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FISH MORPHOLOGY
Fish Morphology
• There is a great diversity in
  shapes of fishes and their body
  parts
• Shapes of fishes are adaptations
  to the species’ environment and/
  or behaviors
Body Shape - Fusiform
•   Streamlined, torpedo-shaped
•   Fast-swimming fish
•   Predators, live in open water
•   Move tail side to side
•   Examples: tuna, swordfish, shark, striped bass




    side view   front view
Body Shape - Compressiform
•   Compressed from side to side
•   Quick bursts of speed over short distances
•   Live among plants and move in narrow spaces
•   Examples: moonfish, angelfish
•   Move tail side to side




front view
Body Shape - Depressiform
•    Flattened top to bottom
•    Live on bottom
•    Slow
•    Flap fins up and down and swim like a bird
•    Examples: flounder, skates, rays



    front view
Body Shape – Filiform (Attenuated)
•   Elongated shapes
•   Live in soft mud, sand or under rocks
•   Slow
•   Slither like a snake
•   Examples: eels, sand lance


                     side view
CAUDAL FIN SHAPE

• Caudal fin = tail fin
• Homocercal – symmetrical
• Heterocercal - asymmetrical
Caudal Fin Shape –
          Homocercal - rounded
• Large amount of surface area allows sharp
  turns and quick starts – to avoid predators
• Creates drag – fish tires easily
• Example: northern puffer, clownfish
Caudal Fin Shape –
Homocercal - truncate
• Allows short bursts of speed to escape
  predator or constant slow swimming
• Less drag than rounded
• Bottom-dwelling fish
• Example: killifish, flounder, sculpin
Caudal Fin Shape –
Homocercal - forked
• For constant swimming over long distances,
  reduces drag
• Open water fish
• Do not need speed to feed or for protection
• Examples: many schooling fish, pilot fish
  menhaden
Caudal Fin Shape –
       Homocercal - lunate
• Half-moon shaped
• Fast moving, oceanic fish
• Less drag, great acceleration, reduced
  maneuverability
• Examples: tuna, swordfish
Caudal Fin Shape –
          Heterocercal
  •   Medium speed
  •   Asymmetrical – top longer than bottom
  •   Provides lift when no air bladder
  •   Reduced maneuverability
  •   Example: many sharks

blue shark

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Fish morphology powerpoint

  • 2. Fish Morphology • There is a great diversity in shapes of fishes and their body parts • Shapes of fishes are adaptations to the species’ environment and/ or behaviors
  • 3. Body Shape - Fusiform • Streamlined, torpedo-shaped • Fast-swimming fish • Predators, live in open water • Move tail side to side • Examples: tuna, swordfish, shark, striped bass side view front view
  • 4. Body Shape - Compressiform • Compressed from side to side • Quick bursts of speed over short distances • Live among plants and move in narrow spaces • Examples: moonfish, angelfish • Move tail side to side front view
  • 5. Body Shape - Depressiform • Flattened top to bottom • Live on bottom • Slow • Flap fins up and down and swim like a bird • Examples: flounder, skates, rays front view
  • 6. Body Shape – Filiform (Attenuated) • Elongated shapes • Live in soft mud, sand or under rocks • Slow • Slither like a snake • Examples: eels, sand lance side view
  • 7. CAUDAL FIN SHAPE • Caudal fin = tail fin • Homocercal – symmetrical • Heterocercal - asymmetrical
  • 8. Caudal Fin Shape – Homocercal - rounded • Large amount of surface area allows sharp turns and quick starts – to avoid predators • Creates drag – fish tires easily • Example: northern puffer, clownfish
  • 9. Caudal Fin Shape – Homocercal - truncate • Allows short bursts of speed to escape predator or constant slow swimming • Less drag than rounded • Bottom-dwelling fish • Example: killifish, flounder, sculpin
  • 10. Caudal Fin Shape – Homocercal - forked • For constant swimming over long distances, reduces drag • Open water fish • Do not need speed to feed or for protection • Examples: many schooling fish, pilot fish menhaden
  • 11. Caudal Fin Shape – Homocercal - lunate • Half-moon shaped • Fast moving, oceanic fish • Less drag, great acceleration, reduced maneuverability • Examples: tuna, swordfish
  • 12. Caudal Fin Shape – Heterocercal • Medium speed • Asymmetrical – top longer than bottom • Provides lift when no air bladder • Reduced maneuverability • Example: many sharks blue shark