This and following slides describe methods common in formative evaluation. Peer review does not use real users. Peers need background and a checklist of aspects you are interested in them evaluating. They can do it alone or with you.
Training and Development
It is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.(Flippo) It is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.(Armstrong) It refers to the teaching or learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same.
It can be Reactive and Proactive It is an ongoing process in the organization
Productivity Effectiveness on the present job Qualifications for a better job Morale Booster
It depicts the top management’s philosophy regarding training of employees. It depicts also the intention of the company to train and develop its personnel. It includes the rules and regulations, procedure, budget, standards and conditions regarding training. It provides guidelines for training programs.
Enunciated in the Labor Code, encourage private industry to train its employees. * tax deductions “Additional deduction from taxable income of one- half of the value of labor of labor training expenses incurred for developing or upgrading the productivity and efficiency of unskilled labor or for management development programs shall be granted to the person or enterprise concerned, provided such training program is approved by the Council and provided that such deduction shall not exceed 10% of direct labor wage.”- Article 52, book II of the Labor Code of the Philippines
The Training Process Evaluate Training Implement training Design trainingSet training goalsAssess Training needs Objectives & Strategies
It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It tells the trainee what is expected out of him at the end of training program.Training objectives are of great significance from a no. of stakeholders’ perspectives- 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator
Helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise Helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make training successful. Helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Now trainer can establish relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
Being aware of objective, he can design the training package accordingly. Now he can look for training methods, training equipments and training content accordingly to achieve that objective. Without any guidance, he can’t design. The objective provides him a standard for evaluation of progress of trainee.
It is an educational approach for turning knowledge into learning. It is based on needs of the organization, trainee and task being performed. It should suit the audience, content, business environment and the learning objectives.
COGNITIVE METHODSLECTURESDEMONSTRATIONSDISCUSSIONSCOMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) BEHAVIORAL METHODS
1)Passive method Lecture and discussion Video and films Laboratory demonstrations2)Active method Equipment mock ups Full scope simulators3)on the site methods Apprenticeship Job Rotation Vestibule training4)OJT :
5)Off-the site methods Lecture method small group activity method Case studies Business games Role plays Programmed instructions In-basket exercise6)Sensitivity/T-group Training Goals of T-group training: To increase self insight. To increase individual sensitivity to the behaviors of others and their underlying emotional bases. To increase diagnostic skills.
Training efforts must invariably follow certain learning –oriented guidelines-1. Modeling2. Motivation3. Reinforcement4. Feedback5. Spaced practice6. Whole learning7. Applicability of training8. Environment
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS TASK ANALYSIS PERSON ANALYSIS Induction Training Skills training Refresher training Cross functional training Team training Creativity training Diversity training Literacy training
Training policy Trained Top mgt.’s & Support Professional and trainer commitment Different ComponentsWilling Of methodstrainee training Of training And courses Training Venue & procedure The duration Including feedback and of The Training evaluation materials training Posters, pictures Charts,slides Graphs, equipments
Age, gender, level of education. Learning styles of the trainee Number of trainees Budget Trainers skill and training style.
Increase productivity Reduce wastage Enhance competency of the work force Increase in moral of employee Facilitate employee retention Faster customer service Increased quality
Traditional Approach -PRE SERVICE TRAINING Experiential Approach - -IN-SERVICE TRAINING Performance based teaching approach (PBTA)
Training is a transforming process that requires some input and it turn it produce output in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes.The three models of training are-1. The system model2. Instructional system development model3. Transitional model
It consists of five phases which should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. the training should achieve the purpose of helping the employees to perform their work to required standards. The steps are- EVALUATE EXECUTE DEVELOP DESIGNANALYSE
it was made to answer the training problems. ANALYSIS PLANNING It is a continuous process that lasts throughout the FEEDBACK training program. This model comprises of five EXECUTIO N DEVELOPMEN T stages.
It focuses on the organization as a whole. the other loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner lop is executed.
VISION IMPLEMENT MISSION PLAN EVALUATE OBJECTIVE VALUES
1. 2. Implementation 3.EvaluationAssessment Determine Select training Comparetraining needs methods training outcomes againstIdentify training Conduct trainingobjectives criteria.
Assessing the effectiveness of the training program in terms of the benefits to the trainees and the company. It is a process of collecting outcomes to determine if the training program was effective from whom, what, when, and how information should be collected
Feedback - on the effectiveness of the training activities.Control - over the provision of training.Intervention - into the organizational processes that affect training
Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. Training investment is increasing because learning creates knowledge which differentiates between those companies and employees who are successful and those who are not. Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable.
