Water Analysis


Published on

Philippine Republic Act about Water Analysis in the laboratory.
I hope this helps.

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water Analysis

  1. 1. • • • • • Importance of water: The Human Body Basic Water Chemistry: Measurable Properties Fundamentals of Water Technology: Hydrologic Cycle Nature of Water: Environmental Factors Contamination: Origin & Potential Problems
  2. 2. The Importance of Water: • The human body is made up ofCirculatory System 80% Water approximately 70% water; therefore water is vital to all systems • „Clean‟ water is essential for the human body • Contaminants present in water can bio-accumulate in the body causing health issues – i.e. carcinogens like THM‟s can bio-accumulate possibly causing cancer in the future Brain 75 % Water Circulatory System 80% Water Lungs 86% Water Muscles 75% Water
  3. 3. Water Chemistry • Water is an extremely stable compound composed of Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms • It is referred to as the universal solvent as it dissolves more substances than any other liquid • Water is unique as it is only natural substance that is found in three states – liquid, solid, gas • Water is very rarely in pure „distilled‟ form • Water will always contain salts, nutrients & particulates depending on local conditions Water Molecule: 2 Hydrogen atoms 1 Oxygen atom
  4. 4. Measurable Properties of Water: pH pH: refers to water being acidic, basic or neutral; pH is affected by chemicals therefore is a good indication that water may be changing chemically • pH stands for the potential of hydrogen • The neutral point of 7 indicates the presence of equal concentrations of free hydrogen & hydroxide ions • Each decrease in pH by one pH unit means a tenfold increase in concentration of hydrogen ions – therefore more acidic
  5. 5. Measurable Properties of Water: Turbidity • Turbidity can make water either cloudy or opaque depending on what makes up turbidity • Turbidity is measured in NTU‟s (Nephelometric turbidity units) • The higher the NTU value, the higher the intensity of scattered light • Turbidity is measured with a turbidimeter • Turbidimeter is calibrated using vials of solution which contain different NTU levels
  6. 6. Measurable Properties of Water: UV Transmittance (UVT) Less UV light getting through the water • UVT is a measure of how well water is able to transmit UV light • If the UV light cannot penetrate the water then it cannot penetrate the microorganisms present in the water • As the UVT drops UV dose also drops dramatically • UVT (%) is the most important water quality property to be considered when looking at UV as a piece of water treatment equipment • Keep in mind that low UVT levels are not always detectable with the naked eye • Tannins are visual in water but there are many other organics that can drop the UVT with no color at all Low UVT = Low Dose High UVT = High Dose
  7. 7. Measurable Properties of Water: Iron (Fe) • One of earth‟s most plentiful resources (5% of earth‟s crust) • Rainfall seeping through soil dissolves iron in crust & carries it into almost every kind of water supply, mostly well water • Iron is seldom found at concentrations greater than 10 ppm • Iron is not hazardous to human health, it is considered a secondary aesthetic contaminant • At levels of 0.3 ppm staining of household fixtures can occur • Iron can be present in water in either a clear soluble (ferrous iron or clear water iron) or insoluble (ferric iron ) state; is often associated with iron bacteria problems • When considering iron removal (i.e. with a softener) ensure that the outdoor taps are being treated….what could happen you ask? Iron staining in toilet
  8. 8. Measurable Properties of Water: Manganese (Mn) • This element is usually found in groundwater • Usually present in combination with iron (but in lower concentrations) • At levels of 0.05 ppm Mn can cause staining of a black-yellow color • Both Fe & Mn can be present in well water & water can appear clear when first drawn • Upon exposure to air both soluble Fe & Mn will quickly become oxidized changing to their insoluble state (a precipitate)
  9. 9. Measurable Properties of Water: Tannins • Tannins are water soluble, organic phenolic compounds formed in the decomposition of vegetation • Tannins occur in water in almost any location where large quantities of vegetation have decayed • Cannot simply be filtered out of water as tannins consist of microscopic, unsettlable, colloidal particles that carry a negative charge • Due to the materials that have decayed, tannins create a yellowish color in water • This may not be visible in a glass of water, however a tubful of water will appear slightly yellow (or Styrofoam cup) • Above a pH of 6 tannins must be removed by anion exchange; below 5 they may be removed by activated carbon depending on tannin concentration Clean & tannin water comparison Tubful of tannin water
