Minor Prophets I
Amos, Hosea, Micah
Amos, Hosea, Micah
• Active in the 8th century BC
• Focus is on sins of their own people
– Social Sin
– Cultic Sin (Idolat...
Hosea
• Images of marital infidelity are tied
to Israel’s disloyalty
– Unfaithful wife who becomes a
prostitute

• Hosea’s...
Hosea
• Part I: Hosea’s faithless wife
– Chapters 1-3

• Part II: Collection of prophetic
speeches
– Condemns Israel’s beh...
Hosea
• Part One
– Gomer – not just a harlot, but a cult
prostitute serving the god Baal, making
Hosea’s choice even more ...
Hosea
• Part One
• Understanding God
– God is all that best about human nature

• Land and Desert
– The land is filled wit...
Hosea’s children
• Jezreel
– Jehu had royal family executed and
heads sent to Jezreel. God will punish
Jehu and destroy hi...
Hosea 11:1-4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

When Israel was a child I loved him,a
out of Egypt* I called my son.b
2The more ...
Hosea
• One way of knowing God is
through human experience.
How is God like a faithful
spouse, a loving parent, a
friend s...
Amos
• Priest of Bethel
• Shepherd, “dresser of sycamores”
• Religion requires more than ritual
observances; it requires a...
Amos
• Concern for justice is passionate
– Demands in all areas of life:
political, economic, judicial
– The fall of Israe...
Amos
• Independent; southerner who
proclaims in the north
• Does not rely on priests or kings
for support
• Prophecies aga...
“words” and “woes”
• Hear this word… (3)
• Hear this word… (4)
• Hear this word… (5)
• Woe (5:7)
• Woe (5: 18)
• Woe (6:1)...
Amos
• Amos was the conscience of the nation
and spoke for the powerless.

•
•
•
•
•
•

– Who are the powerless in our tim...
Micah
• Anthology of short speeches
– Judgment speeches
– Salvation speeches

• Concern about the impending
Assyrian invas...
Micah
• Similar to Jeremiah in tone and in
terms of acceptance
• He was a poor peasant –
farmer/shepherd class

• Impendin...
Micah
• Uses the Hebrew word hesed for
covenant, which refers to the
steadfast love that binds two parties
together.

• Pu...
Micah
• Prophecies of Restoration
– Probably added after Babylonian exile
– Hope after destruction
– Prophecy for Bethlehe...
Micah
• Concluding Indictment and
Prayer
– Only solution to the corruption of
the society is repentance and
reliance on th...
Micah
• Prophets who point out the
problems in society are not
popular.
– What true prophets do we have in
our time?
– Wha...
Micah
• But you, Bethlehem-Ephrathah
least among the clans of Judah,
From you shall come forth for me
one who is to be rul...
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Minor prophets i

