What are the historical origins of public relations  are and what’s it like to do it for a living?
Practitioners of Public Relations <ul><li>We will discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major roles played by practitioners </li>...
Who are we, and where are we? <ul><li>There are few precise statistics regarding the profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conf...
Largest private employers Source:  www.AboutPublicRelations.net   Golin Harris 10 Ogilvy Public Relations Worldwide 9 Port...
What you can expect to be doing in PR <ul><li>Writing and editing </li></ul><ul><li>Media relations, placement </li></ul><...
Requirements for Success <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive spea...
Requirements for Success <ul><li>Abilities, con’t: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people management skills </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Historical Origins <ul><li>From CCB: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Many practitioners do not have a sense of the calling’s histor...
Historical Origins <ul><li>1641 – Harvard College “begging mission” </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolutionary War </li></ul...
Historical Origins – fast forward <ul><li>Press Agentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has its basis in the practice of attracting ...
Historical Origins – fast forward
Historical origins – political campaigns <ul><li>Goes as far back as Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Beckley w...
Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>Occurred simultaneously and benefited from the explosion of communications...
Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>The first known corporate public relations department was established in 1...
Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>George Westinghouse hired a Pittsburgh journalist, Ernest H. Heinrich, in ...
Battle of the Currents – Battle of the Bands
Historical origins <ul><li>Muckraking journalists  – “…was the inevitable results of decades of indifferences to the illeg...
Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>Tell the truth .  Let the public know what is happening and provide ...
Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>Manage for tomorrow.  Anticipate public relations and eliminate prac...
Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>6. Remain calm, patient and good-humored.  Lay the groundwork for pu...
The result? http://www.awpagesociety.com/
A Career In Public Relations <ul><li>Our guest speaker, Juliet Johnson, Vice President at Fleishman-Hillard. </li></ul><ul...
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Week 3

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The historical origins of public relations.

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  • Week 3

    1. 1. What are the historical origins of public relations are and what’s it like to do it for a living?
    2. 2. Practitioners of Public Relations <ul><li>We will discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major roles played by practitioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline the criteria for success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace the evolution of public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk about examples of today’s principles/techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an awesome guest speaker </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Who are we, and where are we? <ul><li>There are few precise statistics regarding the profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion about exact job titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most public relations practitioners are concentrated in major population centers (and state capitol, e.g., Sacramento) </li></ul><ul><li>The largest employer is the federal government </li></ul>
    4. 4. Largest private employers Source: www.AboutPublicRelations.net Golin Harris 10 Ogilvy Public Relations Worldwide 9 Porter Novelli International 8 Ketchum, Inc. 7 BSMG Worldwide 6 Edelman Public Relations Worldwide 5 Hill and Knowlton, Inc 4 Burson-Marsteller 3 Weber Shandwick Worldwide 2 Fleishman-Hillard Inc. 1
    5. 5. What you can expect to be doing in PR <ul><li>Writing and editing </li></ul><ul><li>Media relations, placement </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Management and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling (strategic counsel) </li></ul><ul><li>Special events </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison work </li></ul>
    6. 6. Requirements for Success <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge of client subject matter and communications environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business and financial acumen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Requirements for Success <ul><li>Abilities, con’t: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people management skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clients (internal and external, managing up and down) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability, common sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive, enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance for frustration </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Historical Origins <ul><li>From CCB: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Many practitioners do not have a sense of the calling’s history and thus to not fully understand its place and purpose in society.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where ethics fits in as well </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Historical Origins <ul><li>1641 – Harvard College “begging mission” </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolutionary War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam Adams used “pen, pulpit, platform, staged events, symbols” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They recognized the importance of a sustained campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton, et al., wrote 85 letters to newspapers from 1787 – 1788 urging ratification of the proposed Constitution </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Historical Origins – fast forward <ul><li>Press Agentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has its basis in the practice of attracting or diverting public attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonymous with “publicists,” but today, aligns with crisis communications and crisis management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now arouses suspicion – “spin” </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Historical Origins – fast forward
    12. 12. Historical origins – political campaigns <ul><li>Goes as far back as Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Beckley was the first known “Karl Rove” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was Jefferson’s eyes and ears his propagandist and “one of the leading organizers of the 1790’s.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved from train travel to radio to TV to 527’s </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>Occurred simultaneously and benefited from the explosion of communications vehicles like the rail and wire communications, press and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>“Robber barons” were among the first to use public relations – in a reverse sense: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From CCB: “… Big business was committed to the doctrine that the less the public knew of its operations, the more efficient and profitable – even more socially useful – the operations would be. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>The first known corporate public relations department was established in 1889 by George Westinghouse to promote his “alternating current” form of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison had his own version – “direct current” and the “Battle of the Currents” was on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edison Electric began “…a series of promotional activit[ies] and spectacular stunts aimed at dramatizing the deadliness of high voltage alternating current, the most sensational being the development and promotion of the electric chair.” </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Historical origins – business practices <ul><li>George Westinghouse hired a Pittsburgh journalist, Ernest H. Heinrich, in 1888 to serve as his personal press representative. </li></ul><ul><li>He was not hired because of the “battle of the currents.” but because Westinghouse did not have time to deal with the press. </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich was the main channel of communication for the press. </li></ul><ul><li>What did we end up with? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Battle of the Currents – Battle of the Bands
    17. 17. Historical origins <ul><li>Muckraking journalists – “…was the inevitable results of decades of indifferences to the illegalities and immoralities attendant upon the industrial development of America. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford – got advertising as a way to sell cars – and sell himself </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur W. Page – Hired at AT&T in 1927 From CCB: “…all business in a democratic country begins with public permission and exists by public approval. If that is true, it should be cheerfully willing to tell the public what its policies are, what it is foing and what it hopes to do. This seems practically a duty.” </li></ul>
    18. 18. Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>Tell the truth . Let the public know what is happening and provide an accurate picture of the company’s character, ideals and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Prove it with action. Public perception of an organization is determined 90 percent by doing and 10 percent by talking. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the customer. To serve the company well, understand what the public wants and needs. Keep top decision makers and other employees informed about about public relations to company products, policies and practices. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>Manage for tomorrow. Anticipate public relations and eliminate practices that create difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends upon it. Corporate relations is a management function . No corporate strategy should be implemented without considering its impact on the public. The public relations professionals is a policy maker capable of handling a wide range of communications activities. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Historical origins – Arthur Page’s principles <ul><li>6. Remain calm, patient and good-humored. Lay the groundwork for public relations miracles with consistent calm, and reasons attention to information and contacts. When a crisis arises, remember that cool heads communicate best. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The result? http://www.awpagesociety.com/
    22. 22. A Career In Public Relations <ul><li>Our guest speaker, Juliet Johnson, Vice President at Fleishman-Hillard. </li></ul><ul><li>Best quote from “Careers in Public Relations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A public relations professional is part business manager, part sociologist, part cheerleader, part confessor and part pit bull. The trick to being successful is to be prepared for anything. And you can always count on the fact that tomorrow will bring new and exciting challenges.” Sara Harms, Account Executive, Waggener Edstrom, New York </li></ul></ul>

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