Ergo Awareness Training

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Introduction to the signal risk factors and ergonomic stressors.

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Ergo Awareness Training

  1. 1. Ergonomic Awareness Michael Dean Taggart PhD, MPH, CIH, CSP Environment, Health & Safety
  2. 2. Ergonomic Awareness <ul><li>Ergonomics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The laws of work, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ fitting the job to the worker” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ergonomic Awareness <ul><li>People have physical and mental limitations </li></ul><ul><li>If the demands of the job exceed those limitations, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain, illness, or injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics seeks a better match between working conditions and the limitations of the workers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Musculoskeletal Disorders, MSD’s <ul><li>MSD - An injury or an illness of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral nerves, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joints, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones, and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Musculoskeletal Disorders, MSD’s <ul><li>MSD’s include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low back pain, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sciatica, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synovitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epicondylitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotator cuff tendinitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>de Quervain’s disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve entrapments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Carpal tunnel syndrome) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurovascular syndromes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Raynaud's phenomenon) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Signs and Early Symptoms <ul><li>Pain - sharp or dull pain, aches </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness - loss of feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Tingling - hands or feet “falling asleep” </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Strength - weakness, tired </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Range of Motion - lack of flexibility, stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>Special Concern - </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent symptoms, lasting 7 or more consecutive days </li></ul>
  7. 7. Signs and Early Symptoms <ul><li>Report all signs and symptoms immediately to </li></ul><ul><li>Your Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>If symptoms are severe or persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Report to the EHS </li></ul><ul><li>Complete an Incident Report </li></ul><ul><li>If symptoms are not treated: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent loss of strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent loss of feeling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lasting pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent disability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Factors Associated with MSD’s <ul><li>“ Signal risk factors” - “signals” that ergonomic </li></ul><ul><li>problems may result </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Repetitive Motion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Frequent or Heavy Lifting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Contact Stress </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Unsupported or Awkward Positions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Vibrating Tools or Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Repetitive Motion <ul><li>Performing the same motions every few seconds </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 2 hours at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typing, small part assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to Reduce: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the job - include more tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide breaks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Frequent or Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Frequent lifting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25 or more lifts in 2 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 lb or more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy lifting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35 lb or more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to Reduce: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper lifting technique (more later) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use lighter products or containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller containers, put less in each container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use lifting aids or group lifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design lifting out of the process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3. Contact Stress <ul><li>High pressure on sensitive tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure = force divided by area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small forces give high pressures at sharp edges or points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scissors or other hand tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resting arms or legs against sharp edges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to Reduce: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth, rounded, wider handles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute force to less sensitive areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer handles, extend past palm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pad handles or work station edges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use finger grooves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never use palms or knees as mallets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Unsupported, Fixed, or Awkward Positions <ul><li>2 hours or more per day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged stationary standing or sitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bent wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted or bent back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbows out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kneeling, stooping, or squatting </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 4. Unsupported, Fixed, or Awkward Positions <ul><li>Ways to Reduce: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sit/stand chairs for standing work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomic mats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar supports and arm rests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reclining backrests to allow motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise the worker or lower the work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redesign work stations to prevent twisting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bend the tool, not the wrist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide stools, knee pads, or coasters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 5. Vibrating Tools or Equipment <ul><li>Use of vibrating or impact tools or equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 2 hours per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand Arm Vibration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered hand tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole Body Vibration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fork trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars and Trucks </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 5. Vibrating Tools or Equipment <ul><li>Ways to Reduce: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Properly maintain tools - sharpen, tune-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide low-vibration tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid reciprocating motors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dampen vibration - isolation mounts, shocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wear vibration-reducing gloves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain driving surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Lifting <ul><li>Oxygen consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is used by the body to do work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen supply from the heart is limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the rate of work exceeds oxygen supply, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body produces lactic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid causes muscle pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body requires oxygen to remove lactic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide rest periods to replace the oxygen “deficit” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lifting <ul><li>Back Strain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is a structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like a bridge or building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much weight, it will collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The weakest place is the lower back (L5/S1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the back lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest strain on the lower back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better is the leg lift, especially for heavy loads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best is often the semi-squat lift </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Factors Affecting Lift Hazard <ul><li>Recommended Weight Limit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>51 lb under best conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less if: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal distance to load - over 10 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical hand position – not knuckle height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical distance of the lift - more than 10 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of lifts is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisting or bending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(use facing motions) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No handles or hand holes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(large enough for the largest hands) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Inquire about 5 signs and symptoms of MSD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the 5 signal risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the 7 lift hazard factors </li></ul>

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