Biology is the only subject in which  multiplication  is the same thing as  division … 2006-2007
Making New Cells Making New DNA 2006-2007
Where it all began… <ul><li>You started as a cell smaller than  a period at the end of a sentence… </li></ul>
And now look at you… How did you get from there to here?
<ul><li>Going from egg to baby….   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the original fertilized egg has to divide…  </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Why do cells divide… <ul><li>for reproduction   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one celled organisms (clones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Dividing cells… <ul><li>What has to be copied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organelles </li></ul></...
Copying DNA <ul><li>A dividing cell  duplicates its DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creates 2 copies of all DNA </li></ul></ul><...
Organizing & packaging DNA nucleus cell DNA nucleus cell 4 chromosomes in  this  organism DNA in chromosomes in everyday “...
Chromosomes of Human Female 46 chromosomes 23 pairs
Chromosomes of Human Male 46 chromosomes 23 pairs
Paired bases <ul><li>DNA structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 sides like a ladder...
Watson and Crick
Copying DNA <ul><li>Matching bases allows DNA to be easily copied </li></ul>
Making new DNA <ul><li>Copying DNA  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA starts as a double-st...
DNA replication <ul><li>Strands “unzip” at the weak bonds between bases </li></ul>
DNA replication <ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adds new bases </li></ul>...
Copying DNA DNA Polymerase <ul><li>Build daughter DNA strand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use original parent strand as “template...
New copies of DNA <ul><li>Get 2 exact copies of DNA to split between new cells </li></ul>DNA   polymerase DNA   polymerase
Copied & Paired Up Chromosomes
Copying & packaging DNA <ul><li>When cell is ready to divide… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy DNA first, then… </li></ul></ul><...
double-stranded human chromosomes ready for mitosis
DNA must be duplicated… nucleus cell DNA in chromosomes nucleus cell duplicated chromosomes chromosomes in cell 4 single-s...
Mitosis: Interphase   Dividing DNA &  cells <ul><li>Stage 1: cell copies DNA </li></ul>nucleus cell DNA Copy DNA!
Mitosis: Prophase <ul><li>Stage 2: DNA winds into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is wound up into chromosomes to ke...
Mitosis: Metaphase <ul><li>Stage 3: Chromosomes line up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes line up in middle </li></ul></ul...
Mitosis: Anaphase <ul><li>Stage 4: Chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes split, separating pairs </li></u...
Mitosis: Telophase <ul><li>Stage 5: Cell starts to divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells start to divide </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Mitosis: Cytokinesis <ul><li>Stage 6: DNA unwinds again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no...
New “daughter” cells <ul><li>Get  2 exact  copies of original cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Cell division in Animals
Mitosis in whitefish embryo
Mitosis in plant cell
onion root tip
Overview of mitosis Copy DNA Wind Up Meet in Middle Apart Divide
2006-2007 Any Questions?? Any Questions??
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24 Dna Mitosis

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  • Unicellular organisms Cell division = reproduction Reproduces entire organism&amp; increase population Multicellular organisms Cell division provides for growth &amp; development in a multicellular organism that begins as a fertilized egg Also use cell division to repair &amp; renew cells that die from normal wear &amp; tear or accidents
  • 24 Dna Mitosis