  10. 10. What can these parameters do to a UV system? • Hardness, iron, manganese & tannins can all inhibit UV light from penetrating microorganisms in water • This is done either by absorption or scaling • If the sleeve is coated then UV light is trapped & cannot reach the water • A non-monitored system needs to have water that is pre-treated or is of a known quality
  11. 11. Measurable Properties of Water: Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) • H2S is a corrosive, flammable & toxic gas often found dissolved in well water, accompanied by iron & low pH • Develops from decaying organic matter or sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB) • SRB produces enzymes which accelerates reduction of sulfur compounds thereby producing H2S • Produces rotten egg smell, can corrode piping & turn water black • In some cases H2S may only be present in household hot water • This condition is caused by a biochemical reaction between sulfates in water, sulfate reducing bacteria or organic matter Structure model of Hydrogen Sulfide
  12. 12. The Nature of Water – Environmental Factors Water is a product of the environment, absorbing & dissolving a part of everything it touches in both air & water
  13. 13. The Nature of Water – Environmental Factors AIR: As water falls to earth the rain serves to cleanse air Rain will absorb solid matter, gases, odors & other impurities that pollute air Carbon dioxide gases in atmosphere can penetrate precipitation as it falls, causing rainfall to become slightly acidic (carbonic acid) Rainwater can also encounter sulfuric acid & some types of bacteria SURFACE: Surface properties have a great impact on water reaching earth As water percolates into ground it loses some of its impurities it absorbed from air BUT while the soil filters out impurities it also allows water to dissolve large amounts of earth‟s minerals etc. I. II. III. Vegetated Areas: O2 is consumed & CO2 is produced through decay of vegetation Limestone Areas: H20 containing H2CO3 reacts with stone becoming hard; Ca, Mg bicarbonates are formed Granite/Sandy Areas: H20 holds H2CO3 but does not become hard due to absence of limestone
  14. 14. Contamination: • Contamination in drinking water can exist in many different forms: •Particulate Matter •Colloidal Matter •Dissolved Solids •Radioactive contaminants •Microorganisms (protozoan cysts, viruses, pyrogens) •Pesticides and herbicides •Heavy Organic Molecules • These exist either naturally or are man made.
  15. 15. Contaminants & their origin: MAN-MADE Naturally Occurring Dirt Rust Sediment Roots Leaves Algae Mold, Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Manganese (Mn) Hydrogen sulfide Microorganisms Cysts (Cryptosporidium, Giardia) Agricultural Fertilizer Herbicide Pesticide Nitrate Fungicide Industrial Detergent Solvent Radio-active waste Acids Hydrocarbon Carbon monoxide Chlorine Chloramines THM‟s Lead based contaminant etc...
  16. 16. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM WATER ANALYSIS 18
  17. 17. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Water quality varies with the source. It may or may not contain dissolved minerals  dissolved gases organic matter microorganisms combinations of these impurities that cause deterioration of metalworking fluid performance. 19
  18. 18. 20 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM The amount of dissolved minerals, for example, in lake or river water (surface water) depends on whether the source is near mineral deposits. Typically, lake water is of a consistent quality, while river water varies with weather conditions. Well water (ground water), since it seeps through minerals in the earth, tends to contain more dissolved minerals than either lake or river water. Surface water, however, is likely to contain a higher number of microorganisms (bacteria and mold) and thus need treatment
  19. 19. o If water is badly polluted-- like raw sewage--it might be obvious from its appearance or odor. o It might be colored or turbid (cloudy), or have solids, oil or foam floating on it. o It might have a rotten odor, or smell like industrial chemicals. 21 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Why do we need to analyze water?
