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EST056: HDMI Troubleshooting
(plus HDMI System Design)
Mark Stockfisch
CEDIA Room B405/406a & B304
September 23 & 24, 2010...
Administrative Details
Please turn off cell phones
Please complete course evaluations at
the end of the class
The code for...
Courseware Download
Download CEDIA Courseware NOW!
https://www.cedia.net/cgi-bin/ehxcn2010.pl?goto=download
1. Select cour...
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
Introductions Objectives of the course
HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats
HDMI An...
HDMI Design Agenda (after the break)
The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices
Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Produc...
Participant Introductions
Instructor Introduction
Mark Stockfisch, Vice President & CTO
Quantum Data Incorporated
http://www.quantumdata.com/lightni...
Analog Component – The final chapter
Model 822S
Video Signal
Generator
(1997-1998)
Color Component
RGB/YPbPr
Analog Video
...
822S Analog Waveforms
500pS
Rise/Fall
822S Analog Waveforms (continued)
500MHz
(3.3x 1080p60)
Super Bowl Sunday HDMI Nightmare
…as reported in CE Pro
by Eric Lee (Integrated
Control Experts)
Sources: www.cepro.com/ar...
CEDIA / CEA Technology & Standards
CEA R10
Residential Systems Committee
CEA R4
Video Systems Committee
Learning Objectives (Troubleshooting)
The purpose of this course is to teach participants the basics of
HDMI, the constitu...
Learning Objectives (Design)
The purpose of this course is to teach participants how to design
A/V systems using HDMI inte...
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats
HDMI ...
HDMI Device Types
Source
Sink
Repeater
HDMI Repeater Types & Topology
Switch
Splitter
Matrix
TERMS: upstream/downstream, devices, cascade
Converter Cable
Unofficial cable terms (can be confusing)
when a “balun” isn’t a transformer
when a “repeater” is an active or passive cab...
HDMI Cable Types (defined in HDMI v1.4)
Converter Cable (a.k.a. “balun”)
CAT
Fiber
Wireless
Pre-terminated Cables
Wire
Pas...
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats
HDMI...
Formats – Video Color Representation
Colorimetry
Component sets: RGB vs. YCC (a.k.a. “YUV”)
Signals: RGB or YCbCr
Color Sp...
DVI Basic 2D Video Timing Chronology
Video Timing(s)
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
DVI Silicon
Generation
Released
640x480@60 “VGA” 25....
HDMI Basic 2D Video Timing Chronology
Video Timing(s)
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
HDMI Silicon
Generation
Silicon
Released
640x480@60...
HDMI 3D Video Timings
V1.4a *Mandatory Video Timing Each Eye
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
HDMI Silicon
Generation
Silicon
Released
720...
TMDS Character Clock Rate
HDMI passes video data using 30-bit TMDS characters
Normally, the TMDS rate equal to the pixel r...
Pair or Combined Data Rate (Gbits/sec)
Rates are sometimes expressed in gigabits per second
Gigabit rates may be given for...
Rate Summary at 8-bits Depth
Video Timing
Cable
Grade
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
TMDS Rate
(MHz)
Per-Pair
(Gbits/sec)
All Pairs
(Gbi...
Rate Summary at 10-bits Depth
Video Timing
Cable
Grade
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
TMDS Rate
(MHz)
Per-Pair
(Gbits/sec)
All Pairs
(Gb...
Rate Summary at 12-bits Depth
Video Timing
Cable
Grade
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
TMDS Rate
(MHz)
Per-Pair
(Gbits/sec)
All Pairs
(Gb...
Rate Summary at 16-bits Depth
Video Timing
Cable
Grade
Pixel Rate
(MHz)
TMDS Rate
(MHz)
Per-Pair
(Gbits/sec)
All Pairs
(Gb...
Progressive Video Timing Naming Issue
Dropping the frame rate suffix causes confusion
Spec Possible Timings Pixel Rate (MH...
Interlace Video Timing Naming Issue
Is suffix the frame rate or field rate? Is it Australian?
Spec Pixel Rate (MHz)
“1080i...
HDMI Audio Format Chronology
Audio Format (improvements) HDMI Silicon Released
LPCM, basic 2-channel 48kHz max (mandatory)...
Audio limitations with SD video timings
Video Timing LPCM 8-channel
Max Sampling Rate (kHz)
DSD
Max # of Channels
640x480@...
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats
HDM...
HDMI Blocks
+5V Power
HPD
RxSense
EDID
Auxiliary Channels
DDC, CEC, ARC, & HEC
TMDS
HDCP
HDMI Anatomy (v1.4)
CEC Physical and Logical Addressing
Source: www.quantumdata.com/pdf/CEC_White_Paper.pdf
CEC uses
a party line
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats
✔HD...
The Handshake
Source outputs +5V power
Source waits for HPD (AND RxSense) to go high
Source reads capabilities & CEC addre...
Handshaking Terms
Capabilities (of the sink – i.e. display or repeater input)
EDID (data structure that encodes sink capab...
Sink’s Capabilities read from EDID
VESA / CEA-861 Info
product identification
product name
manufacturer ID
physical size o...
Source Metadata
CEA-861 AVI InfoFrame
(HDMI) video timing
color space
content type (graphics, photo, cinema, game)
aspect ...
More Handshaking Terms
Active/Inactive Sink
Inactive (deselected, standby, AC unplugged, detached)
IA2 or IA3 (inactive si...
HDCP
HDCP protects high-value content
Image Constraint Token (ICT flag
Approved interfaces
Keys
HDCP Terms
Hot-Plug
Authentication
Pre-Authentication (e.g. InstaPort, Xpressview, InstaGate)
KSV, AKSV, BKSV
R0’ and Ri’
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats
✔HD...
Loose Connections
Broken Handshaking / The “Cliff Effect”
HDMI Spec Changes & Optional Features
Versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2a, 1.3, 1.3a, 1.4, 1.4a
Optional features
HDCP
DVD-Audio
...
Reliable HDMI systems exist, but …
Symptoms
no audio blank screen
noisy audio sparkles
audio dropout bad-looking desktop graphics
bad lipsync VBI artifacts
a...
Historical, Present, & Future Dangers
Many devices shipped without any HDCP testing until 2006
Problems are subsiding now
...
Product/Interface Mix-Related Issues
Mixing products with different feature sets
Signaling associated with optional featur...
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats
✔HD...
Troubleshooting Tips
Make sure that all converter cables are externally
powered
Hot-Plug
Power-cycle
Power-on products in ...
Troubleshooting Tips (cont.)
Manually disable all advanced features (AUTO, CEC)
Manually program fixed audio and video for...
