have to learn with others outside of traditional parenting is day care or a parent-run playgroup. This sort of activity is not generally considered schooling, as Pre-school education is separate from primary school in all states and territories, except Western Australia and Queensland where pre-school education is taught as part of the primary school system. Pre-schools are usually run by the State and Territory Governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales where they are run by local councils, community groups or private organizations. Pre- school is offered to three- to five-year-olds; attendance numbers vary widely between the states, but 85.7% of children attended pre-school the year before school. The year before a child is due to attend primary school is the main year for pre-school education. This year is far more commonly attended, and may take the form of a few hours of activity during weekdays. 3.5. School School education in Australia is compulsory between certain ages as specified by state or territory legislation. Depending on the state or territory, and date of birth of the child, school is compulsory from the age of five to six to the age of fifteen to seventeen. In recent years, over three quarters of students stay at school until they are seventeen. Government schools educate approximately 65% of Australian students, with approximately 34% in Catholic and Independent schools. A small portion of students are legally home-schooled, particularly in rural areas. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  18. 18. 14 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Government schools also known as public schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, while Catholic and Independent schools usually charge attendance fees. However in addition to attendance fees; stationery, textbooks, uniforms, school camps and other schooling costs are not covered under government funding. The additional cost for schooling has been estimated to be on average $316 per year per child. The curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms, although there are varying expectations and some Australian schools do not require uniforms. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  19. 19. 15 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA4. ADULT EDUCATION IN FORMAL EDUCATION 4.1. Qualification 4.1.1. Senior Secondary Certificate of Education It requires final two years of school. Some school at Australia have give Certificates I – IV. This is the preparation for entering the university, for further training program or to enter the workforce. This school provided a mix directed classroom studies with the extensive written assessments, formal examination and also has the common assessment task. International students in Australia has been offering the all level of school education but only the post-compulsory schooling Senior Secondary Certificate of education is a part of the AQF. The places that offering the certificate is Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW), Northern Territory (NT), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA). 4.1.2. Vocational Education and Training Qualification In this qualification it offering the vocational education and training institutions. The programs are Certificates I – IV, Diploma and Advance Diploma. It been preparing the students to the national industry standards and also preparing the employment in host of occupations or for furthering studies later. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  20. 20. 16 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Below is the offering qualification with in Vocational Education and Training Qualification.Qualification Years Description 4 – 6 month Preparing students to perform a defined range of routine and predictable activities. In this level students been exposed to the employment related skills including preparatory accessCertificate I and participation skills, broad-based induction skills, and may include specific workplace skills possibly in a team environment. 6 – 8 month Certificate II providing students with the knowledge and skills to perform a range of varied activities. Students will take some accountability for the quality of output learning. ApplicationsCertificate II may include some complex or non-routine activities involving individual responsibility, possibly in collaboration with others as part of a team. 12 month Students have been teaching more breadth, depth and complexity of knowledge and competencies that cover selecting, adapting and transferring knowledge and skills to newCertificate III environments. In this level, students were able to provide the technical advice and some leadership in order to resolve the problems. 12 – 18 When students reach the Certificate IV, student will acquire a breadth, depth and complexity month of knowledge and competencies that cover a broad range of varied activities. Lectures will beCertificate IV expecting students been able to demonstrate leadership and guidance to society. In addition through this level, student capable to contribute to technical solutions of a non-routine or contingency nature. 18 – 24 In this level, students involve in breadth, depth and complexity covering planning and initiation month of alternative approaches to skills or knowledge applications across a broad range ofDiploma technical and management requirements. Through this Diploma holders, it been requested the students to capable of self-directed application of knowledge and skills. 2 – 3 years It involving the breadth, depth and complexity involving analysis, diagnosis, design, planning, execution and evaluation across a broad range of technical and/or management functionsAdvanced within this level. Skills include developing new criteria or application or knowledge orDiploma procedures. In addition, it involved in contributing to the development of a broad plan, budget or strategy. Through this, students been able to learn to be accountable and take responsibility for yourself and others in achieving outcomes. Table 1: Level of Education in Vocational Education and Training Qualification. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  21. 21. 17 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 4.1.3. Vocational Graduate Certificate Most of the purpose getting the Vocational Graduate Certificate is for getting the students involving in the self-directed development and achievement of broad and/or specialized areas of knowledge and skills building on prior knowledge and skills. This program has also been offered at the university level. 4.1.4. Vocational Graduate Diploma Vocational Graduate Diplomas are also offered by the universities. In this level, Students will be teaches to the reached the high level of skill, have fully independent, complex judgements in broad and/or highly specialized planning, design, operational, technical and/or management functions. It may involve full responsibility and accountability for all aspects of work of others and functions including planning, budgeting and strategy. 4.1.5. University Qualification In Australia, the university offering the level of qualification started from Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree (Honour), Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma, Master Degree and Doctoral Degree. In order to enter the university, students need to fulfil all requirement AQF and English test (IELTS) MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  22. 22. 18 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA In addition, in order to entering study at University in Australia, students need to fulfil the requirement that students need to prove the evidence of English knowledge or level. Next is an evidence if study and been recognized by NOOSR (it for Australian department for recognition of foreign aptitudes. In addition, students need to have at least one year in university. Students from overseas might follow the course of Foundation during six (6) month up to one (1) years to enter the University in Australia. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  23. 23. 19 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Below is the offering qualification that offering at the University level. Qualification Years Description 2 years In order to have this qualification. Students need to follow 2 years program following Year 12 or equivalent, or Certificate III or IV. This study emphasizes the foundational,Associate Degree research-based knowledge of an academic discipline, is broad-based in conceptual and theoretical content, often multi-disciplinary and develops generic employment- related skills within these discipline(s). Minimum 3, 4 This is the fundamental university qualification and basic qualification for entry to the Bachelor years professions. In addition, this qualification as the preparation for students to further Bachelor Degree post-graduate study. A Bachelor Degree with honours takes an additional year after (Honours) a Bachelor Degree. Graduate 6 month It involves broadening individual skills already gained in an undergraduate program, Certificates or developing vocational knowledge and skills. 12 month The Graduate Diploma been teaches to broadens the individual skills obtained in an undergraduate program or develops vocational knowledge and skills in a newGraduate Diplomas professional area. This qualification can also be described as further specialization within a systematic and coherent body of knowledge. 1 – 2 years In this level, it involving in enhancing specific professional or vocational skills. It could Master Degree be completed by research or coursework or a combination. In addition, students will study in-depth understanding of a specific area of knowledge. Typically 3 Doctoral Degree is the highest award and qualification offered by Australian years universities. For Doctoral Degree it has three (3) components needed which: 1. Searching review of the literature, experimentation or other systemic approach to a body of knowledge Doctoral Degree 2. An original research project resulting in a significant contribution to knowledge and understanding and/or the application of knowledge within a discipline or field of education; and 3. Substantial and well-ordered thesis, demonstrating the relationship of the research to the broader framework of the discipline or field of education. Table 2: Level of Qualification Offers in Australia’s University MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  24. 24. 20 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 4.2. System 4.2.1. Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) In Australia the education has one system that been used for all over district in Australia by Australian Qualification Framework (AQF). This framework has linked to the 15 schools, vocational and university education within one system. AQF, is allowing students to move easily from one level to another level. And from one institution to other institutions till the students has fulfilled the VISA requirement. The purpose of this system is to ensure that student able to make the choice and flexibility in the career planning in future. Other than that, AQF is the benchmark for overseas government to recognize the qualification of the institution. Other reason is occurred when students want to be employed in the oversea, the employer will recognized the qualification and employers knows in which institution that the employee graduate. One the most important part in AQF is the recognition of prior learning (RPL). By using the RPL, students able to get the qualification if they did not have any papers as proof. They capable undertake a personal assessment. And if success the requirement needed, students will be granted credit towards the qualification. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  25. 25. 