  20. 20. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM TWO ASPECTS OF WATER There are two aspects of water analysis that we need to consider: what substances or organisms are we interested in testing for-and why? what procedures and equipment do we use to make the measurements, and how do they work? 22
  21. 21. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM HARDNESS OF WATER 23
  22. 22. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM What is hardness of water? Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hardness of water is due to metal ions(minerals) that are dissolved in the ground water. These minerals include Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, SO42-, and HCO3-. Our hard water in the southern Indiana area is due to rain moving through the vast amount of limestone, CaCO3. 24
  23. 23. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Hardness of water 25
  24. 24. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Why Be Concerned About Hard Water? The determination of water hardness is a useful test that provides a measure of quality of water for households and industrial uses. Originally, water hardness was defined as the measure of the capacity of the water to precipitate soap. Hard water is not a health hazard. When hard water is heated, CaCO3 precipitates out, which then clogs pipes and industrial boilers. This leads to malfunction or damage and is expensive to remove 26
  25. 25. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Types of hardness There are two basic types of water hardness: 1. Temporary hardness 2. Permanent hardness 27
  26. 26. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Temporary Hardness Temporary Hardness is due to the bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, being present in the water. This type of hardness can be removed by boiling the water to expel the CO2. → Heating Mg(HCO3)2 → Heating Main Mechanism Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 + H2 O + CO2 Ma (OH)2 + 2CO2 28
  27. 27. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Permanent hardness Permanent hardness is due to the presence of the ions Ca2+, Mg+2, Fe3+ and SO4-. This type of hardness cannot be eliminated by boiling. The water with this type of hardness is said to be permanently hard. 29
  28. 28. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Solids in water 30
  29. 29. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Dissolved Solids The total dissolved solids can have a significant impact on the quality of water. The amount of dissolved solids affects the water for almost all of its uses, whether for drinking, agricultural, or industrial use. The recommended maximum limit of dissolved solids in drinking water is 500 ppm 31
  30. 30. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Problems related to dissolved solids The problems caused by dissolved material relate to taste and odor, hardness, and corrosion and scaling in the distribution system, among others. Several different types of dissolved solids could be toxic if the levels become too high. These include barium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury , selenium, and silver. Each of these are regulated by the EPA and have maximum contaminant levels assigned to them. 32
  31. 31. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Suspended solids Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one indicator of water quality. 33
  32. 32. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Problems related to Suspended Particles High concentrations of suspended solids can cause many problems for stream health and aquatic life. 34
  33. 33. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM SEPARATION TECHNIQUES 35
  34. 34. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Separation technique include 1. Filtration 2. Distillation 3. Extraction 36
  35. 35. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Filtration: The water is passed through a fine-pore filter which can be made of paper, glass fibers, a cellulose acetate membrane, etc. Filtration through a filter of some agreed-upon standard pore size can be used to separate "suspended" from "dissolved" portions of the analyte. The analyte may be the suspended matter which is captured on the filter-- or the filter may be used to clarify the water for analysis of a dissolved material. 37
  36. 36. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Distillation: If the analyte can be boiled out of the water, or along with the water, then the vapors can be cooled and re-condensed or trapped in a liquid form in a different container. This way the analyte can be removed from the interfering substances in the original water sample. Often the sample is made acidic or alkaline, or treated chemically in some other way before distillation, to convert the analyte into a volatile (easily evaporated) form, and to immobilize or neutralize interfering substances. 38
  37. 37. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM Extraction: Some analytes may be much more soluble in an organic solvent than in water. If the solvent does not mix with water, and the sample is shaken with portions of the solvent, almost all of the analyte may be transferred from the water into the solvent, leaving interfering substances behind. This is known as a "liquid-liquid" extraction. The analysis may be completed using the organic portion. There are also continuous versions of this process for use with liquid or with dry samples. 39
  38. 38. 5/1/2011 3:36:13 PM References Map from Morton Salt at http://www.mortonsalt.com/soft/sofisoft.htm ^ a b c World Health Organization Hardness in Drinking-Water, 2003 ^ a b Hermann Weingärtner, "Water" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006[december], Wiley–VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1 002/14356007.a28_001 http://www.glendalewaterandpower.com/residents/water_ha rdnes http://www.mrwa.com/OPWater%20and%20Impurities.pdf 40
  39. 39. July 20, 1979 ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER No. 31 s. 1979 SUBJECT: REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ACCREDITATION OF WATER ANALYSIS LABORATORIES The Ministry of Human Settlements and Ecology had, in January 1978, published a three-volume “Philippine Standard Methods of Air and Water Analysis”, and the Ministry of Health in September 1978, had issued a revised “National Standards for Drinking Water”. The objective of the former publication is to have some assurance that accepted procedure are available for the determination of the “Standard”, and that the adherence to the procedures allows comparability of results of analysis within a single laboratory and between laboratories. While laboratory procedures could be established their mere application is no guaranty that results are not erroneous. Erroneous results could mislead decision makers, e.g. in disapproving a water system even though historically the supply had always been of good quality.
