Geological oceanographic research equipment powerpoint

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Geological oceanographic research equipment powerpoint

  1. 1. GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH EQUIPMENT
  2. 2. Sampling the Ocean Bottom <ul><li>Used to determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sediment type and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historical data </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sampling the Ocean Bottom <ul><li>Must assume that a small amount of material is representative of the larger area </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, must take as many samples as time and money allow </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grab or Clamshell Grab like a crane with jaws to grab sediment & organisms
  5. 5. Grab
  6. 6. Grab <ul><li>works differently in </li></ul><ul><li>different seds </li></ul><ul><li>soft seds – sinks </li></ul><ul><li>deeper </li></ul><ul><li>hard seds – does </li></ul><ul><li>not grab as much </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dredge <ul><li>Collects materials from ocean </li></ul><ul><li>bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Often used to clear channels </li></ul><ul><li>for navigation </li></ul><ul><li>- Sometimes to collect organisms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of dredges: Dredge clam shell dredge
  9. 9. Types of dredges: Dredge suction dredge
  10. 10. scallop dredge backhoe dredge Types of dredges: Dredge
  11. 11. Trawl <ul><li>net dragged behind boat </li></ul><ul><li>at various depths or </li></ul><ul><li>along bottom </li></ul>
  12. 12. Trawl
  13. 13. trawl tracks can damage ocean bottom Trawl
  14. 14. Epibenthic Sled <ul><li>drag along bottom – </li></ul><ul><li>like dredge </li></ul><ul><li>can collect samples </li></ul><ul><li>can house equipment </li></ul>
  15. 15. Core or Piston Core drill to collect a long tube of sediment
  16. 16. Core good for analyzing historic changes over long periods of time
  17. 17. Sediment Sieves used to sort sediments into their different sizes and find organisms living in the sediment
  18. 18. SCUBA <ul><li>s elf- c ontained u nderwater b reathing </li></ul><ul><li>a pparatus </li></ul><ul><li>allows person to see and sample </li></ul><ul><li>limited time on bottom </li></ul><ul><li>limited depth – about 100 feet </li></ul>
  19. 19. Submersible Alvin small research submarine
  20. 20. Submersible Johnson Sea Link can go as deep as 4,000 meters
  21. 21. R.O.V. r emotely o perated v ehicle <ul><li>small robot operated from boat </li></ul><ul><li>cables to boat </li></ul><ul><li>safer and cheaper </li></ul>
  22. 22. A.U.V. <ul><li>autonomous underwater vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>small robot </li></ul><ul><li>no cables to surface </li></ul>
  23. 23. Satellites <ul><li>used for navigation </li></ul><ul><li>and to map ocean </li></ul><ul><li>bottom </li></ul>
  24. 24. Satellites <ul><li>Global map of ocean floor gravity </li></ul><ul><li>from Geosat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry </li></ul>
  25. 25. Side scan sonar <ul><li>uses sound waves and computer </li></ul><ul><li>imaging to get an image of the </li></ul><ul><li>ocean bottom </li></ul><ul><li>towed behind ship </li></ul><ul><li>can determine benthic habitats </li></ul>
  26. 26. Side scan sonar

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