The Sacraments of Healing Anointing of the Sick Reconciliation/Penance also known as Confession
Sacraments of HealingThe two Sacraments ofHealing are:• Reconciliation (Penance)• Anointing of the SickThrough the sacraments of initiation we receive lifein Christ, carrying it in human vessels, subject tosuffering, sin and death. The Sacraments of Healingcontinue, through the Holy Spirit, Christ’s work ofhealing and forgiveness of sins so that we can mostfully live our lives in Christ who saves us.
Anointing of the Sick The purpose of this Sacrament is to confer grace for those who are seriously or chronically ill, or who are suffering difficulties due to age. It can be given for both physical and mental illness. Anointing of the Sick can be received each time a person is gravely ill, or as an illness worsens, or in anticipation of serious surgery. Priests and bishops are the ministers of this Sacrament.
Anointing of the Sick The Sacrament includes reading from Scripture and a penitential prayer, followed by individual prayer over the person, anointing of the forehead and hands with the Oil of the Sick. Graces imparted in this sacrament include: Uniting the individual with the passion of Christ for his/her own good and the good of the Church; Strength, peace and courage for the individual to endure his/her sufferings in a Christian manner; Forgiveness of sins, if the person is unable to celebrate the Sacrament of Penance; Restoration of health, according to God’s plan for salvation of the individual; Preparation for passing to eternal life, if that is God’s plan.
ViaticumFor the person in imminent danger of death,Anointing of the Sick is accompanied byPenance and Eucharist.Eucharist received at time of death isreferred to as Viaticum (food for thejourney.)
The Sacrament of PenanceThis is a sacrament of conversion. In it, we arereconciled to God and to each other. Sin is above all else, an offense against God. Conversion includes God’sforgiveness and reconciliationwith the Church, accomplished through the Sacrament.
Physical EvilThere are physical evils that are not caused by anyone/anything, but just part of earthly life. Natural events - Tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, fires, etc.
Moral EvilMoral evil is the result of humanchoice. A choice for evil is a sin. All moral evil can be avoided. Both the agent and the recipient are harmed by moral evil.
Definitions of SinAugustine: Sin is any deed,word or desire against eternallaw.Aquinas: Sin is the voluntarytransgression of the divinemoral law; a turning away fromGod toward creatures in adisordered way.
Sin is a Personal Act Sin is a human act, therefore a person isalways responsible for his/her sins.
Five Classifications of Sin 1. Original or Actual 2. Mortal or Venial 3. Formal or Material4. Commission or Omission 5. Internal or External
Five Classifications of Sin1. Original or Actual Original Sin was committed by Adam and Eve and gives all humans concupiscence. Actual Sin is committed by individuals
Five Classifications of ACTUAL Sin Gravity: Moral or Venial Venial sins are lesser sins, but by repetition can lead to mortal sin and/or a life a vice Mortal Sin requires three things: Grave Matter Full knowledge of the sinfulness of the act Complete consent – act is committed freely and deliberately
Five Classifications of Sin Formal or Material (Consider Intent) Formal sin is a voluntary and freely chosen action contrary to God’s law: carries culpability Material sin is an involuntary action without either full knowledge or full deliberation – does not have culpability.
Five Classifications of Sin Commission or OmissionCommission is choice to do an evilactOmission is choice not to dosomething that you should (help aperson in danger, attend Mass)
Five Classifications of Sin Manifestation: Internal or External?External sin is committed with words or actionsInternal sin is committed with thought or desire
Occasion of SinAlong with avoiding sin, onealso has the obligation to avoidoccasions of sin: any person,place or thing that will likelylead to sin.Avoid temptations that willlikely lead to sin.