21 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA AQF has providing the standards for Australian qualification. The policy comprises that the learning outcomes for each AQF level and qualification type. Next policy is the specifications for the application of AQF in accreditation and development of qualification. It requires issuing the AQF qualifications and the qualification has the linkages and student pathways. The requirements for registers of organization authorized the accredit AQF qualifications, issuing the AQF and also the AQF qualification and qualification pathways. Other than that, the policy requirement for the addition or removal of qualification types in the AQF and the definition of the terminology used in policy. Within the AQF qualification, it been offered by more than one type of institution in Australia. The institution that involves is the vocation education and training institutions and schools that offer vocational education and training for the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education and Certificate I – IV qualifications. Other offers from AQF are older students can study for Senior Secondary Certificate of Education at the vocational education and training institution. In addition, both universities and vocational education and training institutions offer Diploma and Advanced Diploma. Universities and other higher education institutions offering Certificate I – IV qualification and vocational education and training institutions. Usually in association with universities, it will offer the Degrees, Graduate Certificates and Graduate Diplomas level. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  27. 27. 23 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA5. TRENDS AND CHALLENGES 5.1. Educational Trends Schools have existed in Australia for more than 200 years, beginning in NSW and expanding across the country as other settlements started. Public School systems did not begin until considerably later than this, beginning with primary level schools, then expanding into the secondary area beginning in the 1880s. Universities first arose in the middle of the 19th century, with early childhood education in the form of kindergartens and preschools lagging well behind all other sectors. The first school in what is now the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) operated at Ginninderra from 1844 to 1848. A second school was opened in the 1840s at St John the Baptist Church located on the Duntroon Estate within the modern day suburb of Reid. It was the only school in the Canberra region, after the closure of the Ginninderra school until the opening of a state run school at Acton in 1880. Mulligans Flat School opened in 1896 and operated until 1931 when it was demolished. The remains can still be seen near Gungahlin. The oldest operating school in the Australian Capital Territory is Tharwa Primary School, open in 1899 in the small town of Tharwa south of present day Canberra. Hall Primary School claims to be the oldest continuously run school in the Australian Capital Territory. It opened in 1911 in the town of Hall on the northern border of the ACT. The Royal Military College was opened in 1911 at Robert Campbells estate Duntroon. This was followed in 1986 with the opening of the nearby MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  28. 28. 24 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA). The academic side of ADFA is run by the University of New South Wales. The first modern school opened in Canberra proper was Telopea Park School opened in 1923 in what was then called Eastlake. Another early school in Canberra is the Ainslie School, it was opened in 1927 in the inner north suburb of Braddon. Canberra University College was opened in 1930 operating as an arm of Melbourne University to provide undergraduate degrees to Canberra. The Australian National University was opened nearby in 1946 as Australias only research university. In 1960 the ANU and Canberra University College amalgamated, with the Canberra University College campus becoming the ANUs school of general studies. 5.1.1. 1930’s and 1940’s On average, Australians born before 1930, who would mostly have been in school in the 1930s and 1940s, achieved 9.3 years of education. Only 22% of them persisted to finish year 12 at school. Of those few who finished year 12 in school, just 27% on to complete university, so in all just 6% of the age cohort completed university. The average number of years of education completed rose to 10.0 years for those born in the 1930s. 27% completed year 12 and 8% finished university. Educational levels rose to 10.9 years for those born in the 1940s, with 37% completing year 12 and 14% finishing university. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  29. 29. 25 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA 5.1.2. 1950’s Those born in the 1950s, who would have been getting their education in the 1960s and 1970s, did even better, getting 11.7 years on average. 47% completed year 12 and 20% completed university. Mid-life attendance at university became increasingly common in these years, so a fair few them would have first left school for some years but later returned as adults to continue their education (Evans 1993). 5.1.3. 1960’s As for those born since 1960, average educational levels rose to 11.9 years. For the first time in Australian history, more than half , 55%, finished secondary school. No less than 21% finished university (and some unknown further number will later return to finish university as "mature-age" students). 5.1.4. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries Australians can be proud of their engagement in learning throughout life because at 6.0%, education participation rates for Australians aged 40 and over are over five times the average of other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The next highest ranking countries are the United Kingdom at 5.0%, Sweden at 3.3%, New Zealand at 2.9% and the United States at 2.3%. This year, more than 500,000 people aged over 40 will participate in formal learning. Over 335,000 people aged 25 and over will attend university, and almost a million people aged 25 and over will MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  30. 30. 