Troubleshooting Tips
Substitute 2M “known good” cables to isolate bad cables
Find the cliff’s edge by varying video timing...
Test Equipment
Electrical Testing
Wire Continuity
Wire Parametrics (DDC Capacitance, Intra-pair Skew)
+5V Power
HPD levels
DDC levels and...
HPD/DDC Monitoring
New ESD/EST Test Equipment Strategy
Test products (or cascades of products) in isolation with
source and/or sink emulating...
New Strategy – Four Use Cases
Source Test Equipment
SinkTest Equipment
Repeater
Test Equipment
Source Sink
Test Equipment
...
Four cases on the test equipment UI
Source Test – Using Emulated Sink
Present test EDIDs
Measure video timing, audio, and test image content
Analyze metadata
...
Source Test Screenshots
Sink Test – Using Emulated Source
Capture sink EDIDs for emulation with source
EDID compliance test
Inject video timings, ...
Sink Test Screenshots
Repeater Test w/Emulated Source & Sink
Present test or captured EDIDs
EDID modification test
Inject and analyze pseudo-noi...
Repeater Test Screenshots
Link Test w/Emulated Source & Sink
Replace connection with emulated source and sink
– analyzing previously connected sourc...
Link Test Screenshots
HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda
✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course
✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats
✔HD...
Manual Settings
Manually disable all advanced features (AUTO, CEC)
Manually program fixed audio and video formats
If matri...
Power Sequencing
Turn all devices OFF – then turn-on equipment one-at-a-
time, starting with the most downstream sink, let...
Replace or Update bad components
Upgrade firmware in the problem component
Upgrading source firmware usually has the bigge...
Was working – stopped working later
Cable, Satellite, and IPTV service providers update the
software in their set-top-boxe...
Adding “Fixer” Devices
Use shorter cables with re-clockers
National Semiconductor’s DS22EV5110 for example
Non-standard Cable Locks
Gefen “Mono LOK”, Lindy Connector Lock, Blue Echo
Solutions “hd EZ lock”
Standard Strain Relieved Cable
High-Rentention HDMI Cables
Accell AVGrip
Ottovonmo
PerefectPath (PPC)
PolarCreative
Torren...
Repeater Split A/V Path Lipsync Fault
Repeater Split A/V Path Auto Lipsync Fix
Troubleshooting Summary
Familiarize yourself with the major components of HDMI
Sink declares, source drives & signals, HDC...
Let us know
We can channel your
comments to people who
can do something
positive with them
www.quantumdata.com/
lightningr...
Break
(Design Course Follows)
HDMI Design Agenda
The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices
Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Select...
Digital vs. Analog – Digital Wins 6/3
+/- Analog Digital
+ Separate Cables One Cable or Wireless
+ Short Haul Long Distanc...
Interfacing Today
What’s going to
happen here when
analog sunsets?
Digital A/V Interface Overview
Digital A/V Interface Common Features
Picture Data Channel
Auxiliary Data Channels
Audio
Control (Remote UI)
Handshake
Met...
Digital A/V Interface Formats
Stream
Real-time Compressed
Download
Non-real-time Compressed File
Video
Real-time Uncompres...
Digital Interfaces (HDMI is not alone)
QAM
Three Digital A/V Interface Types
QAM
Digital A/V Interface Layers
Host – protocol
Media – cable/modulation
Host Layer
Media Layer
Tuner Interface Overview
Tuner Interface Technologies
Host Layer
Underlying standards decided by government & cable providers
No STB needed for pay...
Network Interface Overview
Network Interface Host Layer Choices
UPnP
Web4CE (CEA-2014)
DLNA
RVU
Baseband-over-IP (e.g. HDMI-over-IP)
UPnP Host
Base architecture for standard/custom service layers
Automatic Discovery
Zero Configuration
Browser-based UI & P...
DLNA Host (builds on top of UPnP)
Sources: www.dlna.org & www.pioneerelectronics.com
HDMI-over-IP Host (video→stream→video)
Source: www.justaddpower.com/Home-Theater-HDMI-Matrix/View-all-products.html
Home Network Splitting Traditional STB
Gateway (fat server) Digital Media Adapter (thin client)
Home Network
Tuner
DVR
Ren...
Network Ready Television
Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client)
Home Network
Tuner
DVR
Render...
Add RVU and Web4CE (CEA-2014)
Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client)
Home Network
UI
(e.g. DL...
Add Internet for Placeshifting and OTT
Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client)
Home Network
(e...
Home Network Media Layer Choices
No-New-Wires
IT infrastructure
IP-over-baseband channel
“No new wires” Gigabit Home Network
Sources: www.homegridforum.org & www.mocalliance.org & www.homeplug.org & www.homepna....
IT Infrastructure
Network over Baseband Interface
Network Content Protection & DRM
HDCP 2.x or DTCP-IP link protection for streams
MS-DRM content protection for downloads (...
Baseband Interface Overview
Baseband Interface Technologies
Host Layer
DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort, MHL
DiiVA, HDbaseT
WirelessHD, WHDI
Media Layer
Pre-ter...
The first digital baseband interfaces
Introduced 1999 Introduced 2003
DisplayPort – HDMI’s IT Counterpart
Mainly IT
Applications
Introduced 2006
WirelessHD (WiHD) – Lossless 60GHz
No wires
In-room Only
Introduced 2008
Theoretical
throughput of 28G
bps
WiGig – Lossless 60GHz
No wires
Short distance
Introduced 2009
7 gbs data rate
WHDI – Lossy 5GHz
No wires
Works through
walls
Introduced 2009
HDbaseT CAT-based Hybrid
Merges
5 Interfaces
on
1 CAT cable
(up to 100M)
Introduced 2009
Chinese DiiVA CAT-based Hybrid
Also merges
5 Interfaces
on
1 CAT cable
(25M, 50M
phantom-
powered
w/repeater)
Introduced 2...
Digital Interface Quality Hierarchy
1. DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort, WirelessHD, DiiVA, HDbaseT, MHL
2. WHDI
3. HDMI-over-IP
4. ...
HDMI Design Agenda
✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices
Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selec...
Best Practices
Make sure products support HDCP
Select repeaters that support HDCP pre-authentication
Make sure all product...
Best Practices (cont.)
Consider strain-reliefs on cabling
Use the right speed grade of pre-terminated cable
Break-up on lo...
Best Practices (cont.)
Make sure repeaters and converter cables are powered
by reliable AC source
Don’t accidentally swap ...
Best Practices (cont.)
Select sources that support…
manual format selection
repeaters
“empty” repeaters
the required devic...
Best Practices (cont.)
Don’t assume that the most expensive product is best
Pre-screen products using test equipment
Refer...
HDMI Design Agenda
✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem ✔Best Practices
Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Sele...
