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  • I have to make a presentation to fourth graders about the Apollo Project and this will be very helpful. Bernard Appel
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  1. 2. <ul><li>President John F. Kennedy encourages the space program to look toward the moon </li></ul><ul><li>president kennedy's moon speech to congress - Google Video2.flv </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To establish the technology to meet other national interests in space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve preeminence in space for the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To carry out a program of scientific exploration of the Moon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Two more groups of astronauts are added </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 4 – 6 astronauts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 5 – 19 astronauts </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>A large number of uncrewed missions were performed </li></ul><ul><li>These tested: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The three-stage Saturn V rocket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command, Lunar and Service Modules </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>On January 27, 1967 – tragedy struck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During a launch pad test, the astronauts get into the spacecraft to perform a ‘run-through’ of what will happen during the launch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgil Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee were preparing for the first manned Apollo flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the launch pad test, a spark ignited in the wiring insulation which caused a flash fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hatch door stuck, and the crew was unable to get out </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>After performing three unmanned missions (Apollo 4, 5, 6) – it was time to try a manned mission </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo 7 (Oct. 22, 1968) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walter Schirra, Donn Eisele, Walt Cunningham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested the Command/Service module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only orbited the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 10 days and 20 hours </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. <ul><li>Apollo 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frank Borman, James Lovell Jr, William Anders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbited the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 hours with 10 orbits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 6 days, 3 hours </li></ul></ul>
  7. 14. <ul><li>Apollo 9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James McDivitt, David Scott, Russell Schweickart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested the Lunar module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only orbited Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apollo 10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugene Cernan, John Young, Thomas Stafford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbited the moon with the lunar module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulated lunar landing by undocking </li></ul></ul>
  8. 17. <ul><li>Apollo 11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin Aldrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First lunar landing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stayed for 21.6 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sea of Tranquility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 19. <ul><li>Apollo 12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan Bean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed on moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean of Storms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completed two lunar walks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 21. <ul><li>Apollo 13 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Lovell, John Swigert, Fred Haise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days before the mission, backup lunar module pilot exposed command module pilot Ken Mattingly to the measles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup CM – John Swigert stepped in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 56 hours, after stirring the oxygen tanks - #2 blew up and #1 also failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Houston, we have a problem” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lovell reported venting into space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was the oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 22. <ul><li>Apollo 13 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They had to shut down the command/service module and ‘live’ in the lunar module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was decided they would still orbit the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide soon became a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ken Mattingly helped to find how to power up the CM after its long, cold sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They returned home safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the ‘successful failure’ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 25. <ul><li>Apollo 14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Shepherd, Stuart Roosa, Edgar Mitchell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed on Fra Mauro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apollo 15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Scott, James Irwin, Alfred Worden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed on Hadley-Apennine region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apollo 16 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Young, Ken Mattingly, Charles Duke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed on Descartes Highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apollo 17 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, Harrison Schmitt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed on Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area </li></ul></ul>
  13. 31. <ul><li>Bringing together American Apollo project with Soviet Soyuz project </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First international manned spaceflight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test compatibility of rendezvous and docking systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the way for international space rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the way for future joint manned flights </li></ul></ul>
  14. 32. <ul><li>July 15-24, 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo Crew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, Donald Slayton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soyuz Crew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valeriy Kubasov, Alexei Leonov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soyuz was launched 7 hours before Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo maneuvered to rendezvous 52 hours after Soyuz launch </li></ul><ul><li>Together conducted experiments over a 2-day period </li></ul>