  40. 40. Basic Requirements (1) the name, citizenship and domicile of the head of the laboratory; (2) the municipality and replace where it is to be established; (3) name of establishment; (4) name, citizenship and domicile of owners; (5) scope and nature of work, specifying procedures; (6) statement that applicant has complied with all business requirements under existing laws or ordinances that are necessary in pursuance of the activity for which an accreditation is applied for; (7) tax clearance for preceding year.
  41. 41. Personnel The operation of water analysis Laboratories shall be under the direction and supervision of a licensed sanitary engineer. The sanitary engineer in charge of supervision/direction of water analysis laboratory shall be authorized to head, manage, or supervise up to three (3) water laboratories provided they are contiguously located in a particular area. Each service must therefore be operated by at lest one registered professional, one laboratory assistant and one laboratory aide. A bacteriological service with a minimum number of personnel may handle at most 30 samples/day and a chemical service of at most 5 samples for routine chemistry.
  42. 42. Physical Plant (a) Work rooms must be housed in a permanent building. (b) Work rooms should be well-ventilated. (c) Working space requirements must include sufficient bench-top area.The bench-top working area needed for processing samples should be at least 1.20-1.80 mofo continuous area per analyst. The working area for a specific service should be at least 20 sq. meters. (d) A bench-height of 90 centimeters provides convenience for the worker who may choose to stand or sit while performing various tasks. Laboratory benches 75 centimeters high should also be provided for other types of work. The laboratory table or top working areas should be level. (e) All work rooms should have adequate running water not stored water. Shower facilities should be available. (f) All provisions of the safety and building code should be complied with.
  43. 43. Laboratory Apparatus, Materials and Reagents (a) Bacteriological Analysis Service 1. Multiple-tube fermentation technic 2. Gram-Stain technic 3. IMVIC test 4. Standard plate count 5. Fecal coliform test 6. Optional-tests for fecal streptococcal group (b) Biological Analysis Service 1. Quantitative and qualitative examination of phytoplankton samples 2. Zooplankton and bottom fauna examination
  44. 44. Radiological Analysis Service 1. Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity 2. Total Radioactive Strontium in Water 3. Strontium – 90 in water 4. Total Raidum (Presipitation Technique) 5. Radium – 226 by Radon (Soluble, Suspended and Total)
  45. 45. The minimum equipment for each service are the following: (a) Bacteriological Analysis Service 1. Incubator 2. Waterbath, 37oC 44.5oC – 0.5 (if Escherichia coli test is to be performed) 3. Autoclave 4. pH meter 5. Analytical balance 6. Colony Counter 7. Microscope 8. Hot plate or stove 9. Oven, sterilizing 10. Bunsen burner with tank 11. Refrigerator
  46. 46. Minimum Required References for Each Laboratory (a) Philippine Standard Methods for Air and Water Analysis, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Human Settlements Commission, January 1978. (b) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, APHA, AWMA, WFCF, 14th Edition. (c) National Standards for Drinking Water, Bureau of Research and Laboratories, Ministry of Health, 1978.