Transmission Lines
Analog Transmission Line
Source (transmitter)
Sink (receiver)
One Analog Pixel Component
One Analog Coax
Pixel
Length
Velo...
The differences between analog & digital
R (pixel component)
G (pixel component)
B (pixel component)
R (bit of pixel compo...
Digital Transmission Line
Source (transmitter)
One Digital Bit +PhaseOne Digital Pair
Bit
Length
Velocity One Digital Bit ...
Perfect Digital Cable (10 bits)
One Digital Pair
In a perfect
world, cabling
wouldn’t
affect the
eye…
Real Digital Cable (10 bits)
One Digital Pair
… but we live in
the real world
where wires
aren’t perfect
To keep the eye
o...
PHY Cause of Velocity/Length Error
Source: www.redmere.com/download.php?file=81
Intra-pair skew
caused by
asymmetric
twist...
Video Timing to Cable Lengths at 10 bits
Pixel
Rate
(MHz)
Depth
(bits/component)
TMDS
Rate
(MHz)
Velocity
(% of C)
Cable
L...
HDMI Cable Intra-pair Skew <1.6%
10meter
limit
Source: www.redmere.com/download.php?file=81
Noise Threshold - 35M example
"BAD" CABLE (line noise @ 1080p60) "GOOD" CABLE (no noise @ 1080p60)
Attenuation(Insertion L...
Keep your eyes open with active cables
Deskew and/or
equalize
Regenerate/
maintain the
‘1’s & ‘0’s
Allows longer
cables
So...
HDMI Design Agenda
✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem ✔Best Practices
✔Transmission Lines & Intrapair
Skew
Product Testing & Sel...
Pre-installation component screening
Research
HDMI authorized test center certificate and/or data
Eye-pattern data from th...
Product Testing – what’s important
Connector strain relief (fixes discussed earlier)
Long-haul cabling quality, lengths, a...
Wire Tests
Grade (Standard or High-Speed)
Continuity
CAT Termination
Aux Bus Capacitance
Wire Intra-pair skew
Source Tests
+5V HPD DDC EDID HDCP Features Other
Tolerance Response Clock Rate Read Protection Manual
Setup
DVI Support
S...
Sink Tests
+5V HPD DDC EDID HDCP Features Other
Current
Draw
Levels Function Complexity Function Glitch
Suppression
Audio
...
Repeater Tests
HPD DDC CEC EDID HDCP Features Other
Generat
ion/For
warding
Transparency Transparency Processing Protectio...
Sink Faults - Bad Lipsync
Pre-Authentication == Fast Switching
Design Summary
Analog interfaces are going the way of the buggy whip
HDMI is not alone in the modern digital ecosystem
Wat...
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HDMI Troubleshooting & System Design

A three-hour HDMI Troubleshooting and System Design course given at CEDIA 2010 by Mark Stockfisch, CTO Quantum Data Inc. and Chair CEA R4.8WG7.

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HDMI Troubleshooting & System Design

  1. 1. EST056: HDMI Troubleshooting (plus HDMI System Design) Mark Stockfisch CEDIA Room B405/406a & B304 September 23 & 24, 2010 Atlanta, GA Electronic Systems Technician
  2. 2. Administrative Details Please turn off cell phones Please complete course evaluations at the end of the class The code for this course is EST056 © 2010, Quantum Data Inc. All rights reserved. All text, images and graphics are subject to the copyrights and other intellectual property rights of Quantum Data Inc. These materials may not be copied or modified for commercial use or distribution.
  3. 3. Courseware Download Download CEDIA Courseware NOW! https://www.cedia.net/cgi-bin/ehxcn2010.pl?goto=download 1. Select course title (EST056 HDMI Troubleshooting) from drop-down menu 2. Enter course password : 1-116
  4. 4. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda Introductions Objectives of the course HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats HDMI Anatomy The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary
  5. 5. HDMI Design Agenda (after the break) The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selection Design Summary
  6. 6. Participant Introductions
  7. 7. Instructor Introduction Mark Stockfisch, Vice President & CTO Quantum Data Incorporated http://www.quantumdata.com/lightningrod Experience (34 years) 5-years Motorola the Quasar TV to Computer Displays transition 20-years QDI component analog video test equipment 9-years QDI digital video test equipment (DVI, HDMI, DP, …) Co-chair CEA R4.8 WG7 and R4 WG16 standards workgroups Member HDMI LLC Interoperability Workgroup Official at CEA HDMI/HDCP plug-fests (semiannually)
  8. 8. Analog Component – The final chapter Model 822S Video Signal Generator (1997-1998) Color Component RGB/YPbPr Analog Video 9 to 700MHz pixels/sec 36-bits/pixel
  9. 9. 822S Analog Waveforms 500pS Rise/Fall
  10. 10. 822S Analog Waveforms (continued) 500MHz (3.3x 1080p60)
  11. 11. Super Bowl Sunday HDMI Nightmare …as reported in CE Pro by Eric Lee (Integrated Control Experts) Sources: www.cepro.com/article/a_super_bowl_sunday_hdmi_nightmare
  12. 12. CEDIA / CEA Technology & Standards CEA R10 Residential Systems Committee CEA R4 Video Systems Committee
  13. 13. Learning Objectives (Troubleshooting) The purpose of this course is to teach participants the basics of HDMI, the constituent parts of the interface and what they do, how HDMI typically fails - by product type, how to troubleshoot HDMI problems - with & without test equipment, and how to eliminate HDMI problems once they are found. At the conclusion of this course, participants should be able to: Understand Identify Anticipate & Avoid Understand • HDMI jargon, basic capabilities, numbers, margins • HDMI’s constituent parts and what they do • common HDMI & HDCP failures by product type • how to diagnose & eliminate HDMI problems
  14. 14. Learning Objectives (Design) The purpose of this course is to teach participants how to design A/V systems using HDMI interfaces. We start with an overview of HDMI, how it fits into the larger A/V signal interface ecosystem, and its capabilities, strengths & weaknesses relative to other interfaces. Next, look at best practices – including product test and selection methods. At the conclusion of this course, participants should be able to: Understand Identify Understand Know how to • HDMI’s place in an evolving digitally-interfaced A/V system market • HDMI’s constituent parts and what they do • best practices • test and select HDMI products
  15. 15. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats HDMI Anatomy The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  16. 16. HDMI Device Types Source Sink Repeater
  17. 17. HDMI Repeater Types & Topology Switch Splitter Matrix TERMS: upstream/downstream, devices, cascade Converter Cable
  18. 18. Unofficial cable terms (can be confusing) when a “balun” isn’t a transformer when a “repeater” is an active or passive cable appliance