    1. 1. Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division … 2006-2007
    2. 2. Making New Cells Making New DNA 2006-2007
    3. 3. Where it all began… <ul><li>You started as a cell smaller than a period at the end of a sentence… </li></ul>
    4. 4. And now look at you… How did you get from there to here?
    5. 5. <ul><li>Going from egg to baby…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the original fertilized egg has to divide… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and divide… </li></ul><ul><li>and divide… </li></ul><ul><li>and divide… </li></ul>Getting from there to here…
    6. 6. Why do cells divide… <ul><li>for reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one celled organisms (clones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for growth & development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from fertilized egg to multi-celled organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>replace cells that die from normal wear & tear or from injury </li></ul></ul>amoeba starfish
    7. 7. Dividing cells… <ul><li>What has to be copied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lots of other molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul>animal cell plant cell
    8. 8. Copying DNA <ul><li>A dividing cell duplicates its DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creates 2 copies of all DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates the 2 copies to opposite ends of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>splits into 2 daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the DNA starts loosely wound in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>If you tried to divide it like that, it could tangle & break </li></ul>nucleus cell DNA
    9. 9. Organizing & packaging DNA nucleus cell DNA nucleus cell 4 chromosomes in this organism DNA in chromosomes in everyday “working” cell DNA in chromosomes in cell getting ready to divide DNA has been “wound up”
    10. 10. Chromosomes of Human Female 46 chromosomes 23 pairs
    11. 11. Chromosomes of Human Male 46 chromosomes 23 pairs
    12. 12. Paired bases <ul><li>DNA structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 sides like a ladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bases match together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pairs with T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A : T </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C pairs with G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C : G </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Watson and Crick
    14. 14. Copying DNA <ul><li>Matching bases allows DNA to be easily copied </li></ul>
    15. 15. Making new DNA <ul><li>Copying DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA starts as a double-stranded molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>matching bases (A:T, C:G) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>then it unzips… </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. DNA replication <ul><li>Strands “unzip” at the weak bonds between bases </li></ul>
    17. 17. DNA replication <ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adds new bases </li></ul></ul>DNA polymerase DNA bases in nucleus
    18. 18. Copying DNA DNA Polymerase <ul><li>Build daughter DNA strand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use original parent strand as “template” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>add new matching bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis enzyme = DNA polymerase </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. New copies of DNA <ul><li>Get 2 exact copies of DNA to split between new cells </li></ul>DNA polymerase DNA polymerase
    20. 20. Copied & Paired Up Chromosomes
    21. 21. Copying & packaging DNA <ul><li>When cell is ready to divide… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy DNA first, then… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coil up doubled chromosomes like thread on a spool… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>now can move DNA around cell without having it tangle & break </li></ul></ul></ul>Copying DNA Coil DNA into compact chromosomes
    22. 22. double-stranded human chromosomes ready for mitosis
    23. 23. DNA must be duplicated… nucleus cell DNA in chromosomes nucleus cell duplicated chromosomes chromosomes in cell 4 single-stranded chromosomes duplicated chromosomes 4 double-stranded chromosomes
    24. 24. Mitosis: Interphase Dividing DNA & cells <ul><li>Stage 1: cell copies DNA </li></ul>nucleus cell DNA Copy DNA!
    25. 25. Mitosis: Prophase <ul><li>Stage 2: DNA winds into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is wound up into chromosomes to keep it organized </li></ul></ul>nucleus cell duplicated chromosomes Wind up!
    26. 26. Mitosis: Metaphase <ul><li>Stage 3: Chromosomes line up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes line up in middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to protein “cables” that will help them move </li></ul></ul>duplicated chromosomes lined up in middle of cell Meet In Middle!
    27. 27. Mitosis: Anaphase <ul><li>Stage 4: Chromosomes separate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes split, separating pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start moving to opposite ends </li></ul></ul>chromosomes split & move to opposite ends Apart!
    28. 28. Mitosis: Telophase <ul><li>Stage 5: Cell starts to divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells start to divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus forms again </li></ul></ul>Divide!
    29. 29. Mitosis: Cytokinesis <ul><li>Stage 6: DNA unwinds again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>now they can do their every day jobs </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. New “daughter” cells <ul><li>Get 2 exact copies of original cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ clones” </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Cell division in Animals
    32. 32. Mitosis in whitefish embryo
    33. 33. Mitosis in plant cell
    34. 34. onion root tip
    35. 35. Overview of mitosis Copy DNA Wind Up Meet in Middle Apart Divide
    36. 36. 2006-2007 Any Questions?? Any Questions??

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