Stem Cells Kevin


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Stem Cells Kevin

  1. 1. Stem Cells Medical Imaging Technologies and Public Health Strategies to Prevent Disease By: Kevin Nguyen
  2. 2. What is a Stem Cell? Undifferentiated cell that can differentiate into a specialized cell  Two main types: Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells  Can be found in the skin, blood, neural tissue, liver, etc.  Adult Stem cell can divide infinitely 
  3. 3. Embryonic Stem Cells Part of 4-5 day human embryo in “blastocyst phase”  Usually excess from IVF (in vitro fertilization) clinic  Eggs fertilized outside of womb in test tube  Only one placed back into woman 
  4. 4. Embryonic Stem Cells Continued       Fertilization begins as Zygote Zygote rapidly divides After 4-6 days before being placed back into woman the mass is called a “Blastocyst” Blastocyst has inner mass and outer mass Outer mass becomes Placenta, lining in the uterus, inner mass is stem cells These cells are totipotent: cells with total potential to become any cell in the
  5. 5. Stem Cell Cultures Once extracted, placed into controlled culture  Environment prevents specializing but still allows for cell division  Easier to produce embryonic stems cells than adult stem cells  Still in progress 
  6. 6. Potency        Different levels of potential to differentiate into different cells: Totipotent - able to differentiate into any cell Pluripotent - able to differentiate into almost any cell Multipotent - able to differentiate into closely related cells Oligopotent - able to differentiate into a few cells Unipotent - only able to produce cells of their own type but have self - renewal property similar to a stem cell Embryonic Stem cells are considered pluripotent
  7. 7. Organ and Tissue Regeneration Presently, organs are donated and transplanted  Stem cells could potentially grow a particular organ or tissue in the future  Ongoing research 
  8. 8. Using Stem Cells in Treatments             Cardiovascular Disease Treatment Brain Disease Treatment Cell Deficiency Treatment Blood Disease Treatment Certain types of cancer Auto - Immune Diseases Ocular Treatment Immunodeficiency Wounds and Injuries Metabolic Disorders Liver Disease Bladder Disease
  9. 9. How Stem Cells Impact Science        Can help with understanding human development Eventually differentiate because a particular gene is turned on or off Researchers using stem cells to understand genes and mutations Stems cells used to better understand cancer and birth defects Develop new drugs Test on stem cells rather than human test subjects Could hold the key to treating severe conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease
  10. 10. Stem Cell Controversy It is believed that the stem cell is the destruction of a human blastocyst  Taking away life of fertilized egg  Seen as similar to abortion  Debate as to when life begins  Compared to as murder  Speculation that those who support human embryonic stem cell research seek human cloning (human cloning research does exist)  Ethical Dilemma in regards to whether human cloning should be done 
  11. 11. Alternative Methods of collecting Stem Cells Avoids controversy of taking the life of embryo  Possible to obtain stem cells from: fatty tissue, bone marrow, or umbilical cord after birth (taken from mother)  No harm done 
  12. 12. Chimeras An organism that has both animal and human cells or tissue  Stem cell research often involves testing human cells on animals  Allows for researcher to gather data and results without potentially harming human test subjects  Some people think that makes the animals part human 
  13. 13. Legal Issues Illegal in certain countries such as: Austria, France, Germany, Denmark, e tc.  Permitted in certain countries such as: Finland, Greece, Netherlands, etc.  Not illegal in the United States but it is illegal to spend federal funding on stem cell research as of 2001 
  14. 14. Bibliography Crosta, P. Medical News Today. 2013, July 19. What are Stem Cells? Retrieved October 17, 2013 from American Life League, Inc. (n.d.). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved October 17, 2013 from bgUAbw Prentice, D. 2004. “Adult Stem Cells” Appendix K in Monitoring Stem Cell Research: A Report of the President’s Council on Bioethics. Retrieved October 17, 2013 from Clarke, M. F., & Becker, M. W. (2006). Stem Cells: The Real Culprits in Cancer? Scientific American. Retrieved October 17, 2013 from Q%3d%3d#db=sch&AN=21114245 Hochedlinger, K. Science Reference Center, EBSCO host. YOUR INNER HEALERS. Scientific American. Retrieved October 17, 2013 from db=sch&AN=50574995