  19. 19. HDMI Cable Types (defined in HDMI v1.4) Converter Cable (a.k.a. “balun”) CAT Fiber Wireless Pre-terminated Cables Wire Passive Wire Active Wire
  20. 20. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types Video & Audio Formats HDMI Anatomy The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  21. 21. Formats – Video Color Representation Colorimetry Component sets: RGB vs. YCC (a.k.a. “YUV”) Signals: RGB or YCbCr Color Spaces: ITU601, ITU709, xvYCC, sRGB, Adobe Color Sub-sampling (YCC only) 4:4:4 vs. 4:2:2 Depth (number of bits/component – 8, 10, 12, 16-bits) Range (component code range – e.g. 16-235)
  22. 22. DVI Basic 2D Video Timing Chronology Video Timing(s) Pixel Rate (MHz) DVI Silicon Generation Released 640x480@60 “VGA” 25.175 1st DVI v1.0 (no HDCP) Q2 1999 480p60, 576p50 27.000 720p50/60, 1080i25/30 74.250 1080p50/60 148.500 1600x1200@60 [162.000 MHz] 1920x1200@60 [154.000 MHz] 165.000 All of the above 165.000 2nd HDCP v1.0 Q3 2002 2560x1600@60 [270.000 MHz] 330.000 3rd Dual-link w/HDCP Q4 2004
  23. 23. HDMI Basic 2D Video Timing Chronology Video Timing(s) Pixel Rate (MHz) HDMI Silicon Generation Silicon Released 640x480@60 “VGA” 25.175 Q3 2003480p60, 576p50 27.000 1st HDMI v1.0 720p50/60, 1080i25/30 74.250 1080p50/60 148.500 2nd HDMI v1.1 Q3 2004 1600x1200@60 [162.000 MHz] 1920x1200@60 [154.000 MHz] 165.000 3nd HDMI v1.2 Q4 2005 1080p50/60 10/12-bit Deep Color 165.000 4th HDMI v1.3 Q2 2006 2160p24/25/30 297.000 6th HDMI v1.4 2011? 3420p24, 4320p24 990.000? ? 2021?
  24. 24. HDMI 3D Video Timings V1.4a *Mandatory Video Timing Each Eye Pixel Rate (MHz) HDMI Silicon Generation Silicon Released 720p50/60 (frame compatible; T & B) 74.250 1st HDMI v1.0 Q3 20031080p24 (frame compatible; T & B) 74.250 1080i25/30 (frame compatible; S-by-S) 74.250 720p50/60 (full res; frame packing) 148.500 2nd HDMI v1.1 Q3 2004 1080p24 (full res; frame packing) 148.500 Future Video Timing Each Eye? Pixel Rate (MHz) HDMI Silicon Generation Silicon Released 1080p50/60 (full res; frame packing) 297.000 6th HDMI v1.4 2011? * Sinks must support all timings, sources must support at least one timing, and repeaters must be able to pass-through all timings.
  25. 25. TMDS Character Clock Rate HDMI passes video data using 30-bit TMDS characters Normally, the TMDS rate equal to the pixel rate (i.e. when using 8-bits/component a.k.a. “24-bits/pixel”) TMDS rate is N/8 times faster than the pixel rate when in deep color mode (N=10, 12, or 16-bits/component) Video Timing Depth (bits/component) Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) 1080p50/60 12 148.500 222.750 (a.k.a.“225”) 2560x1600@60 10 270.000 337.500 (a.k.a.“340”) 2160p24/25/30 12 297.000 445.500
  26. 26. Pair or Combined Data Rate (Gbits/sec) Rates are sometimes expressed in gigabits per second Gigabit rates may be given for one pair or all three pairs Multiply the pixel rate first by depth/8 and then by 10 or 30-bits, respectively Video Timing Depth Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) Per-Pair (Gbits/sec) All Pairs (Gbits/sec) 1600x1280@60 8 162.000 162.000 (a.k.a. “165”) “1.65” “4.95” 1080p50/60 12 148.500 222.750 (a.k.a. “225”) “2.25” “6.75” 2560x1600@60 10 270.000 337.500 (a.k.a. “340”) “3.40” “10.2” 2160p24/25/30 12 297.000 445.500 4.455 13.365
  27. 27. Rate Summary at 8-bits Depth Video Timing Cable Grade Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) Per-Pair (Gbits/sec) All Pairs (Gbits/sec) 480p60, 576p50 (2D) Standard 27.000 27.000 0.2700 0.8100 720p50/60 (2D) Standard 74.250 74.250 0.7425 2.2275 1080i25/30 (2D) Standard 74.250 74.250 0.7425 2.2275 1080p50/60 (2D) High 148.500 148.500 1.4850 4.4550 2160p24/25/30 (2D “4K”) High 297.000 297.000 2.9700 8.9100 720p50/60 (3D frame compatible; T & B) Standard 74.250 74.250 0.7425 2.2275 1080p24 (3D frame compatible; T & B) Standard 74.250 74.250 0.7425 2.2275 1080i25/30 (3D frame compatible; S-by-S) Standard 74.250 74.250 0.7425 2.2275 720p50/60 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 148.500 1.4850 4.4550 1080p24 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 148.500 1.4850 4.4550
  28. 28. Rate Summary at 10-bits Depth Video Timing Cable Grade Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) Per-Pair (Gbits/sec) All Pairs (Gbits/sec) 480p60, 576p50 (2D) Standard 27.000 33.750 0.3375 1.0125 720p50/60 (2D) High 74.250 92.8125 0.928125 2.784375 1080i25/30 (2D) High 74.250 92.8125 0.928125 2.784375 1080p50/60 (2D) High 148.500 185.625 1.85625 5.56875 2160p24/25/30 (2D “4K”) - 297.000 371.250 3.7125 11.1375 720p50/60 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 92.8125 0.928125 2.784375 1080p24 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 92.8125 0.928125 2.784375 1080i25/30 (3D frame compatible; S-by-S) High 74.250 92.8125 0.928125 2.784375 720p50/60 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 185.625 1.85625 5.56875 1080p24 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 185.625 1.85625 5.56875
  29. 29. Rate Summary at 12-bits Depth Video Timing Cable Grade Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) Per-Pair (Gbits/sec) All Pairs (Gbits/sec) 480p60, 576p50 (2D) Standard 27.000 40.500 0.4050 1.2150 720p50/60 (2D) High 74.250 111.375 1.11375 3.34125 1080i25/30 (2D) High 74.250 111.375 1.11375 3.34125 1080p50/60 (2D) High 148.500 222.750 2.2275 6.6825 2160p24/25/30 (2D “4K”) - 297.000 445.500 4.455 13.365 720p50/60 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 111.375 1.11375 3.34125 1080p24 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 111.375 1.11375 3.34125 1080i25/30 (3D frame compatible; S-by-S) High 74.250 111.375 1.11375 3.34125 720p50/60 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 222.750 2.2275 6.6825 1080p24 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 222.750 2.2275 6.6825
  30. 30. Rate Summary at 16-bits Depth Video Timing Cable Grade Pixel Rate (MHz) TMDS Rate (MHz) Per-Pair (Gbits/sec) All Pairs (Gbits/sec) 480p60, 576p50 (2D) Standard 27.000 54.000 0.5400 1.6200 720p50/60 (2D) High 74.250 148.500 1.48500 4.4550 1080i25/30 (2D) High 74.250 148.500 1.48500 4.4550 1080p50/60 (2D) High 148.500 297.000 2.9700 8.9100 2160p24/25/30 (2D “4K”) - 297.000 594.000 5.9400 17.820 720p50/60 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 148.500 1.48500 4.4550 1080p24 (3D frame compatible; T & B) High 74.250 148.500 1.48500 4.4550 1080i25/30 (3D frame compatible; S-by-S) High 74.250 148.500 1.48500 4.4550 720p50/60 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 297.000 2.9700 8.9100 1080p24 (3D full res; frame packing) High 148.500 297.000 2.9700 8.9100