Improved quality of training activities Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped Better integration of training offered and on-the job development Better co-operation between trainers and line- managers in the development of staff Evidence of the contribution that training and development are making to the organization
Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process.Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. Cognitive Learning Skills Learning Affect ‘Objective’ results
quantitative, qualitative,experimental richobjective subjectivebroad in-depthnumerical measurements qualitativequestionnaires on large interviewsgroups personal viewsdata collection, logging descriptivechecklists naturalistic
UIRLE PATRICK MODEL FOR EVALUATION LEVEL QUESTIONS REACTION Were the participants pleased with the program? LEARNING What did the participants learn in the program? BEHAVIOR Did the participants change their behavior based on what was learnt? RESULTS Did the change in plan positively effect the organization?
REACTION Contents, materials, method, OUTCOMES: activity. CAPABILITY Outcomes against OUTCOMES: participant’s expectation. APPLICATION Application of training in work OUTCOME: setting.WORTH OUTCOME: Organizations’ benefits in terms of money, efforts, time and resources.
Developed by Warr, Bird and Rachal. It gives Evaluation in terms of › CONTEXT, › INPUT, › REACTION, › OUTCOME.
This approach highlights that the evaluation of the programme should judge: › The Satisfaction, › Learning Change, › Change in behavior, › organizational change.
REACTION: A satisfaction rating that asks the trainees how valuable they found the program? TESTING: Pre- and Post-programme measurements in terms of knowledge and skills improvement.APPLICATION: Extent to which skills applied on the job and the results achieved. BUSINESS What IBM expected from the RESULTS: programme in the form of a return that?
ENTRY CAPABILITY: Prerequisites for the program evaluated.END OF COURSE Whether traineesPERFORMANCE: achieved the desired outcomes? MASELEY JOB Whether trainees exhibit PERFORMANCE: mastery performance under normal job condition?ORGANIZATIONAL Which programme PERFORMANCE: participants meet or exceed the organizational targets?
CONTEXT Needs analysis, this assists in EVALUATION: forming goals.INPUT EVALUATION: Policies, budgets, schedules, proposals and procedures aids in programme planning. PROCESS Reaction sheets, rating scales EVALUATION: and analysis of existing records- guide’s implementation. PRODUCT Measures and interprets the EVALUATION: attainment of objective- helps in recycling decisions.
Reactions Learning Job behaviour Organisation Ultimate value
HOW TO MINIMIZE THIS PROBLEM…..? PROVIDING MAXIMUM EXPERIENCE WITH THE TASK BEING TAUGHT ENSURING THAT GENERAL PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERSTOOD CUSTOMIZING TRAINING SESSIONS TO MATCH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PARTICIPANTS MODIFYING TRAINING PROGRAMS TO INCORPORATE THE LATEST ADVANCEMENTS IN THE AREA.
The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to install sound reasoning processes. It provides knowledge and understanding to individual so as to enable them function more effectively in organization through problem-solving, inter- personal relations and decision-making
It focuses on theoretical skill and conceptual ideas It is concerns with related enhancement of general knowledge and understanding of non-technical organizational functions It is for managers and executives It prepares for future job It focuses on long-term accruals It is continuous on-going process It may result in personal growth and development of overall personality motivation is intrinsic Evaluation of development is not possible
The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on-the job development are: COACHING MENTORING JOB ROTATION JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) APPRENTICESHIPT TRAINING COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES
Learning Dimensions Training Development Who? Non-managerial Managerial Personnel personnel What? Technical and Theoretical, mechanical operations Conceptual ideas Why? Specific job-related General knowledge purpose When? Short-Term Long-Term 56
It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. Traditional Approach Modern Approach Training and Development need = Std Performance - Actual Performance.
Training & Development Workflow Collect assignments Establish timeline & Brainstorm Research (from Training Manager & your own ideas) schedule it Organize and save materials Build presentation Create script & other Develop outline on network drive course materials S:// Make revisions and get Rehearse and then… Send all feedback to Send material to Training green light from Training Manager Manager for review one week prior to class Training Manager Deliver! Forms & Emails
1. Voluntary consent of participants-they should not be forced to join these activities.2. Discrimination-age, gender,race or related factors should not be used as barriers to determine who receives training.3. cost effectiveness