Cooperation in EvilFormal cooperation: agreeing with or cooperating in the commission of evil Explicit Implicit Material cooperation – helping another do an act that is not in of itself evil but helps another do evil. Immediate Mediate: proximate and remote
Effects of SinWeakening/ break in love of God Those who sin are called to conversion and forgiveness
Sacraments of ForgivenessBAPTISM is the primary sacrament of forgiveness – all sin: original, venial and mortal is forgiven in BaptismFor sins committed after Baptism, the Sacrament of Reconciliation is the ordinary path to forgiveness and should be received regularly.
JustificationJustification is possible becauseof Christ’s Passion and Death. We receive justification at Baptism Justification is the remission of sins, sanctification of the person and the voluntary reception of grace and gifts.
ContritionSincere sorrow for having offended God. Perfect contrition immediately forgives sin- sorry because we have offended God Imperfect contrition with sacramental absolution forgives sin – sorrow because of shame, or because we fear the punishment for our sins.
ConversionChrist is always willing to forgiveus Parable of Prodigal Son is best example of the power of conversion.
St. Paul lists many sins in his writings. Romans 1:29-31; 13:13 1 Cor 5:10-11; 6: 9-10 2 Cor 12:20-21 Gal 5: 19-21 Eph 4:31; 5:3-5 Col 3: 5-8 1Tm 1:9-10; 4:12; 6: 9-11 2 Tm 3:2-5 Ti 3:3
History of theSacrament of Penance Christ gave Peter and the Apostles (the 12) the power to reconcile sinners, but only God forgives sin. It is offered to those who, after Baptism, need to recover the grace of justification. In the early Church, this applied only to those who committed very grave sins. They were given a rigorous penance (often lasting for years) that could only be reconciled once in a lifetime. During the 7th century, Irish missionaries, inspired by Eastern monastery practice, took the practice of private confession (between penitent and priest) to Europe. It is in these practices that the current practice of the Sacrament is rooted.
Celebration of the Sacrament Penance may be celebrated as often as the penitent feels necessary. The Church requires us to celebrate this sacrament once a year, or any time we commit a MORTAL sin. In most parishes, a Penance Service is held during the seasons of Advent and Lent, and confessions are heard weekly, or by appointment with a priest. The minister of Penance is a priest or bishop. Ordinarily, Penance is celebrated before First Eucharist around the age of seven.
Celebration of the SacramentConfessions may be heard face-to-face (seated,) or behinda screen (kneeling.) This is usually at the preference of thepenitent.BEFORE confession, the penitent makes an Examination ofConscience. These are usually based on the 10Commandments and the Beatitudes.Entering the confessional, or as the penitent approaches thepriest, he/she may greet the priest using these or otherappropriate words: Good morning, hello, or traditionally -Bless me, Father, for I have sinned, then, it’s been -----since my last confession (or this is my first confession) andmaking the Sign of the Cross.
Celebration of the Sacrament The penitent then shares with the priest whatever sins he/she wishes to confess. Not necessary to have a litany of sins but must include serious and/or habitual sins. The priest may offer some advice or ask clarifying questions before giving the penitent a penance to do. At the end of sharing, penitent will include all sins in Act of Contrition by saying “for these sins and all other sins I have committed, I am truly sorry,” followed by an Act of Contrition that includes a promise to change. Penitent may read one of the traditional prayers or speak to God directly from his/her heart.
The priest then prays the words of absolution:"God, the Father of mercies, through the deathand resurrection of his Son has reconciled theworld to himself and sent the Holy Spirit amongus for the forgiveness of sins; through theministry of the Church may God give you pardonand peace, and I absolve you from your sins inthe name of the Father, and of the Son, and ofthe Holy Spirit. Amen.“As the priest says, in the name of the Father,…the penitent makes the Sign of the Cross.He will generally dismiss the penitent with“Peace be with you” or similar words.
After confessionPenance is done as prescribed by thepriest. It may be prayer, acts of charityor other acts intended to bring healingto relationships, restitution for wrong-doing and a habitual change in thesinner’s behavior. Regardless of thepenance, ordinarily the penitent spendstime in prayer immediately afterconfession.