  31. 31. Progressive Video Timing Naming Issue Dropping the frame rate suffix causes confusion Spec Possible Timings Pixel Rate (MHz) “1080p” 1080p24/25/30 74.250 1080p50/60 (most likely) 148.500 1080p100/120 297.000 “720p” 720p24 59.400 720p25/30/50/60 (most likely) 74.250 720p120 148.500
  32. 32. Interlace Video Timing Naming Issue Is suffix the frame rate or field rate? Is it Australian? Spec Pixel Rate (MHz) “1080i25” (could be Australian) 72.000 (most likely) 74.250 “1080i30” (definitely) 74.250 “1080i50” (could be Australian) 72.000 (most likely) 74.250 “1080i60” (most likely) 74.250 148.500 “1080i120” (definitely) 148.500
  33. 33. HDMI Audio Format Chronology Audio Format (improvements) HDMI Silicon Released LPCM, basic 2-channel 48kHz max (mandatory) 1st HDMI v1.0 Q3 2003 AC-3 (Dolby 5.1), DTS LPCM 2-channel 192kHz max, 24-bit 2nd HDMI v1.1 Q3 2004LPCM 8-channel, 96 kHz max, 24-bit DVD-Audio (audio content protection packet) DSD (“one-bit audio” SuperAudio CD) 3nd HDMI v1.2 Q4 2005 MLP (“high bit-rate” TrueHD), DTS-HD 5th HDMI v1.3 Q3 2007 E-AC-3, DST (DSD 6-channel)
  34. 34. Audio limitations with SD video timings Video Timing LPCM 8-channel Max Sampling Rate (kHz) DSD Max # of Channels 640x480@60 48 2 480i 88.2 2 480p 48 2 576i 88.2 2 576p 48 2
  35. 35. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats HDMI Anatomy The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  36. 36. HDMI Blocks +5V Power HPD RxSense EDID Auxiliary Channels DDC, CEC, ARC, & HEC TMDS HDCP
  37. 37. HDMI Anatomy (v1.4)
  38. 38. CEC Physical and Logical Addressing Source: www.quantumdata.com/pdf/CEC_White_Paper.pdf CEC uses a party line
  39. 39. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats ✔HDMI Anatomy The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  40. 40. The Handshake Source outputs +5V power Source waits for HPD (AND RxSense) to go high Source reads capabilities & CEC address from sink’s EDID Source chooses mode and outputs video, audio, & metadata Source performs HDCP authentication Source monitors connection every 2-seconds Source re-authenticates if mismatched Ri’, HPD, or CDC Sink uses metadata to get the picture and sound right Note: The source does all of the work, so is most prone to failure
  41. 41. Handshaking Terms Capabilities (of the sink – i.e. display or repeater input) EDID (data structure that encodes sink capabilities) Preferred vs. Native (pattern of physical light emitters) VSDB (vendor-specific data block in EDID) Metadata (sent by source - about signal, content, state) InfoFrame (metadata packaging) VSI (vendor-specific InfoFrame) “Auxiliary Data” (handshaking information plus metadata)
  42. 42. Sink’s Capabilities read from EDID VESA / CEA-861 Info product identification product name manufacturer ID physical size of screen and/or aspect ratio standard video timing support custom video timings w/parameters native video timing video timing priorities (list) color characteristics (XYZ of primaries) colorimetry YCbCr 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 support wide gamut color selectable quantization range selectable overscan/underscan (by video timing type) audio format support - each w/parameters speaker allocation HDMI Vendor-Specific Data Block (VSDB) Info max TMDS rate dual link support HDMI video timing support 3D support 3D video timing support 3D structures supported separate 2D/3D video timing priorities (list) deep color support support for content types (graphics, photo, cinema, game) video latency audio latency DVD-Audio information support (ACP, ISRC) CEC physical address
  43. 43. Source Metadata CEA-861 AVI InfoFrame (HDMI) video timing color space content type (graphics, photo, cinema, game) aspect ratio Active Format Description (AFD) bar information anamorphism special colorimetry xvYCC and gamut boundary description (GBD) GBD transmission profile (YCC) quantization range CEA-861 Audio InfoFrame channel count audio sample size sampling rate sample rate accuracy HDMI Packets null general control (AVMUTE, depth w/phasing) audio clock recovery (N & CTS) audio content protection (ACP) ISRC1 & ISRC2 HDMI Vendor-Specific InfoFrame (HDMI VSI) 3D video timing 3D structure 3D metadata CEA-861 Source Product Description InfoFrame vendor name product description Other InfoFrames (as required by sink) Media Director Vendor-specific InfoFrames NTSC VBI InfoFrame
  44. 44. More Handshaking Terms Active/Inactive Sink Inactive (deselected, standby, AC unplugged, detached) IA2 or IA3 (inactive sink states, HPD high EDID readable) RxSense (helps sources detect sink inactive/active state transitions, while the cable remains attached) Empty Repeater (AVR routing source to inactive sink) “Hot-Plugging” means disconnect and re-connect a cable AVMUTE (mute video/audio and freeze HDCP)
  45. 45. HDCP HDCP protects high-value content Image Constraint Token (ICT flag Approved interfaces Keys
  46. 46. HDCP Terms Hot-Plug Authentication Pre-Authentication (e.g. InstaPort, Xpressview, InstaGate) KSV, AKSV, BKSV R0’ and Ri’
  47. 47. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats ✔HDMI Anatomy ✔The Handshake Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  48. 48. Loose Connections
  49. 49. Broken Handshaking / The “Cliff Effect”
  50. 50. HDMI Spec Changes & Optional Features Versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2a, 1.3, 1.3a, 1.4, 1.4a Optional features HDCP DVD-Audio Super Audio CD (DSD) Deep Color, xvYCC, Auto lip-sync, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD Master CEC updated commands 3D, HEC, ARC, 4K The answer is… Ignore the version numbers! Verify features one-by-one by name
  51. 51. Reliable HDMI systems exist, but …
  52. 52. Symptoms no audio blank screen noisy audio sparkles audio dropout bad-looking desktop graphics bad lipsync VBI artifacts audio level too loud or soft menu cropping snow pinkish-purple screen blinking screen stretched or squished flashing pictures pops and flashes (when switching) random re-authentication advertized features missing playback reset or no good reason loss of CEC control long switching/re-authentication time awkward control blue screen with the error message “Device does not support HDCP”
  53. 53. Historical, Present, & Future Dangers Many devices shipped without any HDCP testing until 2006 Problems are subsiding now HDMI is constantly adding new features, which have a high propensity for failure as they are not mandated