26 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA take part in vocational education and training (VET). Of these, 200,000 will be doing an apprenticeship or traineeship. Beyond formal learning, there is a strong tradition in Australia of learning “on the job”. More than three-quarters of all employees take part in learning in the workplace. This enables them to keep their skills up to date, and helps them to identify and pursue new career direction 5.2. Challenges Even though Australia boasts a strong record of educational attainment, most of these achievements have come in the past two decades. Overall, adult Australians who grew up in the 1950s and 1960s have lower levels of attainment around –40% of people aged between 45 and 54 did not complete secondary school. In their youth, work was a more accessible and attractive alternative. Research shows that many Australians aged over 45 do not have sound foundation skills for the modern world. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  31. 31. 27 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) measured adult literacy standards and categorised them into five levels: Level ExplanationLevel 1 –------ People with very poor skills, where the individual may, for example, be unable to determine the correct amount of medicine to give a child from information printed on the package.Level 2 –------ Respondents can deal only with material that is simple, clearly laid out, and in which the tasks involved are not too complex. It denotes a weak level of skill, but more hidden than Level 1. They may have developed coping skills to manage everyday literacy demands, but their low level of proficiency makes it difficult for them to face novel demands, such as learning new job skills.Level 3 –------ It considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life and work in a complex, advanced society. It denotes roughly the skill level required for successful secondary school completion and college entry. Like higher levels, it requires the ability to integrate several sources of information and solve more complex problems.Level 4 & 5 – Describe respondents who demonstrate command of higher-order information processing skills. Table 3: Levels of Adult Literacy MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  32. 32. 28 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA The distribution of skill levels from the survey found that 6.6 million Australians had skills at Level 1 and 2, that is, they were likely to experience difficulty using every day printed materials. Meanwhile, 4.8 million Australians are at Level 3 and deemed to have sufficient skills to cope. And, 2.3 million are at Level 4 and 5 and are considered capable of managing the literacy demands of everyday life. Challenges faced by Australia is to reduce the number of people had skill at Level 1 and level 2 with more coordinate approach to adult learning to improve foundation skills and generic vocational skills. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  33. 33. 29 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIA6. CONCLUSION In Australia nowadays the literacy statistic shows that almost 90% of Australian has literacy. This number was shows that country has provided the best education for their citizens. By experience of having the first universities on the 18th century, it brought to the changes from time to time in developing the literacy citizens. In addition, by having the proper system starting from the Primary schools, it encourages the citizens to follow and learn as many as possible they could in order to gain the knowledge. Malaysian and Australian education has most similarity in the education system. It has different in terms of the formal education for the Kindergaden School. In Australia, it started by 3 years old, all children need to be followed the formal education compared in Malaysia, most of the children has give the formal education exposure when they in 5 years old. Early education will help the children to understand and able to cope with the advance learning in the future. For Tertiary education system, it also has the similarity with it need the English test that been recognized by the Australian Qualification Framework (AQF). AQF will act as the medium that been use monitored the activities of the Tertiary schools. In addition, foreigner needs to get the certificates reorganization by AQF in order to fulfil the requirement that been asked by the Tertiary schools. Education is important in developing the countries. Without the proper education, country will face the globalization and modernization issues that brought them to the poverty, war also becoming decadency country. Thus, with the high rate of literacy in Australia in brought that country to the development country and hope that Malaysian able to compete with the development country. MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING
  34. 34. 30 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT ADULT LEARNING THEORY: AUSTRALIAREFERENCEAustralian Qualification Framework: Australia. One country. One qualification system.(2011). Retrieved October 01, 2011, from AUstralia Government: Australia TradeCommission: http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/en/Why-Study-in-Australia/Australian-Qualifications-Framework/Australian-Qualifications-FrameworkDepartment of Education, S. a. (2011). Adult learning in Australia: a consultation paper -You can too. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from Australian Government: Department ofEducation, Employment and Workplace Relations:http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/training_skills/publications_resources/profiles/you_can_too_adult_learning.htm#publicationEducation in the Australian Capital Territory: Encyclopedua II - Ecudation in theAustralian Capital Territory - History. (2011). Retrieved October 10, 2011, from GlobalOneness:http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Education_in_the_Australian_Capital_Territory_-_History/id/5012128 -The Global Oneness CommitmentTertiary Education in Australia. (2011, August 29). Retrieved October 18, 2011, fromWikipedia: The free encyclopedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertiary_education_in_Australia ‘ MHR1053: PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT LEARNING