Shogun• What is a “Shogun?” – The military ruler of Japan – Most powerful person in Japan – Although the emperor technically ruled the land, the shogun really held all the power – The first shogun in Japan was Tokugawa Ieyasu • He became shogun in 1603 after winning the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara• Battle between rival daimyo’s• Ieyasu defeated the rival daimyo’s and their generals• Three years after their defeat, Ieyasu was made shogun (1603)
Tokugawa Ieyasu• Became Shogun in 1603 after his victory at the Battle of Sekigahara• Unified Japan• Won power through military strength• Planned on creating a long-lasting and stable government – To do this he needed to control the daimyo through means of alternate attendance, sharing power, and strict laws.
Alternate Attendance• Every second year the daimyo were forced to live in Edo – Every other year they would live in their own homes – The cost of keeping two homes, and constantly moving would be enough to keep the daimyo from forming a revolt
Sharing Power• Set up a new system of government known as the bakuhan system. – This system had two levels of government: • The shogunate – this is equivalent to the federal government in Canada. – They had control over important matters such as foreign trade and relations • The daimyo – they controlled local affairs in their territory
Strict Law• These controlled many aspects of the daimyo’s lives, from the way they dressed to marriage• The daimyo was required to pay for projects (road building) in order to restrict their wealth
Roles in Society• Rules regulated dress for everyone from the emperor to the lowest member of society – Example – an upper class woman had to wear 12 silk kimonos with an exact number of colors showing • Peasants weren’t allowed to wear silk, even if they were silk farmers – Rules dictated how low each person should bow.
Samurai• The most respected warrior class (like the knights in Europe)• Lived in castle towns controlled by the daimyo they served• Carried two swords, a large one for battle, and a small one that was used for committing sepuku• Lowest rank of samurai were the ronin (samurai without masters)• They were forbidden to be involved in trade or commerce• The samurai code of honour dictated that they live simple and thrifty lives
Peasants• Farmers were very important because they produced the food that sustained society• Every aspect of their lives were controlled by laws• Forbidden to smoke tobacco or drink rice wine• They needed special permission to travel outside of their district
Artisan• Also known as craftspeople• Lived in towns and cities• An artisans son was not only restricted to the class of his father but also to the particular craft that his father practiced – For example, if the father was a carpenter, the son would have to be one too• Their status was lower than that of the peasants because their work depended on materials produced by others
Merchants• Merchants bought goods from the artisans to sell or trade with others• Because they didn’t produce anything they were officially at the bottom of the social order
Women in Edo• The class that women were born into determined their responsibilities• If a woman was born into the samurai class she would be expected to give her son a proper samurai upbringing• Women in rural areas had more freedom than upper class women• They worked in their homes and in the fields• Women were still considered lower than men in the social hierarchy, even though the did equal amounts of work
The “Southern Barbarians”• The Portuguese first stepped foot on the banks of Japan in 1543• They wanted to trade with Japan• Because they came from the south they became known as the Southern Barbarians• They were followed by Spanish, Dutch, and British traders
Francis Xavier• First Jesuit missionary in Japan• Arrived in 1549• Wanted to convert the upper classes, the daimyo, and the samurai to Christianity• All the missionaries were expelled when Ieyasu became shogun