  54. 54. Product/Interface Mix-Related Issues Mixing products with different feature sets Signaling associated with optional features may upset products that do not support those options Using less-capable interfaces (e.g. S/PDIF) on the side may impede the flow of important metadata (e.g. Media Director) Can’t output 3D using analog component (TI’s DLP Sync is an exception – typically used in the IT space)
  55. 55. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats ✔HDMI Anatomy ✔The Handshake ✔Known Problems Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  56. 56. Troubleshooting Tips Make sure that all converter cables are externally powered Hot-Plug Power-cycle Power-on products in downstream-to-upstream order Reduce the number of downstream sink devices (e.g. by turning-OFF all but one display) Reduce the number of cascaded repeaters
  57. 57. Troubleshooting Tips (cont.) Manually disable all advanced features (AUTO, CEC) Manually program fixed audio and video formats Start with basic 2-channel 48 kHz audio Make sure that audio & video signals output by the source are within the sink’s capabilities (according to EDID) If matrix switch present, set all sources for same timing
  58. 58. Troubleshooting Tips Substitute 2M “known good” cables to isolate bad cables Find the cliff’s edge by varying video timing (TMDS rate) Check margins by temporarily substituting longer cables
  59. 59. Test Equipment
  60. 60. Electrical Testing Wire Continuity Wire Parametrics (DDC Capacitance, Intra-pair Skew) +5V Power HPD levels DDC levels and rise/fall times TMDS Termination Voltage (AVcc=+3.3V 10%) CEC Leakage & Pull-up Strength
  61. 61. HPD/DDC Monitoring
  62. 62. New ESD/EST Test Equipment Strategy Test products (or cascades of products) in isolation with source and/or sink emulating test equipment Compile a comprehensive list of faults by product type from multiple industry sources (FaultsToTestsMap Doc) Develop test procedures for detecting these faults Automate testing to simply discover product weaknesses
  63. 63. New Strategy – Four Use Cases Source Test Equipment SinkTest Equipment Repeater Test Equipment Source Sink Test Equipment 1. Source Test 2. Sink Test 3. Repeater Test 4. Link Test
  64. 64. Four cases on the test equipment UI
  65. 65. Source Test – Using Emulated Sink Present test EDIDs Measure video timing, audio, and test image content Analyze metadata Capture sink EDIDs and sub reference sink with same Authenticate with reference sink HDCP compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy] Test +5V with an active load Monitor HPD, DDC, CEC auxiliary channel communication CEC compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy]
  66. 66. Source Test Screenshots
  67. 67. Sink Test – Using Emulated Source Capture sink EDIDs for emulation with source EDID compliance test Inject video timings, audio types, and test images Test without HDCP authentication Authenticate with reference source HDCP compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy] Monitor +5V, HPD, DDC, CEC aux channel communication CEC compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy]
  68. 68. Sink Test Screenshots
  69. 69. Repeater Test w/Emulated Source & Sink Present test or captured EDIDs EDID modification test Inject and analyze pseudo-noise Inject video timings, audio types, & test images Try to pass pseudo-noise Test without HDCP authentication Authenticate with reference source and sink HDCP compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy] Monitor +5V, HPD, DDC, CEC aux channel communication CEC compliance test [not part of ESD/EST strategy]
  70. 70. Repeater Test Screenshots
  71. 71. Link Test w/Emulated Source & Sink Replace connection with emulated source and sink – analyzing previously connected source and sink for quality and compatibility
  72. 72. Link Test Screenshots
  73. 73. HDMI Troubleshooting Agenda ✔Introductions ✔Objectives of the course ✔HDMI Device & Cable Types ✔Video & Audio Formats ✔HDMI Anatomy ✔The Handshake ✔Known Problems ✔Troubleshooting Techniques Eliminating Problems Troubleshooting Summary (break)
  74. 74. Manual Settings Manually disable all advanced features (AUTO, CEC) Manually program fixed audio and video formats If matrix switch present, set all sources for same timing
  75. 75. Power Sequencing Turn all devices OFF – then turn-on equipment one-at-a- time, starting with the most downstream sink, letting each stabilize before turning on the next device upstream Turn-on repeaters only after all downstream devices have been turned-ON and are stable – after the repeater is stable, make sure that it is selecting an active sink – before powering-ON upstream devices
  76. 76. Replace or Update bad components Upgrade firmware in the problem component Upgrading source firmware usually has the biggest effect, because the source does most of the handshaking work
  77. 77. Was working – stopped working later Cable, Satellite, and IPTV service providers update the software in their set-top-boxes – without warning Sometimes these updates break working systems
  78. 78. Adding “Fixer” Devices
  79. 79. Use shorter cables with re-clockers National Semiconductor’s DS22EV5110 for example
  80. 80. Non-standard Cable Locks Gefen “Mono LOK”, Lindy Connector Lock, Blue Echo Solutions “hd EZ lock”
  81. 81. Standard Strain Relieved Cable High-Rentention HDMI Cables Accell AVGrip Ottovonmo PerefectPath (PPC) PolarCreative Torrent SureConnect Source: http://www.audioholics.com/education/cables/locking-hdmi-cables-connectors
  82. 82. Repeater Split A/V Path Lipsync Fault
  83. 83. Repeater Split A/V Path Auto Lipsync Fix
  84. 84. Troubleshooting Summary Familiarize yourself with the major components of HDMI Sink declares, source drives & signals, HDCP protects Know how each product type can break this handshake Isolate problems using test equipment Eliminate problems via setup, power sequencing, updating, replacing, and by applying “Fixers”
  85. 85. Let us know We can channel your comments to people who can do something positive with them www.quantumdata.com/ lightningrod
  86. 86. Break (Design Course Follows)
  87. 87. HDMI Design Agenda The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selection Summary
  88. 88. Digital vs. Analog – Digital Wins 6/3 +/- Analog Digital + Separate Cables One Cable or Wireless + Short Haul Long Distance Transmission (the irony) + Noisy Resample Lossless Regeneration/Reformatting +/- Vertical Blanking Info Metadata, Handshaking, Control +/- Unprotected Secure (master quality, but protected) + Proprietary 3D Standardized 3D - Graceful degradation “Cliff” Effect
  89. 89. Interfacing Today What’s going to happen here when analog sunsets?