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Minor prophets i

  1. 1. Minor Prophets I Amos, Hosea, Micah
  2. 2. Amos, Hosea, Micah • Active in the 8th century BC • Focus is on sins of their own people – Social Sin – Cultic Sin (Idolatry, religious abuses) • Contemporaries of Isaiah – Hosea is in the northern kingdom – Micah is in the southern kingdom – Amos is from the south, but working in the north
  3. 3. Hosea • Images of marital infidelity are tied to Israel’s disloyalty – Unfaithful wife who becomes a prostitute • Hosea’s personal experience with his wife, Gomer, is a metaphor for God’s relationship with Israel – Unfaithful wife who becomes a prostitute
  4. 4. Hosea • Part I: Hosea’s faithless wife – Chapters 1-3 • Part II: Collection of prophetic speeches – Condemns Israel’s behavior – Predicts God’s punishment – Express Hope for renewal
  5. 5. Hosea • Part One – Gomer – not just a harlot, but a cult prostitute serving the god Baal, making Hosea’s choice even more dramatic. • Covenant – God and the people are bound by the covenant • Idolatry and Infidelity – Baal is the fertility god, responsible for crops, herds, and people – Hosea says you cannot choose when to serve the Lord: it’s a package deal
  6. 6. Hosea • Part One • Understanding God – God is all that best about human nature • Land and Desert – The land is filled with milk and honey; worshipping Baal will lead to a desert – In the desert, though, God may court his people and renew the covenant
  7. 7. Hosea’s children • Jezreel – Jehu had royal family executed and heads sent to Jezreel. God will punish Jehu and destroy his family ruling in Israel • Lo-ruhama (unpitied) – God no longer pities Israel • Lo-ammi (not my people) – Yahweh will not consider Israel his people any longer
  8. 8. Hosea 11:1-4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • When Israel was a child I loved him,a out of Egypt* I called my son.b 2The more I called them, the farther they went from me, Sacrificing to the Baals and burning incense to idols. 3Yet it was I who taught Ephraim to walk, who took them in my arms;c but they did not know that I cared for them. 4I drew them with human cords, with bands of love;* I fostered them like those who raise an infant to their cheeks; I bent down to feed them.d How do these images apply to our world?
  9. 9. Hosea • One way of knowing God is through human experience. How is God like a faithful spouse, a loving parent, a friend seeking a lasting relationship? • God’s judgment and punishment is always directed toward restoring relationship.
  10. 10. Amos • Priest of Bethel • Shepherd, “dresser of sycamores” • Religion requires more than ritual observances; it requires a moral life. • Harsh critic of Israelite society; 25 years after Amos, Samaria falls to Assyria. • Prophet of Doom
  11. 11. Amos • Concern for justice is passionate – Demands in all areas of life: political, economic, judicial – The fall of Israel is inevitable because of corruption and injustice. • Structure of two sentence pronouncements of sins, judgment
  12. 12. Amos • Independent; southerner who proclaims in the north • Does not rely on priests or kings for support • Prophecies against the king make the priests nervous • Independence leads to blunt and somewhat offensive style – Cows of Bashan (4:1) to refer to women of Samaria
  13. 13. “words” and “woes” • Hear this word… (3) • Hear this word… (4) • Hear this word… (5) • Woe (5:7) • Woe (5: 18) • Woe (6:1) • Followed by Visions for renewal
  14. 14. Amos • Amos was the conscience of the nation and spoke for the powerless. • • • • • • – Who are the powerless in our time? – Who speaks for them? Take away from me your noisy songs; The melodies of your harps, I will not listen to them. 24Rather let justice surge like waters, and righteousness like an unfailing stream. (5:23-24) – How is acting justly linked to prayer and worship?
  15. 15. Micah • Anthology of short speeches – Judgment speeches – Salvation speeches • Concern about the impending Assyrian invasion and social justice – Accuses ruling elite of corruption – Impatience with false prophets
  16. 16. Micah • Similar to Jeremiah in tone and in terms of acceptance • He was a poor peasant – farmer/shepherd class • Impending Judgment – God is coming to judge – The rich have taken from the poor; the Assyrians will take from the rich – Virtue requires justice and facing reality
  17. 17. Micah • Uses the Hebrew word hesed for covenant, which refers to the steadfast love that binds two parties together. • Punishment is deserved, but Micah still mourns for his people. • Zion is a plowed field
  18. 18. Micah • Prophecies of Restoration – Probably added after Babylonian exile – Hope after destruction – Prophecy for Bethlehem • Indictment of Israel – Israel’s failure to respond to God’s faithfulness – True religion is based on acting justly, walking humbly, loving tenderly
  19. 19. Micah • Concluding Indictment and Prayer – Only solution to the corruption of the society is repentance and reliance on the Lord – God will forgive a repentant people and restore them to favor.
  20. 20. Micah • Prophets who point out the problems in society are not popular. – What true prophets do we have in our time? – What “professional” prophets in our time mislead people in our time?
  21. 21. Micah • But you, Bethlehem-Ephrathah least among the clans of Judah, From you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel; Whose origin is from of old, from ancient times. • What does this section from Micah mean for you? Why is it significant that Jesus will come from Bethlehem?

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