  47. 47. Requests and Results No result can be released to the public unless signed by the sanitary engineer of the authorized supervisor. Quality Assurance Program The accredited laboratory must participate in the quality assurance program to be conducted by the Bureau of Research and Laboratories. Laboratory Fees The rate of laboratory fees to be charged by a water analysis laboratory for examinations shall be within the range of the usual fees prevailing at the time and particular place taking into consideration costs of product and quality control of various laboratory procedures.
  48. 48. Inspection It shall be the duty of the Director of the Bureau of Research and Laboratories or his duly authorized representative to conduct periodical inspection of water analysis laboratories. Exhibition of Certificate of Accreditation The Certificate of Accreditation of the water analysis laboratory must be displayed in a conspicuous place within the laboratory. Expiration The accreditation of the water analysis laboratory shall expire on the last day of December of the year stated, therein, including the authorization given to the head or supervisor of operation. Renewal Application for renewal shall be filed on the last two months of the year.
  49. 49. Updating of requirements The requirements for the accreditation of water analysis laboratory maybe updated from time to time as the need arises. This Administrative Order shall take effect immediately. (Sgd) CLEMENTE S. GATMAITAIN, M.D., M.P.H. Ministry of Health IMPORTANT: The Regional Health Director is requested to disseminate copies of this Adm. Order to all personnel and offices concerned under his region.
  50. 50. Administrative Order No. 2006-0024 Subject: Rules and Regulations Governing the Accreditation of Laboratories for Drinking Water Analysis Presidential Decree 856 also known as the Sanitation Code of the Philippines mandates the DOH to accredit laboratories in accordance with the National Drinking Water Standards. The enactment of EO No. 102 s. 1999 which redirects the functions and operations of the DOH. RA 9275 known as the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 was enacted and the DOH was tasked to be responsible for the promulgation, revision and enforcement the drinking water standards.
  51. 51. Objective To protect public health, safety and welfare by ensuring the accuracy, precision and reliability of results generated by drinking water testing laboratories through formulation and enforcement of revised standards for accreditation.
  52. 52. Definition of Terms Accreditation- formal authorization issued by the DOH. Applicant- an individual, partnership or corporation BHFS- Bureau of Health Facilities and Services CHD- Centers for Health Development DOH- Department of Health NRL- National Reference Laboratory PNSDW- Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water Quality Manual- documents stating the quality policy Quality Policy- statements of intentions or desires of the organization Specimen- collected drinking water sample Standard Method- method of analysis as prescribed by the PNSDW Water Analysis- testing procedure performed on a water sample
  53. 53. General Policies: 1.) BHFS issues Certificate of Accreditation and the CHD renews the certificate. 2.) NRL shall conduct proficiency testing. 3.) Laboratories shall not operate w/o a valid Certificate of Accreditation. 4.) All accredited laboratories shall be given 1 year from approval and publication of these rules and regulations to meet the new accreditation requirements. 6.) The accreditation of laboratories may be suspended by the BHFS/CHD director upon violated these rules. 7.) Preventive suspension for the laboratories shall not be more than 60 days. 8.) Any personnel has 15 days to file a notice of appeal to the Office of the Secretary after receipt of notice of decision has received.
  54. 54. Laboratories should be classified according to: 1. Ownership a.) Government b.) Private 2. Institutional Character a.) institutional based- a lab located with in the premises and operates as a part of the institution. b.) freestanding- a laboratory that operates independently.
  55. 55. 3. Service Capability a.) Bacteriological Analysis- laboratory performs standard methods to detect or estimate bacterial coliform organisms in the water sample. b.) Biological Analysis- laboratory performs standard methods to detect or estimate biologic organisms such as planktons in the water sample c.) Physical Analysis- laboratory performs standard methods to detect or estimate characteristics of the water sample. d.) Chemical Analysis- laboratory performs standard methods to detect or estimate the chemical substances in the water sample. e.) Radiological Analysis- laboratory performs standard methods to detect or estimate radioactive contaminants in the water sample.
  56. 56. EFFECTIVITY These rules and regulations shall take effect 15 days after publication in a newspaper of the general circulation. Francisco T. Duque lll, M.D.. MSc Secretary of Health