  90. 90. Digital A/V Interface Overview
  91. 91. Digital A/V Interface Common Features Picture Data Channel Auxiliary Data Channels Audio Control (Remote UI) Handshake Metadata Business Features Content Protection (e.g. Link Protection) Conditional Access Digital Rights Management (DRM)
  92. 92. Digital A/V Interface Formats Stream Real-time Compressed Download Non-real-time Compressed File Video Real-time Uncompressed (highest picture quality)
  93. 93. Digital Interfaces (HDMI is not alone) QAM
  94. 94. Three Digital A/V Interface Types QAM
  95. 95. Digital A/V Interface Layers Host – protocol Media – cable/modulation Host Layer Media Layer
  96. 96. Tuner Interface Overview
  97. 97. Tuner Interface Technologies Host Layer Underlying standards decided by government & cable providers No STB needed for pay TV when conditional access system in display CI+ (Europe) CableCard (United States) Media Layer Modulated signal over coaxial cable Content Protection & DRM
  98. 98. Network Interface Overview
  99. 99. Network Interface Host Layer Choices UPnP Web4CE (CEA-2014) DLNA RVU Baseband-over-IP (e.g. HDMI-over-IP)
  100. 100. UPnP Host Base architecture for standard/custom service layers Automatic Discovery Zero Configuration Browser-based UI & Programmatic Control Product OS & Language Independent
  101. 101. DLNA Host (builds on top of UPnP) Sources: www.dlna.org & www.pioneerelectronics.com
  102. 102. HDMI-over-IP Host (video→stream→video) Source: www.justaddpower.com/Home-Theater-HDMI-Matrix/View-all-products.html
  103. 103. Home Network Splitting Traditional STB Gateway (fat server) Digital Media Adapter (thin client) Home Network Tuner DVR Renderer Decompressor UI (e.g. DLNA) Baseband (e.g. HDMI) (e.g. Modulated-to-DLNA) Broadband & Baseband inputs are also possible
  104. 104. Network Ready Television Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client) Home Network Tuner DVR Renderer Decompressor UI (e.g. DLNA)
  105. 105. Add RVU and Web4CE (CEA-2014) Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client) Home Network UI (e.g. DLNA) (e.g. RVU) Web4CE (CEA-2014) is like RUV, but for UPnP home networks.
  106. 106. Add Internet for Placeshifting and OTT Gateway (fat server) Integrated Digital Media Adapter (thin client) Home Network (e.g. UPnP) (e.g. Web4CE) Internet UI
  107. 107. Home Network Media Layer Choices No-New-Wires IT infrastructure IP-over-baseband channel
  108. 108. “No new wires” Gigabit Home Network Sources: www.homegridforum.org & www.mocalliance.org & www.homeplug.org & www.homepna.org & www.itu.int/ITU-T/jca/hn/index.phtml
  109. 109. IT Infrastructure
  110. 110. Network over Baseband Interface
  111. 111. Network Content Protection & DRM HDCP 2.x or DTCP-IP link protection for streams MS-DRM content protection for downloads (may not always work)
  112. 112. Baseband Interface Overview
  113. 113. Baseband Interface Technologies Host Layer DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort, MHL DiiVA, HDbaseT WirelessHD, WHDI Media Layer Pre-terminated cable (Wire, Passive, Active) Converter “baluns” (Fiber, Wireless, field-terminated CAT) Wireless Direct Content Protection HDCP 1.x or 2.0 link protection
  114. 114. The first digital baseband interfaces Introduced 1999 Introduced 2003
  115. 115. DisplayPort – HDMI’s IT Counterpart Mainly IT Applications Introduced 2006
  116. 116. WirelessHD (WiHD) – Lossless 60GHz No wires In-room Only Introduced 2008 Theoretical throughput of 28G bps
  117. 117. WiGig – Lossless 60GHz No wires Short distance Introduced 2009 7 gbs data rate
  118. 118. WHDI – Lossy 5GHz No wires Works through walls Introduced 2009
  119. 119. HDbaseT CAT-based Hybrid Merges 5 Interfaces on 1 CAT cable (up to 100M) Introduced 2009
  120. 120. Chinese DiiVA CAT-based Hybrid Also merges 5 Interfaces on 1 CAT cable (25M, 50M phantom- powered w/repeater) Introduced 2009
  121. 121. Digital Interface Quality Hierarchy 1. DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort, WirelessHD, DiiVA, HDbaseT, MHL 2. WHDI 3. HDMI-over-IP 4. (Gigabit) Ethernet, *DiiVA, *WirelessHD 5. MoCA, G.hn, HomePNA, HomePlug, *HDbaseT, *HDMI 6. Tuner 7. Wi-Fi * Using embedded (Ethernet) IP channel
  122. 122. HDMI Design Agenda ✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem Best Practices Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selection Summary
  123. 123. Best Practices Make sure products support HDCP Select repeaters that support HDCP pre-authentication Make sure all products support desired features by name (e.g. “3D”) – not HDMI specification revision number (i.e. v1.4a)
  124. 124. Best Practices (cont.) Consider strain-reliefs on cabling Use the right speed grade of pre-terminated cable Break-up on long runs with converter cables and re- clocking repeaters CAT cables should have minimal intra-pair skew Do not use… stranded CAT cable "skew-free" CAT cable optimized for analog video "baluns” punch-down blocks or CAT patch panels
  125. 125. Best Practices (cont.) Make sure repeaters and converter cables are powered by reliable AC source Don’t accidentally swap “wall warts” Turn off AUTO and manually program formats
  126. 126. Best Practices (cont.) Select sources that support… manual format selection repeaters “empty” repeaters the required devices/cascade Select sinks that use CEC-friendly inactive states Make sure AVRs are updated to pass VSIs if using 3D
  127. 127. Best Practices (cont.) Don’t assume that the most expensive product is best Pre-screen products using test equipment Refer to FaultsToTestsMap Doc for more ideas
  128. 128. HDMI Design Agenda ✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem ✔Best Practices Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selection Summary
  129. 129. Transmission Lines
  130. 130. Analog Transmission Line Source (transmitter) Sink (receiver) One Analog Pixel Component One Analog Coax Pixel Length Velocity Velocity ~ Impedance ~ Electro-Mechanical Characteristics Speed of Light = C = 300 million M per second, Vp = 82%, Fp = 74.25MHz (720p or 1080i), Cable Length 33M Pixel Length = (C * Vp) / Fp = 3.31 meters Standing Pixels = Cable Length / Pixel Length = 33 / 3.31 = 10 Cable Length Illustration: www.shirt4brains.com//fire/301a.html Bucket Brigade Analogy
  131. 131. The differences between analog & digital R (pixel component) G (pixel component) B (pixel component) R (bit of pixel component) G (bit of pixel component) B (bit of pixel component) TMDS CLOCK (every 10 bits) 27 to 148.5MHz 270 to 1485 MHz 337.5 to 1856.25 MHz (10-bit/component) 405 to 2227.5 MHz (12-bit/component) 540 to 2970 MHz (16-bit/component) 480p60 to 1080p60 ANALOG DIGITAL Inter-component vs. Intra-pair skew
  132. 132. Digital Transmission Line Source (transmitter) One Digital Bit +PhaseOne Digital Pair Bit Length Velocity One Digital Bit -Phase One Digital Pair These must line-up Sink (receiver) Cable Length
  133. 133. Perfect Digital Cable (10 bits) One Digital Pair In a perfect world, cabling wouldn’t affect the eye…
  134. 134. Real Digital Cable (10 bits) One Digital Pair … but we live in the real world where wires aren’t perfect To keep the eye open, limit wire cable length to ≈10 standing bits Note: active wires exist that can correct skew (e.g. Redmere)
  135. 135. PHY Cause of Velocity/Length Error Source: www.redmere.com/download.php?file=81 Intra-pair skew caused by asymmetric twists, which in this case makes the red wire longer
  136. 136. Video Timing to Cable Lengths at 10 bits Pixel Rate (MHz) Depth (bits/component) TMDS Rate (MHz) Velocity (% of C) Cable Length (meters) Bit Length (meters) Standing Bits 27.00 8 27.00 70 80 7.77 10.3 74.25 8 74.25 70 30 2.83 10.6 74.25 12 111.38 70 20 1.88 10.6 148.50 8 148.50 70 15 1.41 10.6 148.50 10 185.63 70 12 1.13 10.6 148.50 12 222.75 70 10 0.94 10.6 297.00 8 297.00 70 5 0.71 7.1 297.00 10 371.25 70 5 0.57 8.8 297.00 12 445.50 70 5 0.47 10.6
  137. 137. HDMI Cable Intra-pair Skew <1.6% 10meter limit Source: www.redmere.com/download.php?file=81
  138. 138. Noise Threshold - 35M example "BAD" CABLE (line noise @ 1080p60) "GOOD" CABLE (no noise @ 1080p60) Attenuation(Insertion Loss) summary result Attenuation(Insertion Loss) summary result Start(MHz) Result Max(dB) Average(dB ) Start(MHz) Result Max(dB) Average(dB ) 1-825 Fail -8 -24.2575 1-825 Fail -8 -24.6475 825-2475 Fail -21 -46.82 825-2475 Fail -21 -47.1 2475-4125 Fail -30 -64.755 2475-4125 Fail -30 -66.2175 Inter Pair Skew summary result Inter Pair Skew summary result Pair Num Result Max(ps) Value(ps) Pair Num Result Max(ps) Value(ps) All Fail 2420 3358.06 All Fail 2420 3238.59 Intra Pair Skew summary result Intra Pair Skew summary result Pair Num Result Max(ps) Value(ps) Pair Num Result Max(ps) Value(ps) CLK Fail 151 -179.55 CLK Pass 151 2.12 D0 Fail 151 1071.13 D0 Fail 151 339.4 D1 Fail 151 -2030.71 D1 Fail 151 -1409.47 D2 Fail 151 -586.26 D2 Pass 151 -55.23 Random black line noise as seen on an store-bought HDTV driven with an store-bought Blu-ray player
  139. 139. Keep your eyes open with active cables Deskew and/or equalize Regenerate/ maintain the ‘1’s & ‘0’s Allows longer cables Source: www.redmere.com/download.php?file=81
  140. 140. HDMI Design Agenda ✔The A/V Interface Ecosystem ✔Best Practices ✔Transmission Lines & Intrapair Skew Product Testing & Selection Summary
  141. 141. Pre-installation component screening Research HDMI authorized test center certificate and/or data Eye-pattern data from the manufacturer Independent test cert/data (e.g. THX, DPL Labs, SimPlayHD) Does the manufacturer regularly attend CEA-861 Plug Fests? Does the user interface include fixed manual overrides? Check for credible negative chatter on the Internet (watch dates) Ignore pricing, packaging, HDMI version numbers Using your own test equipment Cable Test (wiring, DDC buss C, intra-pair skew, loss at 2.7GHz) Signal Generator/Analyzer Isolated Interoperability Testing
  142. 142. Product Testing – what’s important Connector strain relief (fixes discussed earlier) Long-haul cabling quality, lengths, and margins Handshaking behavior
  143. 143. Wire Tests Grade (Standard or High-Speed) Continuity CAT Termination Aux Bus Capacitance Wire Intra-pair skew
  144. 144. Source Tests +5V HPD DDC EDID HDCP Features Other Tolerance Response Clock Rate Read Protection Manual Setup DVI Support Short Circuit Protection Pull-up Processing Function Empty Repeater Audio Level Rise/Fall Time Standby Image AVMUTE InfoFrames Clock Stretch Depth/Cascade Support Audio Format Support Metadata Function Sparkle Video Format Support
  145. 145. Sink Tests +5V HPD DDC EDID HDCP Features Other Current Draw Levels Function Complexity Function Glitch Suppression Audio Latency Skew Inactive State Signaling Compliance Depth/Cascade Audio Format Support Audio Level DVI Support Encryption Flag Video Latency Lipsync Metadata Interpretation Video Format Support
  146. 146. Repeater Tests HPD DDC CEC EDID HDCP Features Other Generat ion/For warding Transparency Transparency Processing Protection Pre- authentication Equalization Topology Function Scaling A/V Latency Skew Color Correction InfoFrame Processing Audio Format Support Video Format Support A/V Latency Skew Compensation
  147. 147. Sink Faults - Bad Lipsync
  148. 148. Pre-Authentication == Fast Switching
  149. 149. Design Summary Analog interfaces are going the way of the buggy whip HDMI is not alone in the modern digital ecosystem Watch your margins – make sure you have enough Avoid problems by screening with research and testing
  150. 150. Thanks for listening!

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